Browsing by Subject "ASD"

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  • Lindstrom, R.; Lepistö-Paisley, T.; Makkonen, T.; Reinvall, O.; Nieminen-von Wendt, T.; Alen, R.; Kujala, T. (2018)
    Objective: The present study explored the processing of emotional speech prosody in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but without marked language impairments (children with ASD [no LI]). Methods: The mismatch negativity (MMN)/the late discriminative negativity (LDN), reflecting pre-attentive auditory discrimination processes, and the P3a, indexing involuntary orienting to attention-catching changes, were recorded to natural word stimuli uttered with different emotional connotations (neutral, sad, scornful and commanding). Perceptual prosody discrimination was addressed with a behavioral sound-discrimination test. Results: Overall, children with ASD (no LI) were slower in behaviorally discriminating prosodic features of speech stimuli than typically developed control children. Further, smaller standard-stimulus event related potentials (ERPs) and MMN/LDNs were found in children with ASD (no LI) than in controls. In addition, the amplitude of the P3a was diminished and differentially distributed on the scalp in children with ASD (no LI) than in control children. Conclusions: Processing of words and changes in emotional speech prosody is impaired at various levels of information processing in school-aged children with ASD (no LI). Significance: The results suggest that low-level speech sound discrimination and orienting deficits might contribute to emotional speech prosody processing impairments observed in ASD. (C) 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Malm, Heli; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W.; Weissman, Myrna; Wickramaratne, Priya; Artama, Miia; Gingrich, Jay A.; Sourander, Andre (2016)
    Objective: To investigate the impact of gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on offspring neurodevelopment. Method: This is a cohort study using national register data in Finland between the years 1996 and 2010. Pregnant women and their offspring were categorized into 4 groups: SSRI exposed (n = 15,729); exposed to psychiatric disorder, no antidepressants (n = 9,651); exposed to SSRIs only before pregnancy (n = 7,980); and unexposed to antidepressants and psychiatric disorders (n = 31,394). We investigated the cumulative incidence of offspring diagnoses of depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for the 4 groups from birth to 14 years, adjusting for confounders. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression among offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs was 8.2% (95% CI = 3.1-13.3%) by age 14.9 years, compared with 1.9% (95% CI = 0.9-2.9%) in the psychiatric disorder, no medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.12-2.82; p=.02) and to 2.8% (95% CI = 1.4-4.3%) in the SSRI discontinued group (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.14-2.97; p=.01). Rates of anxiety, ASD, and ADHD diagnoses were comparable to rates in offspring of mothers with a psychiatric disorder but no medication during pregnancy. Comparing SSRI exposed to unexposed individuals, the HRs were significantly elevated for each outcome. Conclusion: Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with increased rates of depression diagnoses in early adolescence but not with ASD or ADHD. Until confirmed, these findings must be balanced against the substantial adverse consequences of untreated maternal depression.
  • Kiekeben, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. As the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders increases, the number of people with ASD who may benefit from speech therapy methods will also increase. People in the autism spec trum have been found to be interested in technology in many studies, so it could be beneficial and smart to utilize it in the context of rehabilitation. In particular, the utilization of 3D and virtual real ity, as well as the usability of HMD-technology are at the center of many research regarding the potential use of technology in ASD rehabilitation. The aim of this literature review is to determine what kind of technological devices, softwares and the types of tasks performed with them are used in the context of ASD. The aim is also to determine what kind of user experiences with these meth ods and technologies have been reported by people with ASD. Methods. The research method of this dissertation is a literature review. The data was collected from five international databases (ACM digital library, Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of science) using the search phrase (autism* OR autism spectrum disorder* OR high functioning au tism* OR HFA* OR Asperger* OR pervasive disorder*) AND (intervention* OR rehab* OR reha bilitation* OR therap* OR training) AND (virtual* OR augmented* OR “mixed* vr” OR HMD OR headset OR “head mounted” OR head-mounted* OR helmet OR glasses OR goggles OR ve OR im mersive OR immersion OR 3D OR head-worn OR “head worn”) AND (“computer assisted” OR computer-assisted OR “computer aided” OR computer-aided). In accordance with the selection criteria, 17 original studies were selected for the dissertation, regarding technologies and methods used in ASD rehabilitation. Findings and conclusions. Rehabilitation for ASD utilizes technology assistance from traditional computer and video game -technologies to wearable HMD-devices and virtual reality. The technol ogies used in the studies were mainly computer-implemented virtual software and virtual environ ments. About half of them utilized wearable HMD technology. The methods were mainly focused on various problems of social interaction, such as attention, emotion recognition and cooperation skills. People with ASD reported mostly positive reviews of technology-assisted methods, includ ing the use of wearable devices.