Browsing by Subject "ASSOCIATIONS"

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  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Mire, Emily F.; Dentro, Kara N.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Schuna, John M.; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.; Standage, Martyn; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Onywera, Vincent; Olds, Tim; Matsudo, Victor; Maia, Jose; Maher, Carol; Lambert, Estelle V.; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Hu, Gang; Fogelholm, Mikael; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Grp, I. S. C. O. L. E. Res (2015)
    Background: We present a model for reporting accelerometer paradata (process-related data produced from survey administration) collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), a multi-national investigation of >7000 children (averaging 10.5 years of age) sampled from 12 different developed and developing countries and five continents. Methods: ISCOLE employed a 24-hr waist worn 7-day protocol using the ActiGraph GT3X+. Checklists, flow charts, and systematic data queries documented accelerometer paradata from enrollment to data collection and treatment. Paradata included counts of consented and eligible participants, accelerometers distributed for initial and additional monitoring (site specific decisions in the face of initial monitoring failure), inadequate data (e.g., lost/malfunction, insufficient wear time), and averages for waking wear time, valid days of data, participants with valid data (>= 4 valid days of data, including 1 weekend day), and minutes with implausibly high values (>= 20,000 activity counts/min). Results: Of 7806 consented participants, 7372 were deemed eligible to participate, 7314 accelerometers were distributed for initial monitoring and another 106 for additional monitoring. 414 accelerometer data files were inadequate (primarily due to insufficient wear time). Only 29 accelerometers were lost during the implementation of ISCOLE worldwide. The final locked data file consisted of 6553 participant files (90.0% relative to number of participants who completed monitoring) with valid waking wear time, averaging 6.5 valid days and 888.4 minutes/day (14.8 hours). We documented 4762 minutes with implausibly high activity count values from 695 unique participants (9.4% of eligible participants and Conclusions: Detailed accelerometer paradata is useful for standardizing communication, facilitating study management, improving the representative qualities of surveys, tracking study endpoint attainment, comparing studies, and ultimately anticipating and controlling costs.
  • Wendt, Camilla; Muranen, Taru A.; Mielikäinen, Lotta; Thutkawkorapin, Jessada; Blomqvist, Carl; Jiao, Xiang; Ehrencrona, Hans; Tham, Emma; Arver, Brita; Melin, Beatrice; Kuchinskaya, Ekaterina; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Vappling, Anna von Wachenfeldt; Kalso, Eija; Tasmuth, Tiina; Kallioniemi, Anne; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Borg, Åke; Lindblom, Annika (2021)
    The risk of breast cancer associated with CHEK2:c.1100delC is 2-threefold but higher in carriers with a family history of breast cancer than without, suggesting that other genetic loci in combination with CHEK2:c.1100delC confer an increased risk in a polygenic model. Part of the excess familial risk has been associated with common low-penetrance variants. This study aimed to identify genetic loci that modify CHEK2:c.1100delC-associated breast cancer risk by searching for candidate risk alleles that are overrepresented in CHEK2:c.1100delC carriers with breast cancer compared with controls. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 28 breast cancer cases with germline CHEK2:c.1100delC, 28 familial breast cancer cases and 70 controls. Candidate alleles were selected for validation in larger cohorts. One recessive synonymous variant, rs16897117, was suggested, but no overrepresentation of homozygous CHEK2:c.1100delC carriers was found in the following validation. Furthermore, 11 non-synonymous candidate alleles were suggested for further testing, but no significant difference in allele frequency could be detected in the validation in CHEK2:c.1100delC cases compared with familial breast cancer, sporadic breast cancer and controls. With this method, we found no support for a CHEK2:c.1100delC-specific genetic modifier. Further studies of CHEK2:c.1100delC genetic modifiers are warranted to improve risk assessment in clinical practice.
  • Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmaki, Marjaana; Kankaanpaa, Anna; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Sipola-Leppanen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2016)
    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (20092011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.
