Browsing by Subject "ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION"

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  • Sarikaya, Hakan; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Ralf W.; Duclos, Kathleen; Touze, Emmanuel; de Bray, Jean M.; Metso, Antti; Metso, Tiina; Arnold, Marcel; Arauz, Antonio; Zwahlen, Marcel; Jueni, Peter (2013)
  • Heliste, Maria; Pettilä, Ville; Berger, David; Jakob, Stephan M.; Wilkman, Erika (2022)
    Background Critical illness may lead to activation of the sympathetic system. The sympathetic stimulation may be further increased by exogenous catecholamines, such as vasopressors and inotropes. Excessive adrenergic stress has been associated with organ dysfunction and higher mortality. beta-Blockers may reduce the adrenergic burden, but they may also compromise perfusion to vital organs thus worsening organ dysfunction. To assess the effect of treatment with beta-blockers in critically ill adults, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Materials and methods We conducted a search from three major databases: Ovid Medline, the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and Scopus database. Two independent reviewers screened, selected, and assessed the included articles according to prespecified eligibility criteria. We assessed risk of bias of eligible articles according to the Cochrane guidelines. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Sixteen randomized controlled trials comprising 2410 critically ill patients were included in the final review. A meta-analysis of 11 trials including 2103 patients showed a significant reduction in mortality in patients treated with beta-blockers compared to control (risk ratio 0.65, 95%CI 0.53-0.79; p < .0001). There was no significant difference in mean arterial pressure or vasopressor load. Quality of life, biventricular ejection fraction, blood lactate levels, cardiac biomarkers and mitochondrial function could not be included in meta-analysis due to heterogenous reporting of outcomes. Conclusions In this systematic review we found that beta-blocker treatment reduced mortality in critical illness. Use of beta-blockers in critical illness thus appears safe after initial hemodynamic stabilization. High-quality RCT's are needed to answer the questions concerning optimal target group of patients, timing of beta-blocker treatment, choice of beta-blocker, and choice of physiological and hemodynamic parameters to target during beta-blocker treatment in critical illness. KEY MESSAGES A potential outcome benefit of beta-blocker treatment in critical illness exists according to the current review and meta-analysis. Administration of beta-blockers to resuscitated patients in the ICU seems safe in terms of hemodynamic stability and outcome, even during concomitant vasopressor administration. However, further studies, preferably large RCTs on beta-blocker treatment in the critically ill are needed to answer the questions concerning timing and choice of beta-blocker, patient selection, and optimal hemodynamic targets.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Kuusisto, Jouni; Järvinen, Vesa; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Sinisalo, Juha; Pöyhönen, Pauli; Putaala, Jukka (2020)
    Background Ischaemic stroke in young individuals often remains cryptogenic. In this pilot study, we investigated, whether advanced echocardiography methods could find differences in the diastolic function between young cryptogenic stroke patients and stroke-free controls. Methods We recruited 30 cryptogenic ischaemic stroke patients aged 18-49 and 30 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls among participants of the Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome (SECRETO) study (NCT01934725). We measured diastolic function parameters derived from speckle tracking strain rate, Doppler techniques and 4D volumetry. We also performed statistical analyses comparing only the highest and lowest tertile of cases and controls for each parameter. Results None of our patients or controls had diastolic dysfunction according to ASE/EACVI criteria. However, compared to stroke-free controls, the stroke patient group had lower E/A ratio of mitral inflow, lower lateral and mean e', lower A/a' ratio, lower strain rate in early diastole and lower speckle tracking-derived e/a ratio. When comparing the lowest tertiles, patients also had a lower peak filling rate by 4D volumetry, a lower peak early filling fraction (fraction of left ventricular filling during early diastole), and lower velocities in a series of the tissue Doppler-derived diastolic parameters and blood flow/tissue velocity ratios. Conclusion Our study displayed subtle differences in diastolic function between patients and stroke-free controls, which may play a role in early-onset cryptogenic stroke. The differences were clearer when the lowest tertiles were compared, suggesting that there is a subgroup of young cryptogenic stroke patients with subclinical heart disease.
