Browsing by Subject "ATP"

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  • Nurkhametova, Dilyara; Kudryavtsev, Igor; Guselnikova, Valeriia; Serebryakova, Maria; Giniatullina, Raisa R.; Wojciechowski, Sara; Tore, Fatma; Rizvanov, Albert; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja; Giniatullin, Rashid (2019)
    Extracellular ATP activates inflammasome and triggers the release of multiple cytokines in various immune cells, a process primarily mediated by P2X7 receptors. However, the expression and functional properties of P2X7 receptors in native mast cells in tissues such as meninges where migraine pain originates from have not been explored. Here we report a novel model of murine cultured meningeal mast cells and using these, as well as easily accessible peritoneal mast cells, studied the mechanisms of ATP-mediated mast cell activation. We show that ATP induced a time and dose-dependent activation of peritoneal mast cells as analyzed by the uptake of organic dye YO-PRO1 as well as 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Both YO-PRO1 and DAPI uptake in mast cells was mediated by the P2X7 subtype of ATP receptors as demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of P2X7 antagonist A839977. Consistent with this, significant YO-PRO1 uptake was promoted by the P2X7 agonist 2',3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP). Extracellular ATP-induced degranulation of native and cultured meningeal mast cells was shown with Toluidine Blue staining. Taken together, these data demonstrate the important contribution of P2X7 receptors to ATP-driven activation of mast cells, suggesting these purinergic mechanisms as potential triggers of neuroinflammation and pain sensitization in migraine.
  • Komulainen, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and devastating disease with poorly understood pathogenesis. It is characterized by abnormal remodelling of pulmonary vasculature due to uncontrolled apoptosis and proliferation of endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vascular wall. In severe PAH pulmonary ECs exhibit hyperproliferative and apoptosis resistant phenotype contributing to the formation of neointima and development of plexiformic lesions. Structural changes promote occlusion of vascular lumen, and thus, increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. To date we lack efficient therapy to prevent vascular remodelling and restore normal vascular function in PAH. Purinergic signalling is potential modulator of pulmonary vascular homeostasis. It comprises of extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, which signal through their receptors on cell membrane. Ectoenzymes with nucleotide hydrolyzing activity have an essential part in controlling homeostasis and physiologic concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Ectoenzyme CD39 plays a crucial role in dephosphorylating ATP, which is a known mediator of inflammation, angiogenesis, thrombosis and vasoconstriction according to previous research. Aims of this project were to study the role of extracellular ATP in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction during PAH pathogenesis. The goal was to evaluate the significance of ATPases, such as CD39, in the disease process and to identify significant ATP receptors on pulmonary ECs. We utilized a previously unused strategy to monitor ATPase activity in vivo in pulmonary endothelium of rats with PAH. With this strategy we could identify changes in a time-line manner. Our results indicate that ATPase activity is significantly attenuated in ECs during disease process. Similar finding was also observed in human pulmonary EC isolated from PAH patients suggesting that loss of ATPase activity mediated increase of extracellular ATP could play a role in disease pathogenesis. Our in vitro experiments reveal that loss-of CD39 in human pulmonary ECs leads to an apoptosis resistant and hyperproliferative phenotype. We also identify that purinergic receptor P2Y11 is a critical mediator of ATP responses in these ECs. Suppression of ATP mediated P2Y11 response in apoptosis resistant PAH patient ECs restores normal EC phenotype and thus, suggests a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary occlusive vasculopathy.
  • Loukovaara, Sirpa; Sandholm, Jouko; Aalto, Kristiina; Liukkonen, Janne; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Yegutkin, Gennady G. (2017)
    Clear signaling roles for ATP and adenosine have been established in all tissues, including the eye. The magnitude of signaling responses is governed by networks of enzymes; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of purinergic signaling in the eye. By employing thin-layer chromatographic assays with 3H-labeled substrates, this study aimed to evaluate the role of nucleotide homeostasis in the pathogenesis of vitreoretinal diseases in humans. We have identified soluble enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, adenylate kinase-1, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the vitreous fluid that control active cycling between proinflammatory ATP and anti-inflammatory adenosine. Strikingly, patients with proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy (DR) had higher adenylate kinase activity and ATP concentration, when compared to non-proliferative DR eyes and non-diabetic controls operated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, macular hole, and pucker. The non-parametric correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between intravitreal adenylate kinase and concentrations of ATP, ADP, and other angiogenic (angiopoietins-1 and -2), profibrotic (transforming growth factor-similar to 1), and proteolytic (matrix metalloproteinase-9) factors but not erythropoietin and VEGF. Immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human retina additionally revealed selective expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/ CD73 on the rod-and-cone-containing photoreceptor cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that influence purinergic signaling in diseased eye and open up new possibilities in the development of enzyme-targeted therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.
