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  • Kokko, Eeva; Nevalainen, Pasi; Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Koskela, Jenni; Tikkakoski, Antti; Huhtala, Heini; Niemelä, Onni; Viukari, Marianna; Mustonen, Jukka; Matikainen, Niina; Pörsti, Ilkka (2020)
    Aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is a screening tool for primary aldosteronism (PA), but the significance of ARR when the PA criteria are not met remains largely unknown. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the association of ARR with haemodynamic variables in 545 normotensive and never-medicated hypertensive subjects (267 men, 278 women, age range 19-72 years) without suspicion of PA. Supine haemodynamic data was recorded using whole-body impedance cardiography and radial tonometric pulse wave analysis. In sex-adjusted quartiles of ARR, determined as serum aldosterone to plasma renin activity ratio, the mean values were 282, 504, 744 and 1467 pmol/mu g of angiotensin I/h, respectively. The only difference in haemodynamic variables between the ARR quartiles was higher pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the highest quartile versus other quartiles (p=0.004), while no differences in blood pressure (BP), heart rate, wave reflections, cardiac output or systemic vascular resistance were observed between the quartiles. In linear regression analysis with stepwise elimination, ARR was an independent explanatory factor for PWV (beta =0.146, p
  • Seppa, Satu; Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo (2019)
    Context: Among cytokines, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), adiponectin (Adn), and irisin have been considered potential biomarkers for insulin sensitivity (IS). Objective: We evaluated whether serum FGF21, Adn, and irisin associate with markers of IS and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design, Participants, and Main Outcome Measures: This cohort study included 192 12-year-old children (109 girls). Seventy-eight of them had been born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 70 small for gestational age (SGA), and 44 from preeclamptic pregnancies (PREs) as AGA. Fasting serum FGF21, Adn, irisin, lipids, inflammatory markers, and IS markers were measured. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated. Results: The means of serum FGF21, high molecular weight (HMW) Adn, and irisin did not differ between the sexes or between the SGA, AGA, and PRE children. In the whole study population, FGF21 associated positively with irisin and uric acid and negatively with leptin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). HMW Adn associated positively with total Adn, HDL-C, leptin, and SHBG. Apart from FGF21, irisin associated positively with insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, y-glutamyltransferase, and triglycerides, and negatively with QUICKI, SHBG, and IGF binding protein-1. In multivariate regression analyses, irisin predicted lower IS and HMW Adn predicted higher HDL-C body mass index-independently, whereas FGF21 had no independent contribution to IS or lipid variables. Conclusion: In 12-year-old children, serum irisin was associated with markers reflecting reduced IS. HMW Adn predicted HDL-C, whereas FGF21 did not contribute to IS or lipid parameters in multivariate regression analyses. Copyright (C) 2019 Endocrine Society
  • Seppa, Satu; Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo (2018)
    Context: Elevated IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) concentrations are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. Objective: To determine if serum IL-1Ra and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with markers of reduced insulin sensitivity (IS) and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design and Participants: Of 191 children (n = 109 girls), 78 were categorized as having had birth weight and length appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 69 were small for gestational age, and 44 were AGA and from preeclamptic pregnancies. Serum markers of low-grade inflammation, IS, and lipids were measured. Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) was calculated. Results: Mean serum IL-1Ra levels did not differ between the sexes or among the gestational categories. Children in the highest IL-1Ra tertile had lower QUICKI, IGF-binding protein-1, SHBG, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values; and higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR), and serum insulin, hs-CRP, leptin, and triglyceride concentrations than those in the lowest IL-1Ra tertile. Logistic regression analysis showed higher serum hs-CRP and leptin levels, and WHtR were associated with high serum IL-1Ra levels. IL-1Ra concentration could be used to discriminate the children with lowest IS (area under the curve, 0.68; P <0.001); hs-CRP level could not. Conclusion: Children with the highest IL-1Ra levels had lower IS, higher hs-CRP levels and BMI, and a less favorable lipid profile than those with the lowest IL-1Ra levels, suggesting that high IL-1Ra concentrations may be associated with increased CVD risk in 12-year-old children. Copyright (C) 2018 Endocrine Society