  • Huhtakangas, Juha; Tetri, Sami; Juvela, Seppo; Saloheimo, Pertti; Bode, Michaela K.; Hillbom, Matti (2011)
  • Vanninen, Sari U. M.; Leivo, Krista; Seppälä, Eija H.; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Pitkänen, Olli; Suursalmi, Piia; Annala, Antti-Pekka; Anttila, Ismo; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Myllykangas, Samuel; Heliö, Tiina M.; Koskenvuo, Juha W. (2018)
    During the last two decades, mutations in sarcomere genes have found to comprise the most common cause for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but still significant number of patients with dominant HCM in the family are left without molecular genetic diagnosis. Next generation sequencing (NGS) does not only enable evaluation of established HCM genes but also candidate genes for cardiomyopathy are frequently tested which may lead to a situation where conclusive interpretation of the variant requires extensive family studies. We aimed to characterize the phenotype related to a variant in the junctophilin-2 (JPH2) gene, which is less known non-sarcomeric candidate gene. In addition, we did extensive review of the literature and databases about JPH2 variation in association with cardiac disease. We characterize nine Finnish index patients with HCM and heterozygous for JPH2 c.482C>A, p. (Thr161Lys) variant were included and segregation studies were performed. We identified 20 individuals affected with HCM with or without systolic heart failure and conduction abnormalities in the nine Finnish families with JPH2 p.(Thr161Lys) variant. We found 26 heterozygotes with the variant and penetrance was 71% by age 60 and 100% by age 80. Cosegregation of the variant with HCM phenotype was observed in six families. Main clinical features were left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmia vulnerability and conduction abnormalities including third degree AV-block. In some patients end-stage severe left ventricular heart failure with normal or mildly enlarged diastolic dimensions was detected. In conclusion, we propose that the heterozygous JPH2 p.(Thr161Lys) variant is a new Finnish mutation causing atypical HCM.
  • Ntalla, Ioanna; Weng, Lu-Chen; Cartwright, James H.; Hall, Amelia Weber; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Tucker, Nathan R.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Chaffin, Mark D.; Roselli, Carolina; Barnes, Michael R.; Mifsud, Borbala; Warren, Helen R.; Hayward, Caroline; Marten, Jonathan; Cranley, James J.; Concas, Maria Pina; Gasparini, Paolo; Boutin, Thibaud; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Araujo, Nathalia M.; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Souza, Renan P.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Ingelsson, Erik; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew P.; Del Greco, Fabiola M.; Foco, Luisa; Gogele, Martin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Cook, James P.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Nelson, Christopher P.; Riaz, Muhammad B.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Ulivi, Sheila; Kahonen, Mika; Mishra, Pashupati P.; Mononen, Nina; Nikus, Kjell; Caulfield, Mark J.; Dominiczak, Anna; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Montasser, May E.; O'Connell, Jeff R.; Ryan, Kathleen; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Conen, David; Risch, Lorenz; Theriault, Sebastien; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Raitakari, Olli T.; Barnes, Catriona L. K.; Campbell, Harry; Joshi, Peter K.; Wilson, James F.; Isaacs, Aaron; Kors, Jan A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Huang, Paul L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Nadkarni, Girish N.; Preuss, Michael H.; Correa, Adolfo; Mei, Hao; Wilson, James; Meitinger, Thomas; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Timothy D.; Rienstra, Michiel; van de Vegte, Yordi J.; van der Harst, Pim; Verweij, Niek; Kaab, Stefan; Schramm, Katharina; Sinner, Moritz F.; Strauch, Konstantin; Cutler, Michael J.; Fatkin, Diane; London, Barry; Olesen, Morten; Roden, Dan M.; Shoemaker, M. Benjamin; Smith, J. Gustav; Biggs, Mary L.; Bis, Joshua C.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rice, Kenneth; Sotoodehnia, Nona; De Grandi, Alessandro; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pattaro, Cristian; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Trompet, Stella; Doerr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B.; Voelker, Uwe; Weiss, Stefan; Havulinna, Aki S.; Jula, Antti; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Salomaa, Veikko; Guo, Xiuqing; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lin, Henry J.; Rotter, Jerome; Taylor, Kent D.; Yao, Jie; de Mutsert, Renee; Maan, Arie C.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Noordam, Raymond; Cucca, Francesco; Ding, Jun; Lakatta, Edward G.; Qian, Yong; Tarasov, Kirill; Levy, Daniel; Lin, Honghuang; Newton-Cheh, Christopher H.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Murray, Alison D.; Porteous, David J.; Smith, Blair H.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Uitterlinden, Andre; van den Berg, Marten E.; Haessler, Jeffrey; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Reiner, Alexander P.