Browsing by Subject "ATORVASTATIN"

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  • Lehtisalo, Minna; Keskitalo, Jenni E.; Tornio, Aleksi; Lapatto-Reiniluoto, Outi; Deng, Feng; Jaatinen, Taina; Viinamäki, Jenni; Neuvonen, Mikko; Backman, Janne T.; Niemi, Mikko (2020)
    Xanthine oxidase inhibitors febuxostat and allopurinol are commonly used in the treatment of gout. Febuxostat inhibits the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in vitro. Rosuvastatin is a BCRP substrate and genetic variability in BCRP markedly affects rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated possible effects of febuxostat and allopurinol on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In a randomized crossover study with 3 phases, 10 healthy volunteers ingested once daily placebo for 7 days, 300 mg allopurinol for 7 days, or placebo for 3 days, followed by 120 mg febuxostat for 4 days, and a single 10 mg dose of rosuvastatin on day 6. Febuxostat increased the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of rosuvastatin 2.1-fold (90% confidence interval 1.8-2.6; P = 5 x 10(-5)) and 1.9-fold (1.5-2.5; P = 0.001), but had no effect on rosuvastatin half-life or renal clearance. Allopurinol, on the other hand, did not affect rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In vitro, febuxostat inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of rosuvastatin into BCRP-overexpressing membrane vesicles with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.35 mu M, whereas allopurinol showed no inhibition with concentrations up to 200 mu M. Taken together, the results suggest that febuxostat increases rosuvastatin exposure by inhibiting its BCRP-mediated efflux in the small intestine. Febuxostat may, therefore, serve as a useful index inhibitor of BCRP in drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Moreover, concomitant use of febuxostat may increase the exposure to BCRP substrate drugs and, thus, the risk of dose-dependent adverse effects.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Björnson, Elias; Andersson, Linda; Kahri, Juhani; Porthan, Kimmo; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, Sanni; Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Nilsson, Ralf; Stahlman, Marcus; Adiels, Martin; Parini, Paolo; Packard, Chris; Boren, Jan (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) significantly lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), but their effect on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in dyslipidemic subjects is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of evolocumab on postprandial lipid responses, ectopic fat depots, whole-body cholesterol synthesis, hepatic lipogenesis, and fat oxidation in patients with type II diabetes. METHODS: The trial was a single-phase, nonrandomized study of 12-week treatment with evolocumab 140 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks in 15 patients with type II diabetes on background statin therapy. Cardiometabolic responses to a high-fat mixed meal were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: Evolocumab treatment reduced significantly postprandial rises in plasma total triglyceride (by 21%; P <.0001) and VLDL i triglyceride (by 15%; P = .018), but the increase in chylomicron triglyceride after the meal was not significantly perturbed (P = .053). There were reduced postprandial responses in plasma total apolipoprotein C-III (by 14%; P <.0001) and apolipoprotein B-48 concentration (by 17%; P = .0046) and in "remnant-like particles" cholesterol (by 29%; P <.0001) on the PCSK9 inhibitor. Treatment reduced the steady-state (ie, fasting and postprandial) concentrations of VLDL2 cholesterol by 50% (P <.0001) and VLDL2 triglyceride by 29% (P <.0001), in addition to the 78% reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P <.001). The changes in apolipoprotein C-III associated significantly with reduction in postprandial responses of remnant-like particles cholesterol and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol. Evolocumab therapy did not influence liver fat accumulation, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, or fasting beta-hydroxybutyrate but did increase total body cholesterol synthesis (P <.01). CONCLUSION: Evolocumab treatment improved postprandial responses of triglyceride-rich lipo-proteins and measures of cholesterol-enriched remnant particles in type II diabetic subjects. These results indicate that postprandial phenomena need to be taken into account in assessing the full range of actions of PCSK9 inhibitors in dyslipidemic individuals. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of National Lipid Association.
