Browsing by Subject "ASSOCIATIONS"

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  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Mire, Emily F.; Dentro, Kara N.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Schuna, John M.; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.; Standage, Martyn; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Onywera, Vincent; Olds, Tim; Matsudo, Victor; Maia, Jose; Maher, Carol; Lambert, Estelle V.; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Hu, Gang; Fogelholm, Mikael; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Grp, I. S. C. O. L. E. Res (2015)
    Background: We present a model for reporting accelerometer paradata (process-related data produced from survey administration) collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), a multi-national investigation of >7000 children (averaging 10.5 years of age) sampled from 12 different developed and developing countries and five continents. Methods: ISCOLE employed a 24-hr waist worn 7-day protocol using the ActiGraph GT3X+. Checklists, flow charts, and systematic data queries documented accelerometer paradata from enrollment to data collection and treatment. Paradata included counts of consented and eligible participants, accelerometers distributed for initial and additional monitoring (site specific decisions in the face of initial monitoring failure), inadequate data (e.g., lost/malfunction, insufficient wear time), and averages for waking wear time, valid days of data, participants with valid data (>= 4 valid days of data, including 1 weekend day), and minutes with implausibly high values (>= 20,000 activity counts/min). Results: Of 7806 consented participants, 7372 were deemed eligible to participate, 7314 accelerometers were distributed for initial monitoring and another 106 for additional monitoring. 414 accelerometer data files were inadequate (primarily due to insufficient wear time). Only 29 accelerometers were lost during the implementation of ISCOLE worldwide. The final locked data file consisted of 6553 participant files (90.0% relative to number of participants who completed monitoring) with valid waking wear time, averaging 6.5 valid days and 888.4 minutes/day (14.8 hours). We documented 4762 minutes with implausibly high activity count values from 695 unique participants (9.4% of eligible participants and Conclusions: Detailed accelerometer paradata is useful for standardizing communication, facilitating study management, improving the representative qualities of surveys, tracking study endpoint attainment, comparing studies, and ultimately anticipating and controlling costs.
  • Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmaki, Marjaana; Kankaanpaa, Anna; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Sipola-Leppanen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2016)
    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (20092011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.
  • Rantonen, O.; Alexanderson, K.; Clark, A. J.; Aalto, P.; Sonden, A.; Bronnum-Hansen, H.; Hougaard, C. O.; Rod, N. H.; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E.; Kivimäki, M.; Oksanen, T.; Salo, P. (2019)
    Background: Social workers have an elevated risk for mental disorders, but little is known about their antidepressant treatment. Aims: To examine any and long-term antidepressant treatment among social workers in Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Methods: We linked records from drug prescription registers to three prospective cohorts: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2006-2011, and nation-wide cohorts in Sweden and Denmark, years 2006-2014, including a total of 1.5 million employees in (1) social work, (2) other social and health care professions, (3) education and (4) office work. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios for any and long-term (>6 months) antidepressant treatment among social workers compared to the three reference occupational groups and carried out meta-analyses. Results: During follow-up, 25% of social workers had any prescriptions for antidepressants (19-24% reference occupations) and 20% for long-term treatment (14-19% reference occupations). The pooled effects for any and long-term treatment showed that probabilities were 10% higher in social workers compared to other health and social care professionals and 30% higher compared to education and non-human service professionals. Probabilities for any treatment in the three countries were relatively similar, but for long-term treatment social workers in Finland had a greater risk compared with other human service professions. Limitations: There were differences between the cohorts in the availability of data. Specific diagnoses for the antidepressant treatment were not known neither adherence to treatment. Conclusion: Social workers have a higher risk for any and long-term antidepressant treatment than other human and non-human service professionals.