  • Aho, Joonas; Helenius, Mikko; Vattulainen-Collanus, Sanna; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Koskenvuo, Juha (2016)
    Cell damage can lead to rapid release of ATP to extracellular space resulting in dramatic change in local ATP concentration. Evolutionary, this has been considered as a danger signal leading to adaptive responses in adjacent cells. Our aim was to demonstrate that elevated extracellular ATP or inhibition of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1/CD39) activity could be used to increase tolerance against DNA-damaging conditions. Human endothelial cells, with increased extracellular ATP concentration in cell proximity, were more resistant to irradiation or chemically induced DNA damage evaluated with the DNA damage markers gamma H2AX and phosphorylated p53. In our rat models of DNA damage, inhibiting CD39-driven ATP hydrolysis with POM-1 protected the heart and lung tissues against chemically induced DNA damage. Interestingly, the phenomenon could not be replicated in cancer cells. Our results show that transient increase in extracellular ATP can promote resistance to DNA damage.
  • Cypryk, Wojciech; Nyman, Tuula A.; Matikainen, Sampsa (2018)
    Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes of pattern recognition receptors and caspase-1, with essential functions in regulating inflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. The primary role of inflammasomes is to catalyze processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-18. Recently, intracellular non-canonical inflammasome activation by caspases-4/5, which are also regulators of pyroptosis via processing gasdermin D, has been elucidated. Caspase-1, the effector protease of inflammasome complex, is also known to modulate secretion of large number of other proteins. Thereby, besides its known role in processing pro-inflammatory cytokines, the inflammasome turns into a universal regulator of protein secretion, which allows the danger-exposed cells to release various proteins in order to alert and guide neighboring cells. Majority of these proteins are not secreted through the conventional ER-Golgi secretory pathway. Instead, they are segregated in membrane-enclosed compartment and secreted in nanosized extracellular vesicles, which protect their cargo and guide it for delivery. Growing evidence indicates that inflammasome activity correlates with enhanced secretion of extracellular vesicles and modulation of their protein cargo. This inflammasome-driven unconventional, vesicle-mediated secretion of multitude of immunoregulatory proteins may constitute a novel paradigm in inflammatory responses. In this mini review we discuss the current knowledge and highlight unsolved questions about metabolic processes, signals, and mechanisms linking inflammasome activity with regulated extracellular vesicle secretion of proteins. Further investigations on this relationship may in the future help understanding the significance of extracellular vesicle secretion in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, gouty arthritis, asthma, Alzheimer's and many others.
  • Koroleva, Ksenia; Gafurov, Oleg; Guselnikova, Valeriia; Nurkhametovez, Dilyara; Giniatullina, Raisa; Sitdikova, Guzel; Mattila, Olli S.; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Malm, Tarja Maarit; Giniatullin, Rashid (2019)
    Peripheral mechanisms of primary headaches such as a migraine remain unclear. Meningeal afferents surrounded by multiple mast cells have been suggested as a major source of migraine pain. Extracellular ATP released during migraine attacks is a likely candidate for activating meningeal afferents via neuronal P2X receptors. Recently, we showed that ATP also increased degranulation of resident meningeal mast cells (Nurkhametova et al., 2019). However, the contribution of ATP-induced mast cell degranulation in aggravating the migraine pain remains unknown. Here we explored the role of meningeal mast cells in the pro-nociceptive effects of extracellular ATP. The impact of mast cells on ATP mediated activation of peripheral branches of trigeminal nerves was measured electrophysiologically in the dura mater of adult wild type (WT) or mast cell deficient mice. We found that a spontaneous spiking activity in the meningeal afferents, at baseline level, did not differ in two groups. However, in WT mice, meningeal application of ATP dramatically (24.6-fold) increased nociceptive firing, peaking at frequencies around 10 Hz. In contrast, in mast cell deficient animals, ATP-induced excitation was significantly weaker (3.5-fold). Application of serotonin to meninges in WT induced strong spiking. Moreover, in WT mice, the 5-HT3 antagonist MDL-7222 inhibited not only serotonin but also the ATP induced nociceptive firing. Our data suggest that extracellular ATP activates nociceptive firing in meningeal trigeminal afferents via amplified degranulation of resident mast cells in addition to direct excitatory action on the nerve terminals. This highlights the importance of mast cell degranulation via extracellular ATP, in aggravating the migraine pain.
