Browsing by Subject "ATLANTIC SALMON"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Lemopoulos, Alexandre; Prokkola, Jenni M.; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vasemägi, Anti; Huusko, Ari; Hyvarinen, Pekka; Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Koskiniemi, Jarmo; Vainikka, Anssi (2019)
    The conservation and management of endangered species requires information on their genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure. The main genetic markers applied for these questions are microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the latter of which remain the more resource demanding approach in most cases. Here, we compare the performance of two approaches, SNPs obtained by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and 16 DNA microsatellite loci, for estimating genetic diversity, relatedness and genetic differentiation of three, small, geographically close wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations and a regionally used hatchery strain. The genetic differentiation, quantified as F-ST, was similar when measured using 16 microsatellites and 4,876 SNPs. Based on both marker types, each brown trout population represented a distinct gene pool with a low level of interbreeding. Analysis of SNPs identified half- and full-siblings with a higher probability than the analysis based on microsatellites, and SNPs outperformed microsatellites in estimating individual-level multilocus heterozygosity. Overall, the results indicated that moderately polymorphic microsatellites and SNPs from RADseq agreed on estimates of population genetic structure in moderately diverged, small populations, but RADseq outperformed microsatellites for applications that required individual-level genotype information, such as quantifying relatedness and individual-level heterozygosity. The results can be applied to other small populations with low or moderate levels of genetic diversity.
  • Monzon-Argueello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Marco-Rius, Francisco; Fowler, Daniel M.; De Faveri, Jacquelin; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia (2014)
  • Butler, Don H.; Koivisto, Satu Mirjami; Brumfeld, Vlad; Shahack-Gross, Ruth (2019)
    Salmonid resources currently foster socioeconomic prosperity in several nations, yet their importance to many ancient circumpolar societies is poorly understood due to insufficient fish bone preservation at archaeological sites. As a result, there are serious gaps in our knowledge concerning the antiquity of northern salmonid fisheries and their impacts on shaping biodiversity, hunter-gatherer adaptations, and human-ecological networks. The interdisciplinary study presented here demonstrates that calcium-magnesium phosphate minerals formed in burned salmonid bones can preserve at ancient northern sites, thus informing on the early utilization of these resources despite the absence of morphologically classifiable bones. The minerals whitlockite and beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate were identified in rare morphologically classifiable Atlantic salmonid bones from three Mid-Holocene sites in Finland. Large amounts of beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate were also experimentally formed by burning modern Atlantic salmonid and brown trout bones. Our results demonstrate the value of these minerals as proxies for ancient northern salmonid fishing. Specifically, the whitlockite mineral was discovered in hearth sediments from the 5,600 year old Yli-Ii Kierikinkangas site on the Iijoki River in northern Finland. Our fine sieving and mineralogical analyses of these sediments, along with zooarchaeological identification of recovered bone fragments, have confirmed for the first time that the people living at this village did incorporate salmonids into their economies, thus providing new evidence for early estuary/riverine fisheries in northern Finland.
  • O'Sullivan, Ronan James; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Kane, Adam; Poole, Russell; Rogan, Ger; Prodöhl, Paulo A.; Primmer, Craig R.; McGinnity, Philip; Reed, Thomas Eric (2019)
    Comparing observed versus theoretically expected evolutionary responses is important for our understanding of the evolutionary process, and for assessing how species may cope with anthropogenic change. Here, we document directional selection for larger female size in Atlantic salmon, using pedigree-derived estimates of lifetime reproductive success as a fitness measure. We show the trait is heritable and, thus, capable of responding to selection. The Breeder's Equation, which predicts microevolution as the product of phenotypic selection and heritability, predicted evolution of larger size. This was at odds, however, with the observed lack of either phenotypic or genetic temporal trends in body size, a so-called "paradox of stasis." To investigate this paradox, we estimated the additive genetic covariance between trait and fitness, which provides a prediction of evolutionary change according to Robertson's secondary theorem of selection (STS) that is unbiased by missing variables. The STS prediction was consistent with the observed stasis. Decomposition of phenotypic selection gradients into genetic and environmental components revealed a potential upward bias, implying unmeasured factors that covary with trait and fitness. These results showcase the power of pedigreed, wild population studies-which have largely been limited to birds and mammals-to study evolutionary processes on contemporary timescales.
