Browsing by Subject "ASCOMYCOTA"

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  • Rikkinen, Jouko; Meinke, Kristin; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Gröhn, Carsten; Kobbert, Max; Wunderlich, Jörg; Schmidt, Alexander (2018)
    Calicioid lichens and fungi are a polyphyletic grouping of tiny ascomycetes that accumulate a persistent spore mass (mazaedium) on top of their usually well-stalked ascomata ('mazaediate fungi'). In addition to extant forms, six fossils of the group were previously known from European Paleogene amber. Here we report nine new fossils and analyze the preserved features of all fossils to assess their applicability for dating molecular phylogenies. Many fossils are extremely well preserved, allowing detailed comparisons with modern taxa. SEM investigation reveals that even fine details of ascospore wall ultrastructure correspond to those seen in extant specimens. All fossils can confidently be assigned to modern genera: three to Calicium (Caliciaceae, Lecanoromycetes), five to Chaenotheca (Coniocybaceae, Coniocybomycetes), six to Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales), and one to Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales). Several Calicium and Chaenotheca fossils are assignable to specific lineages within their genera, while the Chaenothecopsis fossils demonstrate the extent of intraspecific variation within one such lineage. Some features in the morphology of Chaenotheca succina nov. sp. seem to be ancestral as they have not been reported from modern species of the genus. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Boluda, C. G.; Rico, V. J.; Divakar, P. K.; Nadyeina, O.; Myllys, L.; McMullin, R. T.; Zamora, J. C.; Scheidegger, C.; Hawksworth, D. L. (2019)
    In many lichen-forming fungi, molecular phylogenetic analyses lead to the discovery of cryptic species within traditional morphospecies. However, in some cases, molecular sequence data also questions the separation of phenotypically characterised species. Here we apply an integrative taxonomy approach - including morphological, chemical, molecular, and distributional characters - to re-assess species boundaries in a traditionally speciose group of hair lichens, Bryoria sect. Implexae. We sampled multilocus sequence and microsatellite data from 142 specimens from a broad intercontinental distribution. Molecular data included DNA sequences of the standard fungal markers ITS, IGS, GAPDH, two newly tested loci (FRBi15 and FRBi16), and SSR frequencies from 18 microsatellite markers. Datasets were analysed with Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction, phenogram reconstruction, STRUCTURE Bayesian clustering, principal coordinate analysis, haplotype network, and several different species delimitation analyses (ABGD, PTP, GMYC, and DISSECT). Additionally, past population demography and divergence times are estimated. The different approaches to species recognition do not support the monophyly of the 11 currently accepted morphospecies, and rather suggest the reduction of these to four phylogenetic species. Moreover, three of these are relatively recent in origin and cryptic, including phenotypically and chemically variable specimens. Issues regarding the integration of an evolutionary perspective into taxonomic conclusions in species complexes, which have undergone recent diversification, are discussed. The four accepted species, all epitypified by sequenced material, are Bryoria fuscescens, B. glabra, B. kockiana, and B. pseudofuscescens. Ten species rank names are reduced to synonymy. In the absence of molecular data, they can be recorded as the B. fuscescens complex. Intraspecific phenotype plasticity and factors affecting the speciation of different morphospecies in this group of Bryoria are outlined.
  • Ahti, Teuvo; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Schultz, Matthias; Tehler, Anders; Fryday, Alan M. (2016)
  • Launis, Annina; Pykälä, Juha; van den Boom, Pieter; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
    In this study we clarify the phylogeny and reassess the current taxonomy of the Micarea prasina group, focusing especially on the M. byssacea and M. micrococca complexes. The phylogeny was investigated using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions from 25 taxa belonging to the M. prasina group. A total of 107 new sequences were generated. Data were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results reveal five undescribed well-supported lineages. Four of the lineages represent new species described as Micarea pseudomicrococca Launis & Myllys sp. nov., M. czarnotae Launis, van den Boom, Serusiaux & Myllys sp. nov., M. microareolata Launis, Pykala & Myllys sp. nov. and M. laeta Launis & Myllys sp. nov. In addition, a fifth lineage was revealed that requires further study. Micarea pseudomicrococca is characterized by an olive green granular thallus, small cream-white or brownish apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and two types of paraphyses up to 2 mu m wide. Micarea czarnotae forms a granular, densely granular or continuous olive green thallus, convex to hemispherical apothecia often with the Sedifolia-grey pigment and no crystalline granules in the thallus. Micarea microareolata is characterized by a +/- pale green areolate thallus (composed of goniocysts), cream-white apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and narrow spores. Micarea laeta has a vivid to olive green granular thallus, pale apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and wider spores compared to M. microareolata. Descriptions, images and a key are provided for the new species. Crystalline granules are introduced as a novel species-level character for Micarea.