  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan; van Beurden, Samantha Barbara; Haukkala, Ari; Lawrence, Natalia S. (2021)
    Food Go/No-Go training aims to alter implicit food biases by creating associations between perceiving unhealthy foods and withholding a dominant response. Asking participants to repeatedly inhibit an impulse to approach unhealthy foods can decrease unhealthy food intake in laboratory settings. Less is known about how people engage with app-based Go/No-Go training in real-world settings and how this might relate to dietary outcomes. This pragmatic observational study investigated associations between the number of completed app-based food Go/No-Go training trials and changes in food intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire; FFQ) for different healthy and unhealthy food categories from baseline to one-month follow-up. In total, 1234 participants (m(BMI) = 29 kg/ m2, m(age) = 43years, 69% female) downloaded the FoodT app and completed food-Go/No-Go training at their own discretion (mean number of completed sessions = 10.7, sd = 10.3, range: 1-122). In pre-registered analyses, random-intercept linear models predicting intake of different foods, and controlled for baseline consumption, BMI, age, sex, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and dieting status, revealed small, significant associations between the number of completed training trials and reductions in unhealthy food intake (b = -0.0005, CI95 = [-0.0007;0.0003]) and increases in healthy food intake (b = 0.0003, CI95 = [0.0000; 0.0006]). These relationships varied by food category, and exploratory analyses suggest that more temporally spaced training was associated with greater changes in dietary intake. Taken together, these results imply a positive association between the amount of training completed and beneficial changes in food intake. However, the results of this pragmatic study should be interpreted cautiously, as self-selection biases, motivation and other engagement-related factors that could underlie these associations were not accounted for. Experimental research is needed to rule out these possible confounds and establish causal dose-response relationships between patterns of engagement with food Go/No-Go training and changes in dietary intake.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2009)
  • Hasanzadeh, Kamyar; Czepkiewicz, Michal; Heinonen, Jukka; Kyttä, Marketta; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Ottelin, Juudit (2019)
    Activity space (AS) is a measure of spatial behavior used to summarize the mobility behavior of individuals. Current studies often highlight the fact that AS is highly complex and multidimensional in character. Therefore, the need for more holistic approaches providing more comprehensive descriptions of mobility patterns is evident. This article assesses the activity spaces of young adults aged 25-40 living in the Helsinki metropolitan area using a dataset collected with an online map survey. Using a wide range of measurements covering different aspects of AS, we identified seven components that define activity spaces, namely size, intensity of activities, volume of trips, exteriority, polycentricity, elongation, and destination specialization. We then used the components together with travel mode use to identify a typology of daily mobility patterns. The results show that individuals with different types of AS differ significantly in their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, employment, household characteristics, and residential neighborhood. Furthermore, the study reveals interesting associations between AS characteristics and different aspects of wellbeing. Overall, the results highlight the importance of multidimensional and comprehensive approaches to understanding daily mobility of urban residents.
  • Sievanen, Tero; Tormakangas, Timo; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Seppälä, Toni T.; Peltomäki, Paivi; Sipila, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina (2021)
    Simple Summary Lifestyle modifies cancer risk in the general public. How lifestyle modifies cancer risk in individuals carrying the inherited pathogenic gene variants in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) remains understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, physical activity, and cancer risk among Finnish Lynch syndrome carriers (n = 465, 54% women). The results of our study indicated that longitudinal weight gain increases cancer risk, whereas being highly physically active during adulthood could decrease cancer risk in men. Further, women were observed to be less prone to lifestyle-related risk factors than men. The results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity physical activity throughout the lifespan, especially in men with Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome (LS) increases cancer risk. There is considerable individual variation in LS cancer occurrence, which may be moderated by lifestyle factors, such as body weight and physical activity (PA). The potential associations of lifestyle and cancer risk in LS are understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, PA, and cancer risk among Finnish LS carriers. The participants (n = 465, 54% women) self-reported their adulthood body weight and PA at 10-year intervals. Overall cancer risk and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was analyzed separately for men and women with respect to longitudinal and near-term changes in body weight and PA using extended Cox regression models. The longitudinal weight change was associated with an increased risk of all cancers (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and CRC (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.05) in men. The near-term weight change was associated with a lower CRC risk in women (HR 0.96, 0.92-0.99). Furthermore, 77.6% of the participants retained their PA category over time. Men in the high-activity group had a reduced longitudinal cancer risk of 63% (HR 0.37, 0.15-0.98) compared to men in the low-activity group. PA in adulthood was not associated with cancer risk among women. These results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity PA throughout the lifespan in cancer prevention, particularly in men with LS.
  • Tang, Xin; Wang, Ming-Te; Guo, Jiesi; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    Despite academics' enthusiasm about the concept of grit (defined as consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), its benefit for academic achievement has recently been challenged. Drawing from a longitudinal sample (N=2018; 55.3% female; sixth-nineth grades) from Finland, this study first aimed to investigate and replicate the association between grit and achievement outcomes (i.e., academic achievement and engagement). Further, the present study examined whether growth mindset and goal commitment impacted grit and whether grit acted as a mediator between growth mindset, goal commitment, and achievement outcomes. The results showed that the perseverance facet of grit in the eighth grade was associated with school achievement and engagement in the nineth grade, after controlling for students' conscientiousness, academic persistence, prior achievement and engagement, gender and SES, although the effect on engagement was stronger than on achievement. In addition, grit was predicted by goal commitment in the sixth grade, but not by the growth mindset in the sixth grade. Finally, the perseverance of effort (not the consistency of interest) mediated the effect of goal commitment on engagement. These findings suggest that grit is associated with increased engagement and academic achievement; and practitioners who wish to improve grit of adolescents may encourage goal commitment more than growth mindset.
