Browsing by Subject "ATMOSPHERIC CO2"

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  • Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram (2018)
    Over the past century, climate change has been reflected in altered precipitation regimes worldwide. Because evapotranspiration is sensitive to both water availability and atmospheric demand for water vapor, it is essential to assess the likely consequences of future changes of these climate variables to evapotranspiration and, thus, runoff. We propose a simplified approach for annual evapotranspiration predictions, based on seasonal evapotranspiration estimates, accounting for the strong seasonality of meteorological conditions typical of Mediterranean climate, still holding the steady state assumption of basin water balance at mean annual scale. Sardinian runoff decreased over the 1975-2010 period by more than 40% compared to the preceding 1922-1974 period. Most of annual runoff in Sardinian basins is produced by winter precipitation, a wet season with relatively high evaporation rates. We derived linear seasonal evapotranspiration responses to seasonal precipitation, and, in turn, a relationship between the parameters of the linear functions and the seasonal vapor pressure deficit (D), accounting for residuals with basin properties. We then used these relationships to predict evapotranspiration and runoff using future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate scenarios, considering changing precipitation and D seasonality. We show that evapotranspiration is insensitive to D scenario changes. Although both evapotranspiration and runoff are sensitive to precipitation seasonality, future changes in runoff are related only to changes of winter precipitation, while evapotranspiration changes are related to those of spring and summer precipitation. Future scenario predicting further runoff decline is particularly alarming for the Sardinian water resources system, requiring new strategies and designs in water resources planning and management.
  • Ercan, Fabian E. Z.; Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Myller, Kristiina; Vainio, Elina; Slowinska, Sandra; Slowinski, Michal; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Blok, Daan; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike (2021)
    Numerous long-term, free-air plant growth facilities currently explore vegetation responses to the ongoing climate change in northern latitudes. Open top chamber (OTC) experiments as well as the experimental set-ups with active warming focus on many facets of plant growth and performance, but information on morphological alterations of plant cells is still scarce. Here we compare the effects of in-situ warming on leaf epidermal cell expansion in dwarf birch, Betula nana in Finland, Greenland, and Poland. The localities of the three in-situ warming experiments represent contrasting regions of B. nana distribution, with the sites in Finland and Greenland representing the current main distribution in low and high Arctic, respectively, and the continental site in Poland as a B. nana relict Holocene microrefugium. We quantified the epidermal cell lateral expansion by microscopic analysis of B. nana leaf cuticles. The leaves were produced in paired experimental treatment plots with either artificial warming or ambient temperature. At all localities, the leaves were collected in two years at the end of the growing season to facilitate between-site and within-site comparison. The measured parameters included the epidermal cell area and circumference, and using these, the degree of cell wall undulation was calculated as an Undulation Index (UI). We found enhanced leaf epidermal cell expansion under experimental warming, except for the extremely low temperature Greenland site where no significant difference occurred between the treatments. These results demonstrate a strong response of leaf growth at individual cell level to growing season temperature, but also suggest that in harsh conditions other environmental factors may limit this response. Our results provide evidence of the relevance of climate warming for plant leaf maturation and underpin the importance of studies covering large geographical scales.
  • Yu, Lei; Dong, Haojie; Huang, Zongdi; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    The continuously increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) has substantial effects on plant growth, and on the composition and structure of forests. However, how plants respond to elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) under intra- and interspecific competition has been largely overlooked. In this study, we employed Abies faxoniana Rehder & Wilson and Picea purpurea Mast. seedlings to explore the effects of e[CO2] (700 p.p.m.) and plant-plant competition on plant growth, physiological and morphological traits, and leaf ultrastructure. We found that e[CO2] stimulated plant growth, photosynthesis and nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), affected morphological traits and leaf ultrastructure, and enhanced water- and nitrogen (N)- use efficiencies in A. faxoniana and P. purpurea. Under interspecific competition and e[CO2], P. purpurea showed a higher biomass accumulation, photosynthetic capacity and rate of ectomycorrhizal infection, and higher water- and N-use efficiencies compared with A. faxoniana. However, under intraspecific competition and e[CO2], the two conifers showed no differences in biomass accumulation, photosynthetic capacity, and water- and N-use efficiencies. In addition, under interspecific competition and e[CO2], A. faxoniana exhibited higher NSC levels in leaves as well as more frequent and greater starch granules, which may indicate carbohydrate limitation. Consequently, we concluded that under interspecific competition, P. purpurea possesses a positive growth and adjustment strategy (e.g. a higher photosynthetic capacity and rate of ectomycorrhizal infection, and higher water- and N-use efficiencies), while A. faxoniana likely suffers from carbohydrate limitation to cope with rising [CO2]. Our study highlights that plant-plant competition should be taken into consideration when assessing the impact of rising [CO2] on the plant growth and physiological performance.
