Browsing by Subject "ASPERGILLUS-NIGER"

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  • Venegas, Felipe Andrés; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Langeveld, Sandra M.J.; Bellemare, Annie; Chong, Sun-Li; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Lowden, Michael J.; Hilden, Kristiina; Leyva-Illades, Juan Francisco; Mäkelä, Miia; My Pham, Thi Thanh; Peng, Mao; Hancock, Mark A.; Zheng, Yun; Tsang, Adrian; Tenkanen, Maija; Powlowski, Justin; de Vries, Ronald (2022)
    Acetyl esterases are an important component of the enzymatic machinery fungi use to degrade plant biomass and are classified in several Carbohydrate Esterase families of the CAZy classification system. Carbohydrate Esterase family 16 (CE16) is one of the more recently discovered CAZy families, but only a small number of its enzyme members have been characterized so far, revealing activity on xylan-derived oligosaccharides, as well as activity related to galactoglucomannan. The number of CE16 genes differs significantly in the genomes of filamentous fungi. In this study, four CE16 members were identified in the genome of Aspergillus niger NRRL3 and it was shown that they belong to three of the four phylogenetic Clades of CE16. Significant differences in expression profiles of the genes and substrate specificity of the enzymes were revealed, demonstrating the diversity within this family of enzymes. Detailed characterization of one of these four A. niger enzymes (HaeA) demonstrated activity on oligosaccharides obtained from acetylated glucuronoxylan, galactoglucomannan and xyloglucan, thus establishing this enzyme as a general hemicellulose acetyl esterase. Their broad substrate specificity makes these enzymes highly interesting for biotechnological applications in which deacetylation of polysaccharides is required.
  • Mäkelä, Miia R.; Bouzid, Ourdia; Robl, Diogo; Post, Harm; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P. (2017)
    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic saccharification of the corresponding lignocellulose feedstocks. The enzyme cocktail P. anserina produced after three days of growth on SBH showed superior capacity to release reducing sugars from all tested plant biomass feedstocks compared to the enzyme mixtures from CSH and WS cultures. Detailed proteomics analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that SBH contained the most diverse set of enzymes targeted on plant cell wall polymers and was particularly abundant in xylan, mannan and pectin acting enzymes. The importance of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) in plant biomass deconstruction was supported by identification of 20 out of 33 AA9 LPMOs in the SBH cultures. The results highlight the suitability of P. anserina as a source of plant cell wall degrading enzymes for biotechnological applications and the importance of selecting the most optimal substrate for the production of enzyme mixtures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kun, Roland; Gomes, Ana Carolina S.; Hilden, Sari Kristiina; Salazar Cerezo, Sonia; Mäkelä, Miia Riitta; de Vries, Ronald (2019)
    Fungal strain engineering is commonly used in many areas of biotechnology, including the production of plant biomass degrading enzymes. Its aim varies from the production of specific enzymes to overall increased enzyme production levels and modification of the composition of the enzyme set that is produced by the fungus. Strain engineering involves a diverse range of methodologies, including classical mutagenesis, genetic engineering and genome editing. In this review, the main approaches for strain engineering of filamentous fungi in the field of plant biomass degradation will be discussed, including recent and not yet implemented methods, such as CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and adaptive evolution.
  • Daly, Paul; Lopez, Sara Casado; Peng, Mao; Lancefield, Christopher S.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Singan, Vasanth R.; Lipzen, Anna; Dilworth, David; Wang, Mei; Ng, Vivian; Robinson, Errol; Orr, Galya; Baker, Scott E.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Hilden, Kristiina S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mäkelä, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2018)
    White-rot fungi, such as Dichomitus squalens, degrade all wood components and inhabit mixed-wood forests containing both soft- and hardwood species. In this study, we evaluated how D. squalens responded to the compositional differences in softwood [guaiacyl (G) lignin and higher mannan content] and hardwood [syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin and higher xylan content] using semi-natural solid cultures. Spruce (softwood) and birch (hardwood) sticks were degraded by D. squalens as measured by oxidation of the lignins using 2D-NMR. The fungal response as measured by transcriptomics, proteomics and enzyme activities showed a partial tailoring to wood composition. Mannanolytic transcripts and proteins were more abundant in spruce cultures, while a proportionally higher xylanolytic activity was detected in birch cultures. Both wood types induced manganese peroxidases to a much higher level than laccases, but higher transcript and protein levels of the manganese peroxidases were observed on the G-lignin rich spruce. Overall, the molecular responses demonstrated a stronger adaptation to the spruce rather than birch composition, possibly because D. squalens is mainly found degrading softwoods in nature, which supports the ability of the solid wood cultures to reflect the natural environment.
