Browsing by Subject "ATP SYNTHASE"

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  • Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Blom, Tea; von Schantz-Fant, Carina; Blom, Tomas; Jalanko, Anu; Kyttala, Aija (2017)
    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are autosomal recessive progressive encephalopathies caused by mutations in at least 14 different genes. Despite extensive studies performed in different NCL animal models, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in NCLs remain poorly understood. To model NCL in human cells, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by reprogramming skin fibroblasts from a patient with CLN5 (ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 5) disease, the late infantile variant form of NCL. These CLN5 patient-derived iPSCs (CLN5Y392X iPSCs) harbouring the most common CLN5 mutation, c.1175_1176delAT (p.Tyr392X), were further differentiated into neural lineage cells, the most affected cell type in NCLs. The CLN5Y392X iPSC-derived neural lineage cells showed accumulation of autofluorescent storage material and subunit C of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, both representing the hallmarks of many forms of NCLs, including CLN5 disease. In addition, we detected abnormalities in the intracellular organelles and aberrations in neuronal sphingolipid transportation, verifying the previous findings obtained from Cln5-deficient mouse macrophages. Therefore, patient-derived iPSCs provide a suitable model to study the mechanisms of NCL diseases.
  • Yang, Ziyun; Wang, Liang; Yang, Cheng; Pu, Shiming; Guo, Ziqi; Wu, Qiong; Zhou, Zuping; Zhao, Hongxia (2022)
    Mitochondria are key regulators of many important cellular processes and their dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of human disorders. Importantly, mitochondrial function is tightly linked to their ultrastructure, which possesses an intricate membrane architecture defining specific submitochondrial compartments. In particular, the mitochondrial inner membrane is highly folded into membrane invaginations that are essential for oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, mitochondrial membranes are highly dynamic and undergo constant membrane remodeling during mitochondrial fusion and fission. It has remained enigmatic how these membrane curvatures are generated and maintained, and specific factors involved in these processes are largely unknown. This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial membrane architectural organization and factors critical for mitochondrial morphogenesis, as well as their functional link to human diseases.
  • Öhman, Tiina; Teppo, Jaakko; Datta, Neeta; Mäkinen, Selina; Varjosalo, Markku; Koistinen, Heikki A. (2021)
    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a central defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we analyzed skeletal muscle proteome in 148 vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained from men covering all glucose tolerance phenotypes: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and T2D. Skeletal muscle proteome was analyzed by a sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) proteomics technique. Our data indicate a downregulation in several proteins involved inmitochondrial electron transport or respiratory chain complex assembly already in IFG and IGT-muscles, with most profound decreases observed in T2D. Additional phosphoproteomic analysis reveals altered phosphorylation in several signaling pathways in IFG, IGT, and T2D muscles, including those regulating glucose metabolic processes, and the structure of muscle cells. These data reveal several alterations present in skeletalmuscle already in prediabetes and highlight impairedmitochondrial energy metabolism in the trajectory from prediabetes into T2D.