  • De Kock Henriëtte, L.; Pulane, Nkhabutlane; Kobue-Lekalake Rosemary, I.; Jeanine, Kriek; Annelize, Steyn; Heerden Clarissa, Van; Lucy, Purdon; Christi, Kruger; Marise, Kinnear; Hanri, Taljaard-Swart; Hely, Tuorila (2022)
    An alternative Food Neophobia Scale (FNS-A) was developed in three studies to measure food neophobia (reluctance to eat and avoidance of trying new foods). In Study 1, the original food neophobia scale, FNS (Pliner, & Hobden, 1992), was first critically examined leading to modifications in five and omission of two statements. Furthermore, eight positive and eight negative statements were elicited and introduced along with eight original or modified FNS statements to 575 respondents in South Africa, Lesotho, and Botswana. Study 2 (n = 1010) was used to confirm the factorial structure of the scale, and Study 3 (n = 141) was used to test the reliability of FNS-A through test-retest data. The structure of the scale was analyzed using exploratory (Study 1 and 2) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analysis, eventually leading to four positive and four negative statements regarding new foods, loaded on two factors labelled approach and avoidance. Test-retest reliability at a 2 weeks' time interval as well as convergent and divergent validity measured against other scales was good (Study 3). In all three studies, predictive validity was evaluated against willingness to try or expected liking ratings of unfamiliar or novel food names or food concept descriptions. This evaluation showed satisfactory performance. FNS-A is a promising tool for the quantification of individual responses to unfamiliar or novel foods, but further studies in other populations and contexts are needed to confirm the applicability.
  • Franks, Victoria R.; Ewen, John G.; McCready, Mhairi; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Smith, Donal; Thorogood, Rose (2020)
    Animal sociality arises from the cumulative effects of both individual social decisions and environmental factors. While juveniles' social interactions with parents prior to independence shape later life sociality, in most bird and mammal species at least one sex undergoes an early life dispersal before first-year reproduction. The social associations from this period could also have implications for later life yet are rarely characterized. Here, we derived predictions from available examples of juvenile groups in the literature (mobile 'flocks', spatially stable 'gangs' or adult-associated 'creches') and then used three cohorts of juvenile hihi, Notiomystis cincta, a threatened New Zealand passerine, to demonstrate how multistate modelling and social network analysis approaches can be used to characterize group type based on residency, movement, relatedness and social associations. At sites where hihi congregated, we found that juveniles were resighted at a higher frequency than adults and associated predominantly with unrelated juveniles rather than siblings or parents. Movement between group sites occurred, but associations developed predominantly within the sites. We suggest therefore that juvenile hihi social structure is most similar to a 'gang', a group structure in which juveniles congregate without adults at predictable sites. Such gangs have previously only been described formally in ravens, Corvus corax. By combining spatial and social network analyses, our study demonstrates how social group structures can be described and therefore facilitate broader comparisons and discussion about the form and function of juvenile groups across taxa. (C) 2020 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rantonen, O.; Alexanderson, K.; Clark, A. J.; Aalto, P.; Sonden, A.; Bronnum-Hansen, H.; Hougaard, C. O.; Rod, N. H.; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E.; Kivimäki, M.; Oksanen, T.; Salo, P. (2019)
    Background: Social workers have an elevated risk for mental disorders, but little is known about their antidepressant treatment. Aims: To examine any and long-term antidepressant treatment among social workers in Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Methods: We linked records from drug prescription registers to three prospective cohorts: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2006-2011, and nation-wide cohorts in Sweden and Denmark, years 2006-2014, including a total of 1.5 million employees in (1) social work, (2) other social and health care professions, (3) education and (4) office work. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios for any and long-term (>6 months) antidepressant treatment among social workers compared to the three reference occupational groups and carried out meta-analyses. Results: During follow-up, 25% of social workers had any prescriptions for antidepressants (19-24% reference occupations) and 20% for long-term treatment (14-19% reference occupations). The pooled effects for any and long-term treatment showed that probabilities were 10% higher in social workers compared to other health and social care professionals and 30% higher compared to education and non-human service professionals. Probabilities for any treatment in the three countries were relatively similar, but for long-term treatment social workers in Finland had a greater risk compared with other human service professions. Limitations: There were differences between the cohorts in the availability of data. Specific diagnoses for the antidepressant treatment were not known neither adherence to treatment. Conclusion: Social workers have a higher risk for any and long-term antidepressant treatment than other human and non-human service professionals.