  • Chroumpi, Tania; Mäkelä, Miia; de Vries, Ronald (2020)
    Filamentous fungi are important industrial cell factories used for the production of a wide range of enzymes and metabolites. Their primary metabolism is a significant source of industrially important compounds, as well as of monomeric building blocks for the production of secondary metabolites and extracellular enzymes. Therefore, large efforts have been made towards the development of suitable strains for the industrial scale production of primary metabolites. Over the last decades, metabolic engineering of primary metabolism has become a powerful tool to enhance production of both primary and secondary metabolites. This review summarises the different metabolic engineering methods that have been applied to rationally improve the production of industrially relevant primary metabolites in filamentous fungi, and discusses related challenges and future perspectives.
  • Mohan-Anupama Pawar , Prashant; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Chong, Sun-Li; Gomez, Leonardo D.; Miedes, Eva; Banasiak, Alicja; Ratke, Christine; Gaertner, Cyril; Mouille, Gregory; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.; Molina, Antonio; Sellstedt, Anita; Tenkanen, Tiina Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J. (2016)
    Cell wall hemicelluloses and pectins are O-acetylated at specific positions, but the significance of these substitutions is poorly understood. Using a transgenic approach, we investigated how reducing the extent of O-acetylation in xylan affects cell wall chemistry, plant performance and the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to saccharification. The Aspergillus niger acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 was expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either the constitutively expressed 35S CAMV promoter or a woody-tissue-specific GT43B aspen promoter, and the protein was targeted to the apoplast by its native signal peptide, resulting in elevated acetyl esterase activity in soluble and wall-bound protein extracts and reduced xylan acetylation. No significant alterations in cell wall composition were observed in the transgenic lines, but their xylans were more easily digested by a beta-1,4-endoxylanase, and more readily extracted by hot water, acids or alkali. Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose after hot water and alkali pretreatments produced up to 20% more reducing sugars in several lines. Fermentation by Trametes versicolor of tissue hydrolysates from the line with a 30% reduction in acetyl content yielded similar to 70% more ethanol compared with wild type. Plants expressing 35S: AnAXE1 and pGT43B:AnAXE1 developed normally and showed increased resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, probably due to constitutive activation of defence pathways. However, unintended changes in xyloglucan and pectin acetylation were only observed in 35S: AnAXE1-expressing plants. This study demonstrates that postsynthetic xylan deacetylation in woody tissues is a promising strategy for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production.
  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia Riitta; Varriale, Simona; Zhou, Miaomiao; Cerullo, Gabriella; Gidijala, Loknath; Hinkka, Harri Tapio; Brás, Joana L.A.; Jütten, Peter; Piechot, Alexander; Verhaert, Raymond; Hilden, Sari Kristiina; Faraco, Vincenza; de Vries, Ronald (2018)
    Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are a diverse group of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds between a hydroxycinnamic (e.g. ferulic) acid and plant poly- or oligosaccharides. FAEs as auxiliary enzymes significantly assist xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in gaining access to their site of action during biomass saccharification for biofuel and biochemical production. A limited number of FAEs have been functionally characterized compared to over 1000 putative fungal FAEs that were recently predicted by similarity-based genome mining, which divided phylogenetically into different subfamilies (SFs). In this study, 27 putative and six characterized FAEs from both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi were selected and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant proteins biochemically characterized to validate the previous genome mining and phylogenetical grouping and to expand the information on activity of fungal FAEs. As a result, 20 enzymes were shown to possess FAE activity, being active towards pNP-ferulate and/or methyl hydroxycinnamate substrates, and covering 11 subfamilies. Most of the new FAEs showed activities comparable to those of previously characterized fungal FAEs.
  • Lopez, Sara Casado; Peng, Mao; Issak, Tedros Yonatan; Daly, Paul; de Vries, Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R. (2018)
    Fungi can decompose plant biomass into small oligo-and monosaccharides to be used as carbon sources. Some of these small molecules may induce metabolic pathways and the production of extracellular enzymes targeted for degradation of plant cell wall polymers. Despite extensive studies in ascomycete fungi, little is known about the nature of inducers for the lignocellulolytic systems of basidiomycetes. In this study, we analyzed six sugars known to induce the expression of lignocellulolytic genes in ascomycetes for their role as inducers in the basidiomycete white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens using a transcriptomic approach. This identified cellobiose and L-rhamnose as the main inducers of cellulolytic and pectinolytic genes, respectively, of D. squalens. Our results also identified differences in gene expression patterns between dikaryotic and monokaryotic strains of D. squalens cultivated on plant biomass-derived monosaccharides and the disaccharide cellobiose. This suggests that despite conservation of the induction between these two genetic forms of D. squalens, the fine-tuning in the gene regulation of lignocellulose conversion is differently organized in these strains. IMPORTANCE Wood-decomposing basidiomycete fungi have a major role in the global carbon cycle and are promising candidates for lignocellulosic biorefinery applications. However, information on which components trigger enzyme production is currently lacking, which is crucial for the efficient use of these fungi in biotechnology. In this study, transcriptomes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens from plant biomass-derived monosaccharide and cellobiose cultures were studied to identify compounds that induce the expression of genes involved in plant biomass degradation.