  • Roth, Eli M.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Merlet, Laurence; Pordy, Robert; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T. (2014)
  • Robinson, Jennifer G.; Farnier, Michel; Kastelein, John J. P.; Roth, Eli M.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Colhoun, Helen M.; Brunet, Aurelie; DiCioccio, A. Thomas; Lecorps, Guillaume; Pordy, Robert; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T.; Cannon, Christopher P. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Alirocumab is a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). OBJECTIVE: Changes in PCSK9, alirocumab, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were assessed after treatment with alirocumab at doses of 75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W). METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4 phase 3 trials (MONO; COMBO II; FH I; LONG TERM); all but MONO enrolled patients on statins. Three trials evaluated alirocumab 75 mg Q2W, with possible dose increase to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 based on week 8 LDL-C; LONG TERM studied alirocumab 150 mg Q2W. RESULTS: Patients on background statin therapy had higher mean baseline free PCSK9 concentrations vs patients not on statin. After alirocumab administration, increased alirocumab concentrations were associated with dramatic reductions in circulating free PCSK9, resulting in significant LDL-C reductions and a corresponding increase in inactive PCSK9:alirocumab complex. Alirocumab dose increase was associated with a further lowering of PCSK9 and LDL-C. Patients with higher baseline LDL-C levels (>160 mg/dL) were more likely to have their dose increased. LDL-C reductions with alirocumab were consistent between patients with baseline PCSK9 levels above or below the median when the dose increase strategy was used. When started as alirocumab 150 mg Q2W, patients with PCSK9 levels above vs below the median had a greater LDL-C reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab-induced changes in PCSK9 and LDL-C levels were consistent with the known physiologic relationship between PCSK9, LDL receptor, and LDL-C levels, as well as statin-induced increases in PCSK9 production. (C) 2019 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Mysore, Yashavanthi; del Amo, Eva M.; Loukovaara, Sirpa; Hagström, Marja; Urtti, Arto; Kauppinen, Anu (2021)
    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a complex inflammatory ocular disease. Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs with putative anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have explored their efficacy in controlling post-surgical PVR formation. Simvastatin (SIM), atorvastatin (ATV), or rosuvastatin (RSV) were added to cultures of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) prior to exposure with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the concentrations of simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and their metabolites were measured from the vitreal samples of 20 patients undergoing vitrectomy (16 of them receiving oral statin therapy) using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer technique. All statins alleviated LPS-induced inflammation at 5 µM concentration in the ARPE-19 cell cultures. Statin levels in the vitreous samples ranged from 6 to 316 pg/mL (ca. 0.1–7 M−10). Vitreal statin concentrations were similar to the typical steady-state unbound statin concentrations in plasma, indicating that only the unbound drug distributes from the blood circulation into the vitreous. Pharmacokinetic simulations of the intravitreal delivery of statins indicate that the measured clinical statin concentrations could be maintained with existing drug delivery technologies for months. Our results suggest that intravitreal statin therapy may have the potential in alleviating the risk of post-surgical PVR.
  • FIELD investigators; Cao, Jacob Y.; Waldman, Boris; O’Connell, Rachel; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Keech, Anthony C. (2020)
    Aim To explore the relationship between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and long-term cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to determine whether the cardioprotective effects of fenofibrate are partly mediated through its UA-lowering effects. Methods Data from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) trial were utilized, comprising 9795 adults with T2D randomly allocated to treatment with fenofibrate or matching placebo. Plasma UA was measured before and after a 6-week, active fenofibrate run-in phase in all participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the relationships between baseline UA, pre-to-post run-in reductions in UA and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Results Mean baseline plasma UA was 0.33 mmol/L (SD 0.08). Baseline UA was a significant predictor of long-term cardiovascular events, with every 0.1 mmol/L higher UA conferring a 21% increase in event rate (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.13-1.29, P <.001). This remained significant after adjustment for treatment allocation, cardiovascular risk factors and renal function. The extent of UA reduction during fenofibrate run-in was also a significant predictor of long-term cardiovascular events, with every 0.1 mmol/L greater reduction conferring a 14% lower long-term risk (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.97, P = .015). This effect was not modified by treatment allocation (P-interaction = .77). Conclusions UA is a strong independent predictor of long-term cardiovascular risk in adults with T2D. Although greater reduction in UA on fenofibrate is predictive of lower cardiovascular risk, this does not appear to mediate the cardioprotective effects of fenofibrate.