  • Sali, Virpi Tuulikki; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hälli, Outi; Tirkkonen, Taneli; Heinonen, Mari (2021)
    In pigs, antimicrobial use (AMU) practices vary at different production phases between herds and between countries. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) development is linked to AMU but recognized as a multi-factorial issue, and thus, any information increasing knowledge of AMU and AMR relationships is valuable. We described AMU and screened the carriage of different AMR phenotypes of indicator Escherichia coli in 25 selected Finnish piglet-producing and finishing herds that formed nine birth-to-slaughter production lines. Moreover, we studied associations between AMU and AMR in both herd types and throughout the production line. Treatment records were obtained from the national Sikava register for 1year, and AMU was quantified as mg/PCU (population correction unit) and TIs (treatment incidences). For phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ten pen-level pooled feces samples (n=250) in each herd were collected from one room representing the oldest weaned piglets or the oldest finishing pigs. Majority of the medications (96.8%) was administered parenterally, and penicillin was the predominant antimicrobial in every herd. More different antimicrobial substances were used in piglet-producing than in finishing herds (median 5 and 1, respectively, p
  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan; van Beurden, Samantha Barbara; Haukkala, Ari; Lawrence, Natalia S. (2021)
    Food Go/No-Go training aims to alter implicit food biases by creating associations between perceiving unhealthy foods and withholding a dominant response. Asking participants to repeatedly inhibit an impulse to approach unhealthy foods can decrease unhealthy food intake in laboratory settings. Less is known about how people engage with app-based Go/No-Go training in real-world settings and how this might relate to dietary outcomes. This pragmatic observational study investigated associations between the number of completed app-based food Go/No-Go training trials and changes in food intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire; FFQ) for different healthy and unhealthy food categories from baseline to one-month follow-up. In total, 1234 participants (m(BMI) = 29 kg/ m2, m(age) = 43years, 69% female) downloaded the FoodT app and completed food-Go/No-Go training at their own discretion (mean number of completed sessions = 10.7, sd = 10.3, range: 1-122). In pre-registered analyses, random-intercept linear models predicting intake of different foods, and controlled for baseline consumption, BMI, age, sex, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and dieting status, revealed small, significant associations between the number of completed training trials and reductions in unhealthy food intake (b = -0.0005, CI95 = [-0.0007;0.0003]) and increases in healthy food intake (b = 0.0003, CI95 = [0.0000; 0.0006]). These relationships varied by food category, and exploratory analyses suggest that more temporally spaced training was associated with greater changes in dietary intake. Taken together, these results imply a positive association between the amount of training completed and beneficial changes in food intake. However, the results of this pragmatic study should be interpreted cautiously, as self-selection biases, motivation and other engagement-related factors that could underlie these associations were not accounted for. Experimental research is needed to rule out these possible confounds and establish causal dose-response relationships between patterns of engagement with food Go/No-Go training and changes in dietary intake.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2009)
  • Hasanzadeh, Kamyar; Czepkiewicz, Michal; Heinonen, Jukka; Kyttä, Marketta; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Ottelin, Juudit (2019)
    Activity space (AS) is a measure of spatial behavior used to summarize the mobility behavior of individuals. Current studies often highlight the fact that AS is highly complex and multidimensional in character. Therefore, the need for more holistic approaches providing more comprehensive descriptions of mobility patterns is evident. This article assesses the activity spaces of young adults aged 25-40 living in the Helsinki metropolitan area using a dataset collected with an online map survey. Using a wide range of measurements covering different aspects of AS, we identified seven components that define activity spaces, namely size, intensity of activities, volume of trips, exteriority, polycentricity, elongation, and destination specialization. We then used the components together with travel mode use to identify a typology of daily mobility patterns. The results show that individuals with different types of AS differ significantly in their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, employment, household characteristics, and residential neighborhood. Furthermore, the study reveals interesting associations between AS characteristics and different aspects of wellbeing. Overall, the results highlight the importance of multidimensional and comprehensive approaches to understanding daily mobility of urban residents.