  • Kantelinen, Annina; Hyvärinen, Marko; Kirika, Paul; Myllys, Leena (2021)
    The genus Micarea was studied for the first time in the Taita Hills, Kenya. Based on new collections and existing data, we reconstructed a phylogeny using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions, and generated a total of 27 new sequences. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Based mainly on new collections, we discovered four undescribed well-supported lineages, characterized by molecular and phenotypic features. These lineages are described here as Micarea pumila, M. stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor. Micarea pumila is characterized by a minutely granular thallus, small cream-white or pale brownish apothecia, small ascospores and the production of prasinic acid. Micarea stellaris has a warted-areolate thallus, cream-white apothecia usually darker at the centre, a hymenium of light grey or brownish pigment that dissolves in K, and intense crystalline granules that appear as a belt-like continuum across the lower hymenium when studied in polarized light. Micarea taitensis is characterized by a warted-areolate thallus and cream-white or yellowish apothecia that sometimes produce the Sedifolia-grey pigment. Micarea versicolor is characterized by a warted-areolate, sometimes partly granular thallus and apothecia varying from cream-white to light grey to blackish in colour. This considerable variation in the coloration of its apothecia is caused by an occasional mixture of the Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium and another purplish brown pigment in the hymenium. Micarea stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor produce methoxymicareic acid. The main distinguishing characters are presented in a species synopsis. Three of the new species are nested in the M. prasina group, and the fourth one (M. taitensis) resolves as a basal taxon to the M. prasina group. The new species inhabit montane cloud forests, which have fragmented dramatically throughout the Eastern Arc Mountains in recent decades.
  • Pino-Bodas, R.; Zhurbenko, M. P.; Stenroos, S. (2017)
    Though most of the lichenicolous fungi belong to the Ascomycetes, their phylogenetic placement based on molecular data is lacking for numerous species. In this study the phylogenetic placement of 19 species of lichenicolous fungi was determined using four loci (LSU rDNA, SSU rDNA, ITS rDNA and mtSSU). The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the studied lichenicolous fungi are widespread across the phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes. One species is placed in Acarosporales, Sarcogyne sphaerospora; five species in Dactylosporaceae, Dactylospora ahtii, D. deminuta, D. glaucoides, D. parasitica and Dactylospora sp.; four species belong to Lecanorales, Lichenosticta alcicorniaria, Epicladonia simplex, E. stenospora and Scutula epiblastematica. The genus Epicladonia is polyphyletic and the type E. sandstedei belongs to Leotiomycetes. Phaeopyxis punctum and Bachmanniomyces uncialicola form a well supported clade in the Ostropomycetidae. Epigloea soleiformis is related to Arthrorhaphis and Anzina. Four species are placed in Ostropales, Corticifraga peltigerae, Cryptodiscus epicladonia, C. galaninae and C. cladoniicola comb. nov. (= Lettauia cladoniicola). Three new species are described, Dactylospora ahtii, Cryptodiscus epicladonia and C. galaninae.
  • Launis, Annina; Malicek, Jiri; Svensson, Mans; Tsurykau, Andrei; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
  • Suija, Ave; Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Kirika, Paul; Rikkinen, Jouko Kalevi (2018)
    During lichenological explorations of tropical montane forests in Kenya, a remarkable new lichenicolous fungus was repeatedly found growing on thalli of the epiphytic tripartite cyanolichen Crocodia cf. clathrata. Molecular phylogenetic analyses placed the fungus within Gomphillaceae (Ostropales, Lecanoromycetes), a family mainly of lichen-symbiotic species in the tropics. The anatomical features (unitunicate, non-amyloid asci and simple, septate paraphyses) as well as the hemiangiocarpic ascoma development confirm its taxonomic affinity. DNA sequence data showed the closest relationship was with Gyalidea fritzei, followed by Corticifraga peltigerae. A monotypic genus, Taitaia, is introduced to incorporate a single species, T. aurea. The new fungus is characterized by aggregated ascomata with yellow margins and salmon red discs developing from a single base.
  • Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Ahti, Teuvo; Stenroos, Soili (2020)
    This study was focused on two species of lichen-forming fungi from Madagascan Region whose taxonomy has been controversial over the years, Cladonia mascarena Nyl. and Heterodea madagascarea Nyl. While some authors considered C. mascarena to belong to Cladonia, others place it in Pycnothelia Dufour. In this study three loci (ITS rDNA, rpb2 and ef1 alpha) were used to determine the phylogenetic placement of C. mascarena. Our results show that it belongs to Pycnothelia and the combination Py cnothelia mascarena (Nyl.) Nyl. is substantiated. In addition, a key to the genus Pycnothelia is provided. The morphological study of new specimens of Gymnoderma coccocarpurn Nyl. and H. madagascarea concluded that these taxa belong to a same species, confirming the extension of Gymnoderma Nyl. to Africa. The overlooked genus Baeoderma Vain. is regarded as a synonym of Gymnoderma, and its type species Baeoderma madagascareum (Nyl.) Vain. is referred to G. coccocarpum.
  • Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Rosa Burgaz, Ana; Ahti, Teuvo; Stenroos, Soili (2018)
    The lichen species Cladonia angustiloba is characterized by a well-developed primary thallus and narrow squamules which show deep incisions, and the presence of usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Morphologically it is similar to C. foliacea and C. convoluta, from which it can be distiguished by the squamule size and morphology. Since similar characters were used to distinguish C. foliacea from C. convoluta which do not represent different lineages, it is necessary to examine the taxonomic status of C. angustiloba by means of DNA sequences. In this study, the species delimitation within the C. foliacea complex was studied by sequencing three loci, ITS rDNA, cox1 and RPB2. The data were analyzed by means of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods (GMYC, PTP, ABGD and BPP). Our results show that none of the three species is monophyletic. Most of the species delimitation methods did not support the current species as evolutionary lineages. Only some of the BPP analyses supported C. angustiloba as a species distinct from C. foliacea and C. convoluta. However, the hypothesis that considers the C. foliacea complex as constituted by a unique species obtained the best Bayes Factor value. Therefore, C. angustiloba and C. convoluta are synonymized with C. foliacea. A new, thoroughly checked synonymy with typifications of the whole C. foliacea complex is presented. An updated survey of the world distribution data is compiled.
  • Pykälä, Juha; Kantelinen, Annina; Myllys, Leena (2020)
    Species of Verrucaria, characterised by large spores (at least some spores exceeding 25 mu m in length), perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus, form a taxonomically-difficult and poorlyknown group. In this study, such species occurring in Finland are revised, based on ITS sequences and morphology. Maximum likelihood analysis of ITS sequence data was used to examine if the species belong to the Thelidium group, as suggested by BLAST search. Twelve species are accepted in Finland: Verrucaria bifurcata sp. nov., V. cavernarum sp. nov., V. devergens, V. difficilis sp. nov., V. foveolata, V. fuscozonata sp. nov., V. karelica, V. kuusamoensis sp. nov., V. subdevergens sp. nov., V. subjunctiva, V. subtilis and V. vacillans sp. nov. Verrucaria foveolata is nested in V. subjunctiva in the phylogeny, but due to morphological and ecogeographical differences, the two taxa are treated as separate species pending further studies. Based on the analysis, the study species belong to the Thelidium group. The studied species show a rather high infraspecific morphological, but a low genetic variation. Furthermore, they show considerable overlap in their morphology and many specimens cannot be reliably identified, based on morphology only. All species arc restricted to calcareous rocks. Verrucaria alpigena, V. cinereoruh and V. bochstetteri are excluded from the lichen flora of Finland. Verrucaria gmssa is considered a species with unresolved identity. Verrucaria foveolata and V. subtilis are rather common on calcareous rocks of Finland while V. devergens and V. kuusamoensis are restricted to northern Finland. Verrucaria subjunctiva occurs mainly in northern Finland. Verrucaria bifurcata has been found only from southern Finland. Verrucaria difficilis has few localities both in SW and NE Finland. Verrucaria vaeillans is restricted to calcareous roc ks (dolomite) on the mountains of the NW corner of Finland. Verrucaria Jiacozonata, V. karelica and V. sulideveTens occur only in the Oulanka area in NE Finland. A lectotype is designated for V. subjunctiva. The morphology of the Finnish species was compared with 51 European species of Verrucaria presumably belonging to the Theliolium group.
  • Davydov, Evgeny A.; Ahti, Teuvo; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2020)
    The name Umbilicaria spodochroa is currently applied to a species with an oceanic distribution in Europe and East Asia. The upper surface of its thallus is grey to dark brown, apothecia are omphalodiscs with prominent central umbilicus-like buttons. Its designated type and other original material are referred to U. hirsuta. Conservation is required to retain this name in current use. The nomenclatural history of U. spodochroa is presented to serve as the background for its conservation. The subgeneric nomenclature of Umbilicaria is revised and one new name (U. subg. Papillophora) is proposed to replace the illegitimate U. subg. Gyrophora. The status of many new names published by G.F. Hoffmann in his "Deutschlands Flora" (1796) is discussed and their nomenclatural validity is supported.