  • Navarro, J. C. Acosta; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, A.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I. (2014)
  • Pfeifer, Marion; Gonsamo, Alemu; Disney, Mathias; Pellikka, Petri; Marchant, Rob (2012)
  • Kwon, Min Jung; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Luus, Kristina A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey A.; Goeckede, Mathias (2016)
    With increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns forecast for the Arctic over the coming decades, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost is expected to increasingly alter hydrological conditions by creating mosaics of wetter and drier areas. The objective of this study is to investigate how 10 years of lowered water table depths of wet floodplain ecosystems would affect CO2 fluxes measured using a closed chamber system, focusing on the role of long-term changes in soil thermal characteristics and vegetation community structure. Drainage diminishes the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of organic soil, leading to warmer soil temperatures in shallow layers during the daytime and colder soil temperatures in deeper layers, resulting in a reduction in thaw depths. These soil temperature changes can intensify growing-season heterotrophic respiration by up to 95 %. With decreased autotrophic respiration due to reduced gross primary production under these dry conditions, the differences in ecosystem respiration rates in the present study were 25 %. We also found that a decade-long drainage installation significantly increased shrub abundance, while decreasing Eriophorum angustifolium abundance resulted in Carex sp. dominance. These two changes had opposing influences on gross primary production during the growing season: while the increased abundance of shrubs slightly increased gross primary production, the replacement of E. angustifolium by Carex sp. significantly decreased it. With the effects of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production combined, net CO2 uptake rates varied between the two years, which can be attributed to Carex-dominated plots' sensitivity to climate. However, underlying processes showed consistent patterns: 10 years of drainage increased soil temperatures in shallow layers and replaced E. angustifolium by Carex sp., which increased CO2 emission and reduced CO2 uptake rates. During the non-growing season, drainage resulted in 4 times more CO2 emissions, with high sporadic fluxes; these fluxes were induced by soil temperatures, E. angustifolium abundance, and air pressure.
  • Dewar, Roderick; Mauranen, Aleksanteri; Makela, Annikki; Holtta, Teemu; Medlyn, Belinda; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Optimization models of stomatal conductance (g(s)) attempt to explain observed stomatal behaviour in terms of cost-benefit tradeoffs. While the benefit of stomatal opening through increased CO2 uptake is clear, currently the nature of the associated cost(s) remains unclear. We explored the hypothesis that g(s) maximizes leaf photosynthesis, where the cost of stomatal opening arises from nonstomatal reductions in photosynthesis induced by leaf water stress. We analytically solved two cases, CAP and MES, in which reduced leaf water potential leads to reductions in carboxylation capacity (CAP) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) (MES). Both CAP and MES predict the same one-parameter relationship between the intercellular:atmospheric CO2 concentration ratio (c(i)/c(a)) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD, D), viz. c(i)/c(a) approximate to xi/xi (xi+D), as that obtained from previous optimization models, with the novel feature that the parameter xi is determined unambiguously as a function of a small number of photosynthetic and hydraulic variables. These include soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, implying a stomatal closure response to drought. MES also predicts that g(s)/g(m) is closely related to c(i)/c(a) and is similarly conservative. These results are consistent with observations, give rise to new testable predictions, and offer new insights into the covariation of stomatal, mesophyll and hydraulic conductances.