  • Sievanen, Tero; Tormakangas, Timo; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Seppälä, Toni T.; Peltomäki, Paivi; Sipila, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina (2021)
    Simple Summary Lifestyle modifies cancer risk in the general public. How lifestyle modifies cancer risk in individuals carrying the inherited pathogenic gene variants in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) remains understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, physical activity, and cancer risk among Finnish Lynch syndrome carriers (n = 465, 54% women). The results of our study indicated that longitudinal weight gain increases cancer risk, whereas being highly physically active during adulthood could decrease cancer risk in men. Further, women were observed to be less prone to lifestyle-related risk factors than men. The results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity physical activity throughout the lifespan, especially in men with Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome (LS) increases cancer risk. There is considerable individual variation in LS cancer occurrence, which may be moderated by lifestyle factors, such as body weight and physical activity (PA). The potential associations of lifestyle and cancer risk in LS are understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, PA, and cancer risk among Finnish LS carriers. The participants (n = 465, 54% women) self-reported their adulthood body weight and PA at 10-year intervals. Overall cancer risk and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was analyzed separately for men and women with respect to longitudinal and near-term changes in body weight and PA using extended Cox regression models. The longitudinal weight change was associated with an increased risk of all cancers (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and CRC (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.05) in men. The near-term weight change was associated with a lower CRC risk in women (HR 0.96, 0.92-0.99). Furthermore, 77.6% of the participants retained their PA category over time. Men in the high-activity group had a reduced longitudinal cancer risk of 63% (HR 0.37, 0.15-0.98) compared to men in the low-activity group. PA in adulthood was not associated with cancer risk among women. These results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity PA throughout the lifespan in cancer prevention, particularly in men with LS.
  • Tang, Xin; Wang, Ming-Te; Guo, Jiesi; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    Despite academics' enthusiasm about the concept of grit (defined as consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), its benefit for academic achievement has recently been challenged. Drawing from a longitudinal sample (N=2018; 55.3% female; sixth-nineth grades) from Finland, this study first aimed to investigate and replicate the association between grit and achievement outcomes (i.e., academic achievement and engagement). Further, the present study examined whether growth mindset and goal commitment impacted grit and whether grit acted as a mediator between growth mindset, goal commitment, and achievement outcomes. The results showed that the perseverance facet of grit in the eighth grade was associated with school achievement and engagement in the nineth grade, after controlling for students' conscientiousness, academic persistence, prior achievement and engagement, gender and SES, although the effect on engagement was stronger than on achievement. In addition, grit was predicted by goal commitment in the sixth grade, but not by the growth mindset in the sixth grade. Finally, the perseverance of effort (not the consistency of interest) mediated the effect of goal commitment on engagement. These findings suggest that grit is associated with increased engagement and academic achievement; and practitioners who wish to improve grit of adolescents may encourage goal commitment more than growth mindset.