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Alonso, Alvaro; Arking, Dan E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ehret, Georg B.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Avery, Christy L.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Seyerle, Amanda A.; Stilp, Adrienne; Assa, Solmaz; Said, M. Abdullah; van der Ende, M. Yldau; Lambiase, Pier D.; Orini, Michele; Ramirez, Julia; Van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Arnar, David O.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Holm, Hilma; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorolfsdottir, Rosa B.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Tinker, Andrew; Stefansson, Kari; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Lubitz, Steven A.; Munroe, Patricia B. (2020)
    The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N=293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have not previously been reported. Variants at identified loci increase the percentage of heritability explained, from 33.5% to 62.6%. We observe enrichment for cardiac muscle developmental/contractile and cytoskeletal genes, highlighting key regulation processes for atrioventricular conduction. Additionally, 8 loci not previously reported harbor genes underlying inherited arrhythmic syndromes and/or cardiomyopathies suggesting a role for these genes in cardiovascular pathology in the general population. We show that polygenic predisposition to PR interval duration is an endophenotype for cardiovascular disease, including distal conduction disease, AF, and atrioventricular pre-excitation. These findings advance our understanding of the polygenic basis of cardiac conduction, and the genetic relationship between PR interval duration and cardiovascular disease. On the electrocardiogram, the PR interval reflects conduction from the atria to ventricles and also serves as risk indicator of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors perform genome-wide meta-analyses for PR interval in multiple ancestries and identify 141 previously unreported genetic loci.
  • Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Wilson, Duncan; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Sargento-Freitas, Joao; Marques-Matos, Claudia; Azevedo, Elsa; Adachi, Tomohide; von der Brelie, Christian; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Abe, Hiroshi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Okumura, Ken; Hagii, Joji; Seiffge, David J.; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Traenka, Christopher; Varelas, Panayiotis; Basir, Ghazala; Krogias, Christos; Purrucker, Jan C.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Rizos, Timolaos; Mikulik, Robert; Sobowale, Oluwaseun A.; Barlinn, Kristian; Sallinen, Hanne; Goyal, Nitin; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Wu, Teddy Y.; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Ferrigno, Marc; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios; Houben, Rik; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Schreuder, Floris H. B. M.; Chang, Jason J.; Perry, Luke A.; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Marto, Joao-Pedro; Pinho, Joao; Tanaka, Jun; Boulanger, Marion; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Jaeger, Hans R.; Shakeshaft, Clare; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Choi, Philip M. C.; Staals, Julie; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Veltkamp, Roland; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Engelter, Stefan T.; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; Meretoja, Atte; Mitsias, Panayiotis D.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Ambler, Gareth; Werring, David J. (2018)
    Objective Methods Whether intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) associated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC-ICH) has a better outcome compared to ICH associated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA-ICH) is uncertain. We performed a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing clinical and radiological outcomes between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH patients. The primary outcome measure was 30-day all-cause mortality. All outcomes were assessed in multivariate regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ICH location, and intraventricular hemorrhage extension. Results Interpretation We included 7 eligible studies comprising 219 NOAC-ICH and 831 VKA-ICH patients (mean age = 77 years, 52.5% females). The 30-day mortality was similar between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH (24.3% vs 26.5%; hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67-1.31). However, in multivariate analyses adjusting for potential confounders, NOAC-ICH was associated with lower admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (linear regression coefficient = -2.83, 95% CI = -5.28 to -0.38), lower likelihood of severe stroke (NIHSS > 10 points) on admission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.30-0.84), and smaller baseline hematoma volume (linear regression coefficient = -0.24, 95% CI = -0.47 to -0.16). The two groups did not differ in the likelihood of baseline hematoma volume <30cm(3) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.81-1.62), hematoma expansion (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.63-1.48), in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.49-1.11), functional status at discharge (common OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.57-1.07), or functional status at 3 months (common OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.75-1.43). Although functional outcome at discharge, 1 month, or 3 months was comparable after NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH, patients with NOAC-ICH had smaller baseline hematoma volumes and less severe acute stroke syndromes. Ann Neurol 2018;84:702-712