  • Orme, Lisa Claire; Crosta, Xavier; Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Husum, Katrine; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Wacker, Lukas; Mohan, Rahul; Ther, Olivier; Ikehara, Minoru (2020)
    Centennial- and millennial-scale variability of Southern Ocean temperature over the Holocene is poorly known, due to both short instrumental records and sparsely distributed high-resolution temperature reconstructions, with evidence for past temperature variations in the region coming mainly from ice core records. Here we present a high-resolution (similar to 60 year), diatom-based sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction from the western Indian sector of the Southern Ocean that spans the interval 14.2 to 1.0 ka (calibrated kiloyears before present). During the late deglaciation, the new SST record shows cool temperatures at 14.2-12.9 ka and gradual warming between 12.9 and 11.6 ka in phase with atmospheric temperature evolution. This supports the evolution of the Southern Ocean SST during the deglaciation being linked with a complex combination of processes and drivers associated with reorganisations of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Specifically, we suggest that Southern Ocean surface warming coincided, within the dating uncertainties, with the reconstructed slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), rising atmospheric CO2 levels, changes in the southern westerly winds and enhanced upwelling. During the Holocene the record shows warm and stable temperatures from 11.6 to 8.7 ka followed by a slight cooling and greater variability from 8.7 to 1 ka, with a quasi-periodic variability of 200-260 years identified by spectral analysis. We suggest that the increased variability during the mid- to late Holocene reflects the establishment of centennial variability in SST connected with changes in the high-latitude atmospheric circulation and Southern Ocean convection.
  • Prescott, Cindy E.; Grayston, Sue J.; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Kastovska, Eva; Körner, Christian; Lambers, Hans; Meier, Ina C.; Millard, Peter; Ostonen, Ivika (2020)
    Plant growth is usually constrained by the availability of nutrients, water, or temperature, rather than photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation. Under these conditions leaf growth is curtailed more than C fixation, and the surplus photosynthates are exported from the leaf. In plants limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P), photosynthates are converted into sugars and secondary metabolites. Some surplus C is translocated to roots and released as root exudates or transferred to root-associated microorganisms. Surplus C is also produced under low moisture availability, low temperature, and high atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with similar below-ground effects. Many interactions among above- and below-ground ecosystem components can be parsimoniously explained by the production, distribution, and release of surplus C under conditions that limit plant growth.
  • Wei, Lili; Vosatka, Miroslav; Cai, Bangping; Ding, Jing; Lu, Changyi; Xu, Jinghua; Yan, Wenfei; Li, Yuhong; Liu, Chaoxiang (2019)
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition to their contributions to plant nutrient uptake, AMF also provide many ecological functions including regulation of soil C dynamics. However, both stimulating and retarding soil organic decomposition by AMF have been observed. Here we discuss the possible reasons for such a contradiction. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to soil aggregation mainly through hyphal enmeshment, saprotrophic suppression, and production of glomalin-related soil proteins, while AMF can also stimulate organic decomposition through promoting degradative enzymes, modifying root production and activity, and/or through regulating the microbial community in the mycorrhizosphere and hyphosphere. The role of AMF in C decomposition is strongly dependent on the quality and quantity of different soil C pools. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can stimulate fresh residue decomposition initially through stimulating the decomposition of fresh residues (particularly those having high C/N ratio), whereas for older or decomposed soil organic C, AMF tend to suppress decomposition by promoting soil aggregation. Under elevated CO2 (eCO(2)), AMF show additive effects on residue decomposition, priming effects, and changes in soil a regation. Despite organic decomposition rates differing in the short term and long term following litter experiments, our discussion highlights the role of AMF in organic C dynamics. We hypothesize that AMF would benefit soil C gain in the long term and thereby predict that disturbances that impacts negatively on AMF, such as tillage, residue burning, fertilization, and fungicide application, would lead to soil C decline particularly under eCO(2).