  • Hooshmand, B.; Polvikoski, T.; Kivipelto, M.; Myllykangas, L.; Mäkelä, M.; Tanskanen, M.; Oinas, Minna; Paetau, A.; Solomon, A. (2018)
    Background. CAIDE Dementia Risk Score is a tool for estimating dementia risk in the general population. Its longitudinal associations with Alzheimer or vascular neuropathology in the oldest old are not known. Aim. To explore the relationship between CAIDE Dementia Risk Score at baseline and neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, cerebral infarcts and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) after up to 10-year follow-up in the Vantaa 85+ population. Methods. Study population included 149 participants aged 85 years, without dementia at baseline, and with available clinical and autopsy data. Methenamine silver staining was used for beta-amyloid and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brain-stem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, CAA and alpha-synuclein pathologies. The CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was calculated based on scores for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, physical activity and APOE epsilon 4 carrier status (range 0-18 points). Results. A CAIDE Dementia Risk Score above 11 points was associated with more cerebral infarctions up to 10 years later: OR (95% CI) was 2.10 (1.06-4.16). No associations were found with other neuropathologies. Conclusion. In a population of elderly aged 85 years, higher CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was associated with increased risk of cerebral infarcts.
  • Carstensen, Bendix; Read, Stephanie H.; Friis, Soren; Sund, Reijo; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Ljung, Rickard; Wild, Sarah H.; Kerssens, Joannes J.; Harding, Jessica L.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia; Diabet Canc Res Consortium (2016)
    An excess cancer incidence of 20-25% has been identified among persons with diabetes, most of whom have type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the association between type 1 diabetes and cancer incidence. Persons with type 1 diabetes were identified from five nationwide diabetes registers: Australia (2000-2008), Denmark (1995-2014), Finland (1972-2012), Scotland (1995-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012). Linkage to national cancer registries provided the numbers of incident cancers in people with type 1 diabetes and in the general population. We used Poisson models with adjustment for age and date of follow up to estimate hazard ratios for total and site-specific cancers. A total of 9,149 cancers occurred among persons with type 1 diabetes in 3.9 million person-years. The median age at cancer diagnosis was 51.1 years (interquartile range 43.5-59.5). The hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) associated with type 1 diabetes for all cancers combined were 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) among men and 1.07 (1.04, 1.10) among women. HRs were increased for cancer of the stomach (men, HR 1.23 [1.04, 1.46]; women, HR 1.78 [1.49, 2.13]), liver (men, HR 2.00 [1.67, 2.40]; women, HR 1.55 [1.14, 2.10]), pancreas (men, HR 1.53 [1.30, 1.79]; women, HR 1.25 [1.02,1.53]), endometrium (HR 1.42 [1.27, 1.58]) and kidney (men, HR 1.30 [1.12, 1.49]; women, HR 1.47 [1.23, 1.77]). Reduced HRs were found for cancer of the prostate (HR 0.56 [0.51, 0.61]) and breast (HR 0.90 [0.85, 0.94]). HRs declined with increasing diabetes duration. Type 1 diabetes was associated with differences in the risk of several common cancers; the strength of these associations varied with the duration of diabetes.
  • Jantunen, Hanna; Wasenius, Niko; Salonen, Minna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    The aim of the study was to examine the association between change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression during a 10-year follow-up. This prospective study included 1036 men and women (mean age at baseline = 61.2 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with a questionnaire, HRQoL with SF36 and depression symptoms with Beck's depression inventory (BDI). The association between the change in LTPA and change in HRQoL and BDI were investigated with sex-stratified general linear models adjusted for age, smoking, educational attainment, comorbidity score, and baseline value of outcomes. One standard deviation (SD) increase in LTPA was associated with increase in physical summary component of HRQoL in women (B = 0.7 unit, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3, P = 0.032) and in men (B = 0.8 unit, 95% CI = 0.2-1.5, P = 0.014). In women, the 1SD increase in LTPA was also associated with an increase in mental summary component score (B = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-1.7, P = 0.005) and a reduction in depressive symptoms (B = -0.7, 95% CI = -1.1 to -0.2, P = 0.003). In conclusion, increase in the volume of LTPA over a 10-year period in late adulthood was associated with improved HRQoL in both men and women, and also diminished depressive symptoms in women. The findings support the promotion of physical activity in later years to enhance HRQoL and mental well-being.