  • Keinanen, Marja; Kakela, Reijo; Ritvanen, Tiina; Myllyla, Timo; Ponni, Jukka; Vuorinen, Pekka J. (2017)
    Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and small herring (Clupea harengus) are the dominant prey fish of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea. If the fatty acid (FA) proportions of sprat and herring differ, the dietary history of ascending salmon could be determined from their FA profiles. Therefore, we investigated the FA composition of several age groups of whole sprat and small herring, caught from the three main feeding areas of salmon in autumn and spring. Oleic acid (18: 1n-9) was the most prevalent FA in sprat and characteristic of this species. In herring, palmitic acid (16: 0) was the most common FA, but herring lipid was characterized by n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, and moreover, by palmitoleic acid (16: 1n-7) and vaccenic acid (18: 1n-7). Due to the higher lipid content of sprat, the concentrations of all other FAs, excluding these, were higher in sprat than in herring. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3) increased with an increase in the lipid content and was consequently highest in the youngest specimens, being in young sprat almost double that of young herring, and 2.6 times higher in the sprat biomass than in that of herring. As a result of a decrease in the DHA concentration with age, the ratio thiamine/DHA increased with respect to age in both species, and was lower in sprat than in herring. It is concluded that an abundance of DHA in the diet of salmon most likely increases oxidative stress because of the susceptibility of DHA to peroxidation, and thus decreases thiamine resources of fasting, prespawning salmon. Because the FA composition of sprat and herring differs, and the relative abundancies of prey fish differ between the feeding areas of salmon, the feeding area of ascending salmon can most probably be derived by comparing their FA profiles.
  • Reed, Thomas E.; Prodohl, Paulo; Bradley, Caroline; Gilbey, John; McGinnity, Philip; Primmer, Craig R.; Bacon, Philip J. (2019)
    While evolutionary responses require heritable variation, estimates of heritability (h(2)) from wild fish populations remain rare. A 20-year molecular pedigree for a wild Scottish population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used to investigate genetic contributions to (co) variation in two important, correlated, phenotypic traits: "sea age" (number of winters spent at sea prior to spawning) and size-at-maturity (body length just prior to spawning). Sea age was strongly heritable (h(2) = 0.51) and size exhibited moderate heritability (h(2) = 0.27). A very strong genetic correlation (r(G) = 0.96) between these traits implied the same functional loci must underpin variation in each. Indeed, body size within sea ages had much lower heritability that did not differ significantly from zero. Thus, within wild S. salar populations, temporal changes in sea age composition could reflect evolutionary responses, whereas rapid changes of body size within sea ages are more likely due to phenotypic plasticity. These inheritance patterns will influence the scope of evolutionary responses to factors such as harvest or climate change and, hence, have management implications for salmonid populations comprising a mix of sea ages.
  • Whitlock, Rebecca; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Palm, Stefan; Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Dannewitz, Johan; Östergren, Johan (2018)
    1. Inferring the dynamics of populations in time and space is a central challenge in ecology. Intra-specific structure (for example genetically distinct sub-populations or meta-populations) may require methods that can jointly infer the dynamics of multiple populations. This is of particular importance for harvested species, for which management must balance utilization of productive populations with protection of weak ones. 2. Here we present a novel method for simultaneous learning about the spatio-temporal dynamics of multiple populations that combines genetic data with prior information about abundance and movement, akin to an integrated population modelling approach. We apply the Bayesian genetic mixed stock analysis to 17 wild and 10 hatchery-reared Baltic salmon (S. salar) stocks, quantifying uncertainty in stock composition in time and space, and in population dynamics parameters such as migration timing and speed. 3. The genetic data were informative about stock-specific movement patterns, updating priors for migration path, timing and speed. Use of a population dynamics model allowed robust interpolation of expected catch composition at areas and times with no genetic observations. Our results indicate that the commonly used "equal prior probabilities" assumption may not be appropriate for all mixed stock analyses: incorporation of prior information about stock abundance and movement resulted in more plausible and precise estimates of mixture compositions in time and space. 4. The model we present here forms the basis for optimizing the spatial and temporal allocation of harvest to support the management of mixed populations of migratory species.
  • LaMere, Kelsey; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Vanhatalo, Jarno; Haapasaari, Päivi (2020)
    Eliciting stakeholders’ mental models is an important participatory modeling (PM) tool for building systems knowledge, a frequent challenge in natural resource management. Therefore, mental models constitute a valu-able source of information, making it imperative to document them in detail, while preserving the integrity of stakeholders’ beliefs. We propose a methodology, the Rich Elicitation Approach (REA), which combines direct and indirect elicitation techniques to meet these goals. We describe the approach in the context of the effects of climate change on Baltic salmon. The REA produced holistic depictions of mental models, with more variables and causal relationships per diagram than direct elicitation alone, thus providing a solid knowledge base on which to begin PM studies. The REA was well received by stakeholders and fulfilled the substantive, normative, instrumental, and educational functions of PM. However, motivating stakeholders to confirm the accuracy of their models during the verification stage of the REA was challenging.