  • Hooshmand, B.; Polvikoski, T.; Kivipelto, M.; Myllykangas, L.; Mäkelä, M.; Tanskanen, M.; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, A.; Solomon, A. (2018)
    Background. CAIDE Dementia Risk Score is a tool for estimating dementia risk in the general population. Its longitudinal associations with Alzheimer or vascular neuropathology in the oldest old are not known. Aim. To explore the relationship between CAIDE Dementia Risk Score at baseline and neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, cerebral infarcts and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) after up to 10-year follow-up in the Vantaa 85+ population. Methods. Study population included 149 participants aged 85 years, without dementia at baseline, and with available clinical and autopsy data. Methenamine silver staining was used for beta-amyloid and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brain-stem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, CAA and alpha-synuclein pathologies. The CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was calculated based on scores for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, physical activity and APOE epsilon 4 carrier status (range 0-18 points). Results. A CAIDE Dementia Risk Score above 11 points was associated with more cerebral infarctions up to 10 years later: OR (95% CI) was 2.10 (1.06-4.16). No associations were found with other neuropathologies. Conclusion. In a population of elderly aged 85 years, higher CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was associated with increased risk of cerebral infarcts.
  • Carstensen, Bendix; Read, Stephanie H.; Friis, Soren; Sund, Reijo; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Ljung, Rickard; Wild, Sarah H.; Kerssens, Joannes J.; Harding, Jessica L.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia; Diabet Canc Res Consortium (2016)
    An excess cancer incidence of 20-25% has been identified among persons with diabetes, most of whom have type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the association between type 1 diabetes and cancer incidence. Persons with type 1 diabetes were identified from five nationwide diabetes registers: Australia (2000-2008), Denmark (1995-2014), Finland (1972-2012), Scotland (1995-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012). Linkage to national cancer registries provided the numbers of incident cancers in people with type 1 diabetes and in the general population. We used Poisson models with adjustment for age and date of follow up to estimate hazard ratios for total and site-specific cancers. A total of 9,149 cancers occurred among persons with type 1 diabetes in 3.9 million person-years. The median age at cancer diagnosis was 51.1 years (interquartile range 43.5-59.5). The hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) associated with type 1 diabetes for all cancers combined were 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) among men and 1.07 (1.04, 1.10) among women. HRs were increased for cancer of the stomach (men, HR 1.23 [1.04, 1.46]; women, HR 1.78 [1.49, 2.13]), liver (men, HR 2.00 [1.67, 2.40]; women, HR 1.55 [1.14, 2.10]), pancreas (men, HR 1.53 [1.30, 1.79]; women, HR 1.25 [1.02,1.53]), endometrium (HR 1.42 [1.27, 1.58]) and kidney (men, HR 1.30 [1.12, 1.49]; women, HR 1.47 [1.23, 1.77]). Reduced HRs were found for cancer of the prostate (HR 0.56 [0.51, 0.61]) and breast (HR 0.90 [0.85, 0.94]). HRs declined with increasing diabetes duration. Type 1 diabetes was associated with differences in the risk of several common cancers; the strength of these associations varied with the duration of diabetes.
  • Jantunen, Hanna; Wasenius, Niko; Salonen, Minna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    The aim of the study was to examine the association between change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression during a 10-year follow-up. This prospective study included 1036 men and women (mean age at baseline = 61.2 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with a questionnaire, HRQoL with SF36 and depression symptoms with Beck's depression inventory (BDI). The association between the change in LTPA and change in HRQoL and BDI were investigated with sex-stratified general linear models adjusted for age, smoking, educational attainment, comorbidity score, and baseline value of outcomes. One standard deviation (SD) increase in LTPA was associated with increase in physical summary component of HRQoL in women (B = 0.7 unit, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3, P = 0.032) and in men (B = 0.8 unit, 95% CI = 0.2-1.5, P = 0.014). In women, the 1SD increase in LTPA was also associated with an increase in mental summary component score (B = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-1.7, P = 0.005) and a reduction in depressive symptoms (B = -0.7, 95% CI = -1.1 to -0.2, P = 0.003). In conclusion, increase in the volume of LTPA over a 10-year period in late adulthood was associated with improved HRQoL in both men and women, and also diminished depressive symptoms in women. The findings support the promotion of physical activity in later years to enhance HRQoL and mental well-being.
  • Lind, Kalle; Kääriäinen, Juha Tapio (2018)
    Previous studies have suggested strongly that early engagement in gambling anticipates severe gambling problems. Problem gambling and gambling addiction are linked to financial difficulties, depression and weakened life control. One social consequence of excessive gambling is property crime. In this study, we analyze screening data (N = 1573) from a problem gambling self-help program to locate predictors of such criminal behaviour. We applied logistic regression to determine the relationship between problem gambling and both reported cheating and stealing. Our objective was to create an empirically-based model of the different risk factors related to such criminogenic gambling. Our models suggest that self-reported gambling-related cheating and stealing is related to young age, low education, low income, a high rate of depression, a long history of problem gambling, and negative subjective perception of one's financial situation.