  • Suleimanova, Alina; Talanov, Max; Gafurov, Oleg; Gafarov, Fail; Koroleva, Ksenia; Virenque, Anais; Noe, Francesco M.; Mikhailov, Nikita; Nistri, Andrea; Giniatullin, Rashid (2020)
    Extracellular ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are powerful triggers of nociceptive firing in the meninges, a process supporting headache and whose cellular mechanisms are incompletely understood. The current study aimed to develop, with the neurosimulator NEURON, a novel approach to explore in silico the molecular determinants of the long-lasting, pulsatile nature of migraine attacks. The present model included ATP and 5-HT release, ATP diffusion and hydrolysis, 5-HT uptake, differential activation of ATP P2X or 5-HT3 receptors, and receptor subtype-specific desensitization. The model also tested the role of branched meningeal fibers with multiple release sites. Spike generation and propagation were simulated using variable contribution by potassium and sodium channels in a multi-compartment fiber environment. Multiple factors appeared important to ensure prolonged nociceptive firing potentially relevant to long-lasting pain. Crucial roles were observed in: (i) co-expression of ATP P2X2 and P2X3 receptor subunits; (ii) intrinsic activation/inactivation properties of sodium Nav1.8 channels; and (iii) temporal and spatial distribution of ATP/5-HT release sites along the branches of trigeminal nerve fibers. Based on these factors we could obtain either persistent activation of nociceptive firing or its periodic bursting mimicking the pulsating nature of pain. In summary, our model proposes a novel tool for the exploration of peripheral nociception to test the contribution of clinically relevant factors to headache including migraine pain.
  • Kiviniemi, Tuomas O.; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Toikka, Jyri O.; Paul, Subhadeep; Aittokallio, Tero; Janatuinen, Tuula; Knuuti, Juhani; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Hartiala, Jaakko J.; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Raitakari, Olli T. (2012)
    Aims: Extracellular ATP and ADP regulate diverse inflammatory, prothrombotic and vasoactive responses in the vasculature. Statins have been shown to modulate their signaling pathways in vitro. We hypothesized that altered intravascular nucleotide turnover modulates vasodilation in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), and this can be partly restored with pravastatin therapy. Methods: In this randomized double blind study, plasma ATP and ADP levels and echocardiography-derived coronary flow velocity response to cold pressor test (CPT) were concurrently assessed in 42 normocholesterolemic patients with T1DM (age 30 +/- 6 years, LDL cholesterol 2.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) before and after four-month treatment with pravastatin 40 mg/day or placebo (n = 22 and n = 20, respectively), and in 41 healthy control subjects. Results: Compared to controls, T1DM patients had significantly higher concentrations of ATP (p <0.01) and ADP (p <0.01) and these levels were partly restored after treatment with pravastatin (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively), but not after placebo (p = 0.06 and p = 0.14, respectively). Coronary flow velocity acceleration was significantly lower in T1DM patients compared to control subjects, and it increased from pre- to post-intervention in the pravastatin (p = 0.02), but not in placebo group (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Pravastatin treatment significantly reduces circulating ATP and ADP levels of T1DM patients, and concurrently improves coronary flow response to CPT. This study provides a novel insight in purinergic mechanisms involved in pleiotropic effects of pravastatin.
  • Rytömaa, Marjatta (University of Helsinki, 1992)
  • Eesmaa, Ave; Yu, Li-Ying; Göös, Helka; Nõges, Kristofer; Kovaleva, Vera; Hellman, Maarit; Zimmermann, Richard; Jung, Martin; Permi, Perttu; Varjosalo, Markku; Lindholm, Paivi; Saarma, Mart (2021)
    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-regulated protein exhibiting cytoprotective properties through a poorly understood mechanism in various in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal and non-neuronal damage. Although initially characterized as a secreted neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopamine neurons, MANF has recently gained more interest for its intracellular role in regulating the ER homeostasis, including serving as a cofactor of the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). We aimed for a better understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms of MANF. Here we show for the first time that MANF promotes the survival of ER-stressed neurons in vitro as a general unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator, affecting several UPR pathways simultaneously. Interestingly, MANF does not affect naive neurons. We hypothesize that MANF regulates UPR signaling toward a mode more compatible with neuronal survival. Screening of MANF interacting proteins from two mammalian cell lines revealed a conserved interactome of 15 proteins including several ER chaperones such as GRP78, GRP170, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 1, and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6. Further characterization confirmed previously published finding that MANF is a cofactor of GRP78 interacting with its nucleotide binding domain. Using microscale thermophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we discovered that MANF is an ATP binding protein and that ATP blocks the MANF-GRP78 interaction. Interestingly, functional analysis of the antiapoptotic properties of MANF mutants in cultured neurons revealed divergent roles of MANF as a GRP78 cofactor and as an antiapoptotic regulator of UPR. We conclude that the co-factor type interaction with GRP78 is dispensable for the survival-promoting activity of MANF in neurons.