  • Wilson, Duncan; Seiffge, David J.; Traenka, Christopher; Basir, Ghazala; Purrucker, Jan C.; Rizos, Timolaos; Sobowale, Oluwaseun A.; Sallinen, Hanne; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Wu, Teddy Y.; Ferrigno, Marc; Houben, Rik; Schreuder, Floris H. B. M.; Perry, Luke A.; Tanaka, Jun; Boulanger, Marion; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Jaeger, Hans R.; Ambler, Gareth; Shakeshaft, Clare; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Choi, Philip M. C.; Staals, Julie; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Veltkamp, Roland; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Engelter, Stefan T.; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; Meretoja, Atte; Werring, David J.; CROMIS-2 Collaborators (2017)
    Objective: In an international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, we compared mortality, functional outcome, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, and hematoma expansion (HE) between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation-related ICH (NOAC-ICH) and vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH (VKA-ICH). Methods: We compared all-cause mortality within 90 days for NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age; sex; baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, ICH location, and log volume; intraventricular hemorrhage volume; and intracranial surgery. We addressed heterogeneity using a shared frailty term. Good functional outcome was defined as discharge modified Rankin Scale score 33% or >6 mL from baseline within 72 hours. Results: We included 500 patients (97 NOAC-ICH and 403 VKA-ICH). Median baseline ICH volume was 14.4 mL (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-38.4) for NOAC-ICH vs 10.6 mL (IQR 4.0-27.9) for VKA-ICH (p = 0.78). We did not find any difference between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH for all-cause mortality within 90 days (33% for NOAC-ICH vs 31% for VKA-ICH [p = 0.64]; adjusted Cox hazard ratio (for NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH) 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.64] [p = 0.79]), the rate of HE (NOAC-ICH n = 29/48 [40%] vs VKA-ICH n = 93/140 [34%] [p = 0.45]), or functional outcome at hospital discharge (NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.18-1.19 [p = 0.11]). Conclusions: In our international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, baseline ICH volume, hematoma expansion, 90-day mortality, and functional outcome were similar following NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH.
  • Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Pajula, Juha; Harno, Kari; Lehto, Mika; Niemi, Mikko; Gils, Mark van (2021)
    This study aimed to analyze associations between genetic variants and the occurrence of clinical outcomes in dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban users. This was a retrospective real-world study linking genotype data of three Finnish biobanks with national register data on drug dispensations and healthcare encounters. We investigated several single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the ABCG2, ABCB1, CES1, and CYP3A5 genes potentially associated with bleeding or thromboembolic events in direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) users based on earlier research. We used Cox regression models to compare the incidence of clinical outcomes between carriers and noncarriers of the SNVs or haplotypes. In total, 1,806 patients on apixaban, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban were studied. The ABCB1 c.3435C>T (p.Ile1145=, rs1045642) SNV (hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.98, P = 0.044) and 1236T-2677T-3435T (rs1128503-rs2032582-rs1045642) haplotype (HR 0.44, 95% CI, 0.20-0.95, P = 0.036) were associated with a reduced risk for thromboembolic outcomes, and the 1236C-2677G-3435C (HR 2.55, 95% CI, 1.03-6.36, P = 0.044) and 1236T-2677G-3435C (HR 5.88, 95% CI, 2.35-14.72, P < 0.001) haplotypes with an increased risk for thromboembolic outcomes in rivaroxaban users. The ABCB1 c.2482-2236G>A (rs4148738) SNV associated with a lower risk for bleeding events (HR 0.37, 95% CI, 0.16-0.89, P = 0.025) in apixaban users. ABCB1 variants are potential factors affecting thromboembolic events in rivaroxaban users and bleeding events in apixaban users. Studies with larger numbers of patients are warranted for comprehensive assessment of the pharmacogenetic associations of DOACs and their relevance for clinical practice.