  • Castro-Morales, Karel; Schuermann, Gregor; Koestler, Christoph; Roedenbeck, Christian; Heimann, Martin; Zaehle, Soenke (2019)
    During the last decade, carbon cycle data assimilation systems (CCDAS) have focused on improving the simulation of seasonal and mean global carbon fluxes over a few years by simultaneous assimilation of multiple data streams. However, the ability of a CCDAS to predict longer-term trends and variability of the global carbon cycle and the constraint provided by the observations have not yet been assessed. Here, we evaluate two near-decade-long assimilation experiments of the Max Planck Institute-Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (MPI-CCDAS v1) using spaceborne estimates of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations from the global network of flask measurement sites from either 1982 to 1990 or 1990 to 2000. We contrast these simulations with independent observations from the period 1982-2010, as well as a third MPI-CCDAS assimilation run using data from the full 1982-2010 period, and an atmospheric inversion covering the same data and time. With 30 years of data, MPI-CCDAS is capable of representing land uptake to a sufficient degree to make it compatible with the atmospheric CO2 record. The long-term trend and seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at station level over the period 1982 to 2010 is considerably improved after assimilating only the first decade (1982-1990) of observations. After 15-19 years of prognostic simulation, the simulated CO2 mixing ratio in 2007-2010 diverges by only 2 +/- 1.3 ppm from the observations, the atmospheric inversion, and the MPI-CCDAS assimilation run using observations from the full period. The long-term trend, phenological seasonality, and interannual variability (IAV) of FAPAR in the Northern Hemisphere over the last 1 to 2 decades after the assimilation were also improved. Despite imperfections in the representation of the IAV in atmospheric CO2, model-data fusion for a decade of data can already contribute to the prognostic capacity of land carbon cycle models at relevant timescales.
  • Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Clerici, S.; Newton, R.; Arppe, L.; Boom, A.; Bottrell, S.; Callaghan, M.; Heaton, T.; Helama, S.; Helle, G.; Leng, M. J.; Mielikäinen, K.; Oinonen, M.; Timonen, M. (2017)
    Various studies report substantial increases in intrinsic water-use efficiency (Wi), estimated using carbon isotopes in tree rings, suggesting trees are gaining increasingly more carbon per unit water lost due to increases in atmospheric CO2. Usually, reconstructions do not, however, correct for the effect of intrinsic developmental changes in Wi as trees grow larger. Here we show, by comparingWi across varying tree sizes at one CO2 level, that ignoring such developmental effects can severely affect inferences of trees' Wi. Wi doubled or even tripled over a trees' lifespan in three broadleaf species due to changes in tree height and light availability alone, and there are also weak trends for Pine trees. Developmental trends in broadleaf species are as large as the trends previously assigned to CO2 and climate. Credible future tree ring isotope studies require explicit accounting for species-specific developmental effects before CO2 and climate effects are inferred.
  • Tao, Fulu; Palosuo, Taru; Rötter, Reimund P.; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio Hernández; Inés Mínguez, M.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Cammarano, Davide; Specka, Xenia; Nendel, Claas; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Ewert, Frank; Padovan, Gloria; Ferrise, Roberto; Martre, Pierre; Rodríguez, Lucía; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Gaiser, Thomas; Höhn, Jukka G.; Salo, Tapio; Dibari, Camilla; Schulman, Alan H. (2020)
    Robust projections of climate impact on crop growth and productivity by crop models are key to designing effective adaptations to cope with future climate risk. However, current crop models diverge strongly in their climate impact projections. Previous studies tried to compare or improve crop models regarding the impact of one single climate variable. However, this approach is insufficient, considering that crop growth and yield are affected by the interactive impacts of multiple climate change factors and multiple interrelated biophysical processes. Here, a new comprehensive analysis was conducted to look holistically at the reasons why crop models diverge substantially in climate impact projections and to investigate which biophysical processes and knowledge gaps are key factors affecting this uncertainty and should be given the highest priorities for improvement. First, eight barley models and eight climate projections for the 2050s were applied to investigate the uncertainty from crop model structure in climate impact projections for barley growth and yield at two sites: Jokioinen, Finland (Boreal) and Lleida, Spain (Mediterranean). Sensitivity analyses were then conducted on the responses of major crop processes to major climatic variables including temperature, precipitation, irradiation, and CO2, as well as their interactions, for each of the eight crop models. The results showed that the temperature and CO2 relationships in the models were the major sources of the large discrepancies among the models in climate impact projections. In particular, the impacts of increases in temperature and CO2 on leaf area development were identified as the major causes for the large uncertainty in simulating changes in evapotranspiration, above-ground biomass, and grain yield. Our findings highlight that advancements in understanding the basic processes and thresholds by which climate warming and CO2 increases will affect leaf area development, crop evapotranspiration, photosynthesis, and grain formation in contrasting environments are needed for modeling their impacts.