  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Peng, Mao; Di Falco, Marcos; Chin A Woeng, Thomas; Maria Wilhelmina Hegi, Rosa; Granchi, Zoraide; Tsang, Adrian; Hildén, Kristiina S.; Mäkelä, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2020)
    Penicillium subrubescens is able to degrade a broad range of plant biomass and it has an expanded set of Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme)-encoding genes in comparison to other Penicillium species. Here we used exoproteome and transcriptome analysis to demonstrate the versatile plant biomass degradation mechanism by P. subrubescens during growth on wheat bran and sugar beet pulp. On wheat bran P. subrubescens degraded xylan main chain and side residues from the Day 2 of cultivation, whereas it started to degrade side chain of pectin in sugar beet pulp prior to attacking the main chain on Day 3. In addition, on Day 3 the cellulolytic enzymes were highly increased. Our results confirm that P. subrubescens adapts its enzyme production to the available plant biomass and is a promising new fungal cell factory for the production of CAZymes.
  • Cononi Linares, Nancy; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Stålbrand, Henrik; Mäkelä, Miia; de Vries, Ronald (2020)
    alpha-Galactosidases are important industrial enzymes for hemicellulosic biomass degradation or modification. In this study, six novel extracellular alpha-galactosidases from Penicillium subrubescens were produced in Pichia pastoris and characterized. All alpha-galactosidases exhibited high affinity to pNP alpha Gal, and only AglE was not active towards galacto-oligomers. Especially AglB and AglD released high amounts of galactose from guar gum, carob galactomannan and locust bean, but combining alpha-galactosidases with an endomannanase dramatically improved galactose release. Structural comparisons to other alpha-galactosidases and homology modelling showed high sequence similarities, albeit significant differences in mechanisms of productive binding, including discrimination between various galactosides. To our knowledge, this is the first study of such an extensive repertoire of extracellular fungal alpha-galactosidases, to demonstrate their potential for degradation of galactomannan-rich biomass. These findings contribute to understanding the differences within glycoside hydrolase families, to facilitate the development of new strategies to generate tailor-made enzymes for new industrial bioprocesses.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr (2017)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on proline-specific oligopeptidase (Tolerase (R) G) as a novel food ingredient submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. The novel food is an enzyme preparation of prolyl-oligopeptidase produced with a genetically modified Aspergillus niger self clone strain. The target population is the general adult population. The results from a bacterial reverse mutation test and of an in vitro chromosome aberration test did not indicate genotoxicity. The Panel considers that the reported effects observed in a 90-day rat study are treatment-related effects and can be attributed to the higher energy consumption by these animals. Taking into account the intended maximum use level for Tolerase (R) G, its daily consumption would correspond to 2,746 mg TOS/person or to 39.2 mg TOS/kg body weight (bw) per day, when considering a default body weight of 70 kg for an adult person. The margin between this value and the dose in the rats, which caused effects attributable to the excess energy intake, is approximately 45. Noting this margin, the Panel considers that it is unlikely that such effects would occur in human at the intended use levels. The Panel concludes that the NF, Tolerase (R) G, is safe for the intended use at the intended use level. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority.
  • Antonopoulou, Io; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Iancu, Laura; Mäkelä, Miia R.; Varriale, Simona; Cerullo, Gabriella; Huttner, Silvia; Uthoff, Stefan; Juetten, Peter; Piechot, Alexander; Steinbuechel, Alexander; Olsson, Lisbeth; Faraco, Vincenza; Hilden, Kristiina S.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul (2018)
    Twenty-eight fungal feruloyl esterases (FAEs) were evaluated for their synthetic abilities in a ternary system of n-hexane: t-butanol: 100 mM MOPS-NaOH pH 6.0 forming detergentless microemulsions. Five main derivatives were synthesized, namely prenyl ferulate, prenyl caffeate, butyl ferulate, glyceryl ferulate, and l-arabinose ferulate, offering, in general, higher yields when more hydrophilic alcohol substitutions were used. Acetyl xylan esterase-related FAEs belonging to phylogenetic subfamilies (SF) 5 and 6 showed increased synthetic yields among tested enzymes. In particular, it was shown that FAEs belonging to SF6 generally transesterified aliphatic alcohols more efficiently while SF5 members preferred bulkier l-arabinose. Predicted surface properties and structural characteristics were correlated with the synthetic potential of selected tannase-related, acetyl-xylan-related, and lipase-related FAEs (SF1-2, -6, -7 members) based on homology modeling and small molecular docking simulations.