  • Ocak, Gurbey; Boenink, Rianne; Noordzij, Marlies; Bos, Willem Jan W.; Vikse, Bjorn E.; Cases, Aleix; Kerschbaum, Julia; Helve, Jaakko; Nordio, Maurizio; Arici, Mustafa; Mercadal, Lucile; Wanner, Christoph; Palsson, Runolfur; Hommel, Kristine; De Meester, Johan; Kostopoulou, Myrto; Santamaria, Rafael; Rodrigo, Emilio; Rydell, Helena; Bell, Samira; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Kramer, Anneke (2022)
    IMPORTANCE During the past decades, improvements in the prevention and management of myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism have led to a decline in cardiovascular mortality in the general population. However, it is unknown whether patients receiving dialysis have also benefited from these improvements. OBJECTIVE To assess the mortality rates for myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism in a large cohort of European patients receiving dialysis compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this cohort study, adult patients who started dialysis between 1998 and 2015 from 11 European countries providing data to the European Renal Association Registry were and followed up for 3 years. Data were analyzed from September 2020 to February 2022. EXPOSURES Start of dialysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The age- and sex-standardized mortality rate ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated by dividing the mortality rates in patients receiving dialysis by the mortality rates in the general population for 3 equal periods (1998-2003, 2004-2009, and 2010-2015). RESULTS In total, 220 467 patients receiving dialysis were included in the study. Their median (IQR) age was 68.2 (56.5-76.4) years, and 82 068 patients (37.2%) were female. During follow-up, 83 912 patients died, of whom 7662 (9.1%) died because of myocardial infarction, 5030 (6.0%) died because of stroke, and 435 (0.5%) died because of pulmonary embolism. Between the periods 1998 to 2003 and 2010 to 2015, the SMR of myocardial infarction decreased from 8.1 (95% CI, 7.8-8.3) to 6.8 (95% CI, 6.5-7.1), the SMR of stroke decreased from 7.3 (95% CI, 7.0-7.6) to 5.8 (95% CI, 5.5-6.2), and the SMR of pulmonary embolism decreased from 8.7 (95% CI, 7.6-10.1) to 5.5 (95% CI, 4.5-6.6). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this cohort study of patients receiving dialysis, mortality rates for myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism decreased more over time than in the general population.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Putaala, Jukka; Aarnio, Karoliina; Aro, Aapo L.; Mustanoja, Satu; Sinisalo, Juha; Kaste, Markku; Haapaniemi, Elena; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lehto, Mika (2017)
    Introduction: Ischaemic stroke at young age carries an increased risk for mortality in comparison to the general population, but factors associated with mortality have been poorly studied. We studied the role of electrocardiogram in mortality risk stratification in young stroke patients. Patients and methods: The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry encompasses 1008 patients aged <50 years with ischaemic stroke. We included 690 patients for this electrocardiogram substudy. Our endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cox regression models - adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics - were used to identify the electrocardiogram parameters associated with these endpoints. Results: At a mean follow-up of 8.8 years, cumulative all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 16.1 and 9.1%, respectively. Factors associated with both endpoints included diabetes (type 1 for all-cause, type 2 for cardiovascular mortality), heavy drinking, malignancy, as well as stroke severity and aetiology. Of the electrocardiogram parameters, higher heart rate (hazard ratio 1.35 per 10/min, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.49), a shorter P-wave (hazard ratio 0.78 per 10 ms decrement, 0.64-0.92) and longer QTc interval (1.09 per 10 ms, 1.03-1.16) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Only a higher heart rate (1.42 per 10/min, 1.24-1.60) was associated with death from cardiovascular causes. Conclusions: A higher heart rate during the subacute phase after stroke is associated with an elevated risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in young adults. A longer QTc interval is associated only with higher all-cause mortality. P-wave characteristics and their possible association with mortality need further studies.
  • Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Skibsbye, Lasse; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Liu, Xiaonan; Lodge, Emily J.; Tang, Chuyi; Yuan, Lei; Fagerholm, Rainer; Kanters, Jorgen K.; Lahermo, Päivi; Kaunisto, Mari; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Vuoristo, Sanna; Pulli, Kristiina; Ebeling, Tapani; Valanne, Leena; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Kivirikko, Sirpa; Lääperi, Mitja; Casoni, Filippo; Giacobini, Paolo; Phan-Hug, Franziska; Buki, Tal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Pitteloud, Nelly; Veijola, Riitta; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Kaunisto, Kari; Mollard, Patrice; Andoniadou, Cynthia L.; Hirsch, Joel A.; Varjosalo, Markku; Jespersen, Thomas; Raivio, Taneli (2017)
    Familial growth hormone deficiency provides an opportunity to identify new genetic causes of short stature. Here we combine linkage analysis with whole-genome resequencing in patients with growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We report that patients from three unrelated families harbor either of two missense mutations, c. 347G>T p.(Arg116Leu) or c. 1106C>T p.(Pro369Leu), in KCNQ1, a gene previously implicated in the long QT interval syndrome. Kcnq1 is expressed in hypothalamic GHRH neurons and pituitary somatotropes. Co-expressing KCNQ1 with the KCNE2 beta-subunit shows that both KCNQ1 mutants increase current levels in patch clamp analyses and are associated with reduced pituitary hormone secretion from AtT-20 cells. In conclusion, our results reveal a role for the KCNQ1 potassium channel in the regulation of human growth, and show that growth hormone deficiency associated with maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis is an allelic disorder with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes caused by KCNQ1 mutations.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (2020)
    Background Our recent meta-analysis indicated that vitamin C may shorten the length of ICU stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Here we analyze modification of the vitamin C effect on ventilation time, by the control group ventilation time (which we used as a proxy for severity of disease in the patients of each trial). Methods We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant publications. We included controlled trials in which the administration of vitamin C was the only difference between the study groups. We did not limit our search to randomized trials and did not require placebo control. We included all doses and all durations of vitamin C administration. One author extracted study characteristics and outcomes from the trial reports and entered the data in a spreadsheet. Both authors checked the data entered against the original reports. We used meta-regression to examine whether the vitamin C effect on ventilation time depends on the duration of ventilation in the control group. Results We identified nine potentially eligible trials, eight of which were included in the meta-analysis. We pooled the results of the eight trials, including 685 patients in total, and found that vitamin C shortened the length of mechanical ventilation on average by 14% (P = 0.00001). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the effect of vitamin C between the trials. Heterogeneity was fully explained by the ventilation time in the untreated control group. Vitamin C was most beneficial for patients with the longest ventilation, corresponding to the most severely ill patients. In five trials including 471 patients requiring ventilation for over 10 h, a dosage of 1-6 g/day of vitamin C shortened ventilation time on average by 25% (P <0.0001). Conclusions We found strong evidence that vitamin C shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation, but the magnitude of the effect seems to depend on the duration of ventilation in the untreated control group. The level of baseline illness severity should be considered in further research. Different doses should be compared directly in future trials.