  • La Mere, Kelsey Maggan; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Haapasaari, Päivi (2020)
    In the Baltic Sea region, salmon are valued for the ecological, economic, and cultural benefits they provide. However, these fish are threatened due to historical overfishing, disease, and reduced access to spawning rivers. Climate change may pose another challenge for salmon management. Therefore, we conducted a problem-framing study to explore the effects climate change may have on salmon and the socio-ecological system they are embedded within. Addressing this emerging issue will require the cooperation of diverse stakeholders and the integration of their knowledge and values in a contentious management context. Therefore, we conducted this problem framing as a participatory process with stakeholders, whose mental models and questionnaire responses form the basis of this study. By framing the climate change problem in this way, we aim to provide a holistic understanding of the problem and incorporate stakeholder perspectives into the management process from an early stage to better address their concerns and establish common ground. We conclude that considering climate change is relevant for Baltic salmon management, although it may not be the most pressing threat facing these fish. Stakeholders disagree about whether climate change will harm or benefit salmon, when it will become a relevant issue in the Baltic context, and whether or not management efforts can mitigate any negative impacts climate change may have on salmon and their fishery. Nevertheless, by synthesizing the stakeholders' influence diagrams, we found 15 themes exemplifying: (1) how climate change may affect salmon, (2) goals for salmon management considering climate change, and (3) strategies for achieving those goals. Further, the stakeholders tended to focus on the riverine environment and the salmon life stages occurring therein, potentially indicating the perceived vulnerability of these life stages to climate change. Interestingly, however, the stakeholders tended to focus on traditional fishery management measures, like catch quotas, to meet their goals for these fish considering climate change. Further, social variables, like “politics,” “international cooperation,” and “employment” comprised a large proportion of the stakeholders' diagrams, demonstrating the importance of these factors for salmon management.
  • Lai, Tin-Yu; Lindroos, Marko; Groenbaek, Lone; Romakkaniemi, Atso (2021)
    Multispecies bio-economic models are useful tools to give insights into ecosystem thinking and ecosystem-based management. This paper developed an age-structured multispecies bio-economic model that includes the food web relations of the grey seal, salmon, and herring, along with salmon and herring fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The results show that the increasing seal population influences salmon fisheries and stock, but the impacts on the harvest are stronger than on the stock if the targeted management policies are obeyed. If seal population growth and a low herring stock occur simultaneously, the salmon harvest could face a serious threat. In addition, scenarios of the multispecies management approach in this paper reveal a benefit that our model can evaluate the performance of different fisheries with identical or different management strategies simultaneously. The results show the most profitable scenario is that both fisheries pursuit aggregated profits and reveal a trade-off between herring fisheries and salmon fisheries. Our model indicates that the herring harvest level and the approaches to managing herring fisheries can influence the performance of salmon fisheries. The study also demonstrates a way to develop a multispecies bio-economic model that includes both migratory fish and mammalian predators.
  • Keva, Ossi; Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilainen, Kimmo K. (2017)
    Subarctic lakes are characterised by extreme seasonal variation in light and temperature which influences growth, maturation, condition and resource use of fishes. However, our understanding of how seasonal changes affect mercury concentrations of fishes is limited. We conducted a year-round study (3 ice-covered months, 3 open-water months) with open-water inter-annual aspect (3 years: samples from August/September), focusing on total mercury (THg) concentrations and ecological characteristics of a common freshwater fish, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) from a subarctic lake. We measured THg concentrations from tissues with fast (liver, n = 164) and moderate (muscle, n = 225) turnover rates, providing information on THg dynamics over different temporal scales. In both tissues, lipid-corrected THg concentrations were highest in winter (liver: 1.70 +/- 0.88 mu g/g, muscle: 0.24 +/- 0.05 mu g/g) and lowest in summer (liver: 0.87 +/- 0.72 mu g/g, muscle: 0.19 +/- 0.04 mu g/g). THg concentrations increased in winter following the summer-autumn dietary shift to pelagic zooplankton and starvation after spawning. Whitefish THg concentrations decreased towards summer, and were associated with consumption of benthic macroinvertebrates and subsequent growth dilution. Mercury bio-accumulated in both tissues with age, both showing the strongest regression slopes in winter and lowest in summer. THg concentrations in liver and muscle tissue were correlated throughout the year, however the correlation was lowest in summer, indicating high metabolism during somatic growing season in summer and growth dilution. Multiple linear regression models explained 50% and 55% of the THg variation in liver and muscle both models dominated by seasonally-variable factors i.e. sexual maturity, delta C-13, and condition factor. Seasonally varying bioaccumulation slopes and the higher level of intra-annual variation (21%) in whitefish THg concentration in muscle than the inter-annual accumulation (8%) highlight the importance of including seasonal factors in future THg studies. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.