  • Pasanen, S.; Halonen, J.I.; Gonzalez-Inca, C.; Pentti, J.; Vahtera, J.; Kestens, Y.; Thierry, B.; Brondeel, R.; Leskinen, T.; Stenholm, S. (2022)
    This study examined the changes in accelerometer-measured physical activity by GPS-measured contexts among Finnish retirees (n = 45 (537 measurement days)) participating in a physical activity intervention. We also assessed whether residential greenness, measured with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, moderated the changes. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) increased at home by 7 min/day, (P < 0.001) and during active travel by 5 min/day (P = 0.03). The participants with the highest vs. lowest greenness had 25 min/ day greater increase in MVPA over the follow-up (P for Time*Greenness interaction = 0.04). In conclusion, retirees participating in the intervention increased their MVPA both at home and in active travel, and more so if they lived in a greener area.
  • Lind, Kalle; Kääriäinen, Juha Tapio (2018)
    Previous studies have suggested strongly that early engagement in gambling anticipates severe gambling problems. Problem gambling and gambling addiction are linked to financial difficulties, depression and weakened life control. One social consequence of excessive gambling is property crime. In this study, we analyze screening data (N = 1573) from a problem gambling self-help program to locate predictors of such criminal behaviour. We applied logistic regression to determine the relationship between problem gambling and both reported cheating and stealing. Our objective was to create an empirically-based model of the different risk factors related to such criminogenic gambling. Our models suggest that self-reported gambling-related cheating and stealing is related to young age, low education, low income, a high rate of depression, a long history of problem gambling, and negative subjective perception of one's financial situation.
  • Kikas, Eve; Tang, Xin (2019)
    This study examined relations between child-reported teacher emotional support, teaching practices, and children's task-persistent learning behaviour. The study was carried out in Estonia, where a students' first teacher advances with his/her students and teaches all primary subjects in the first 3years of schooling. In total, 660 sixth-grade children reported about their first teacher's emotional support. Teachers' child-centred and teacher-directed practices were observed with the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM); results included 38 teachers in Grade 1, and 37 in Grade 3. Within the same grades, teachers reported on their affection for students, as well as their behavioural and psychological control over students. Teachers also evaluated each of their student's task persistence. As shown by ECCOM results, retrospective student-reported teacher emotional support tended to be positively related to child-centred practises, and negatively related to teacher-directed practises in Grade 3, while also negatively related to teacher-reported psychological control in Grade 1. Although higher perceived emotional support was related with more persistent learning behaviour on an individual level, general task persistence was predicted primarily by teacher-reported practices at the classroom level.
  • Terho, Anna Maria; Pelkonen, Sari; Toikkanen, Ronja; Koivurova, Sari; Salo, Jarmo; Nuojua-Huttunen, Sinikka; Pokka, Tytti; Gissler, Mika; Tiitinen, Aila; Martikainen, Hannu (2021)
    Research question: Is the growth of term singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) comparable to those born after fresh embryo transfer and natural conception up to 5 years of age? Design: Observational cohort study in an academic medical centre and municipal child health clinics with repeated measurements carried out by medical professionals. Term singletons born after FET (n = 110) and fresh embryo transfer (n = 181) and their matched natural conception controls (n = 543) born in Oulu, Northern Finland, were included. Mean weights, lengths, heights and head circumferences at the ages of 4, 8 and 18 months and 3 and 5 years were compared. At 3 and 5 years, body mass indices were compared. Results: Childhood growth did not differ between term singletons born after FET, fresh embryo transfer and natural conception, correcting for exact age at measurement and adjusting for maternal body mass index and paternal height. Conclusions: Similar growth between children born after FET, fresh embryo transfer and natural conception offers reassurance of the safety and feasibility of the steadily increasing use of embryo cryopreservation in assisted reproduction.