  • Kikas, Eve; Tang, Xin (2019)
    This study examined relations between child-reported teacher emotional support, teaching practices, and children's task-persistent learning behaviour. The study was carried out in Estonia, where a students' first teacher advances with his/her students and teaches all primary subjects in the first 3years of schooling. In total, 660 sixth-grade children reported about their first teacher's emotional support. Teachers' child-centred and teacher-directed practices were observed with the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM); results included 38 teachers in Grade 1, and 37 in Grade 3. Within the same grades, teachers reported on their affection for students, as well as their behavioural and psychological control over students. Teachers also evaluated each of their student's task persistence. As shown by ECCOM results, retrospective student-reported teacher emotional support tended to be positively related to child-centred practises, and negatively related to teacher-directed practises in Grade 3, while also negatively related to teacher-reported psychological control in Grade 1. Although higher perceived emotional support was related with more persistent learning behaviour on an individual level, general task persistence was predicted primarily by teacher-reported practices at the classroom level.
  • Nuutinen, Teija; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva; Villberg, Jari; Tynjala, Jorma (2017)
    To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents. In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with kappa-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses. Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight. Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
  • Rasouli, B.; Ahlqvist, E.; Alfredsson, L.; Andersson, T.; Carlsson, P.-O.; Groop, L.; Löfvenborg, J.E.; Martinell, M.; Rosengren, A.; Tuomi, T.; Wolk, A.; Carlsson, S. (2018)
    Aim. - Coffee consumption is inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, an increased risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) has been reported in heavy coffee consumers, primarily in a subgroup with stronger autoimmune characteristics. Our study aimed to investigate whether coffee consumption interacts with HLA genotypes in relation to risk of LADA. Methods. - This population-based study comprised incident cases of LADA (n = 484) and T2D (n = 1609), and also 885 healthy controls. Information on coffee consumption was collected by food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of diabetes were calculated and adjusted for age, gender, BMI, education level, smoking and alcohol intake. Potential interactions between coffee consumption and high-risk HLA genotypes were calculated by attributable proportion (AP) due to interaction. Results. - Coffee intake was positively associated with LADA in carriers of high-risk HLA genotypes (OR: 1.14 per cup/day, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28), whereas no association was observed in non-carriers (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.93-1.17). Subjects with both heavy coffee consumption (>= 4 cups day) and high-risk HLA genotypes had an OR of 5.74 (95% Cl: 3.34-9.88) with an estimated AP of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.01-0.71; P = 0.04370). Conclusion. - Our findings suggest that coffee consumption interacts with HLA to promote LADA. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Ahrens, W.; Siani, A.; Adan, R.; De Henauw, S.; Eiben, G.; Gwozdz, W.; Hebestreit, A.; Hunsberger, M.; Kaprio, J.; Krogh, V.; Lissner, L.; Molnar, D.; Moreno, L. A.; Page, A.; Pico, C.; Reisch, L.; Smith, R. M.; Tornaritis, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Williams, G.; Pohlabelnu, H.; Pigeot, I.; I Family consortium (2017)
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Wild, Sarah H.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. Methods Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. Results Offspring of obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.
  • Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Hedeker, Donald; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Onywera, Vincent; Lambert, Estelle V.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Sarmiento, Olga; Matsudo, Victor; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Zhao, Pei; Hu, Gang; Olds, Timothy; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to describe children's daily compliance with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations across a week in different parts of the world, and to identify individual-and school-level correlates that may explain differences in daily MVPA compliance. The sample included 6553 children aged 9-11 years from 12 countries, and multilevel statistical analyses were used, including both child-and school-level variables. Most children did not comply with the MVPA guidelines on a daily basis: Chinese children complied the least, whereas Finnish, Australian, Colombian, UK, and Kenyan children complied the most. Boys (rate ratio [RR] = 1.47) and children with higher unhealthy diet scores (RR = 1.08) complied more, but overweight/obese children (RR = 0.81), earlier maturing children (RR = 0.93), and those who spent more time in screen activities (RR = 0.98) and sleeping (RR = 0.96) had the lowest compliance. At the school level, children with access to playground or sport equipment (RR = 0.88, for both) tended to comply less, whereas those with access to a gymnasium outside the school hours complied more with the MVPA guidelines (RR = 1.14). Significant between-country differences in children's daily MVPA compliance were observed, reflecting not only site characteristics, but also the importance of individual traits and local school contexts.