Browsing by Subject "ATTENDANCE"

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  • Pankakoski, Maiju; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti (2020)
    An invitational organized cervical cancer screening together with widely spread opportunistic testing has coexisted for decades in Finland. The aim of this study was to examine the coverage of cervical tests by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and municipality type within and outside the organized screening program. We had a cohort of women of whom 1,2 million were in the target age range of screening and residing in Finland in 2010-2014. Data on Pap and/or HPV-tests within and outside the screening program were collected from the Mass Screening Registry, the pathology laboratories and the health insurance reimbursement registry and fiveyear population coverages of tests were reported. The total test coverage was 86.0%; 95% CI, (85.8-86.1), and was notably lower for those with an unknown socioeconomic status and pensioners (68.8%; 95% CI, (67.9-69.6) and 77.1%; 95% CI, (76.5-77.6), respectively) compared to upper-level employers (89.8%; 95% CI, (89.5-90.2)). Coverage was also lower for non-native speaking women (72.4%; 95% CI, (71.8-73.0)) compared to native speakers (86.9%; 95% CI, (86.7-87.0)) and for women living in urban municipalities (85.5%; 95% CI, (85.3-85.7)) compared to semi-urban (87.4%; 95% CI, (87.0-87.8)). Although overall coverage was high, tests within and outside the program seemed to concentrate on women with presumably good access to health services. Tests outside the program were especially common among young women who are at a low risk of invasive cervical cancer. Efforts should be made to reduce excessive opportunistic testing and to increase attendance at the program among hard-to-reach populations.
  • Moisio, Saara (2021)
    Purpose–This article examines how spectators describe their expectations of contemporary dance by referring to action. Through discussing a qualitative audience study, the article argues that spectators always have an expectation of being affected by performances they attend. This expectation can guide their interest in attending performances of certain genres instead of other possible ones on offer. Additionally, the article points out how spectators can actively manage their expectations in order to be affected. Design/methodology/approach–The study is based on 21 in-depth interviews with spectators at a dance venue, a company and a festival in Finland. The analysis of the interviews combines thematic analysis with metaphor analysis. Employing the paradigm of enaction and the concept of affordances, this article approaches expectations as embodied and dynamic, created in interactions between artists, producers and spectators. Findings–The analysis shows that when speaking about their expectations of performances, spectators use bodily and spatial metaphors. Focusing on metaphors reveals how, for the spectators, performances afford a possibility for action that affects them. The interviewed spectators describe that contemporary dance is“not set in its ways”, and therefore it keeps them“awake”and their thoughts do“not fossilize”. This way, they understand contemporary dance as a genre that affords a possibility to be affected by allowing a freedom of own interpretation and surprising experiences if they desire such. Originality/value–Concentration on the metaphors of language offers a deeper understanding of the active nature of spectators’ expectations. Understanding how spectators describe their expectations by referring to action that enables the shaping of their emotions and thoughts can help the development of arts marketing and audience engagement. Keywords: Expectations, Affordances, Enaction, Metaphor analysis, Contemporary dance, Qualitative audience research
  • Virtanen, Anni; Anttila, Ahti; Nieminen, Pekka (2015)
    Background: Offering self-sampling to non-attendees of cervical screening increases screening attendance. Methods: We used observations from two Finnish studies on the use of self-sampling among the non-attendees to estimate in a hypothetical screening population of 100,000 women the possible costs per extra screened woman and costs per extra detected and treated CIN2+ with three intervention strategies; 1) a primary invitation and a reminder letter, 2) a primary invitation and a mailed self-sampling kit and 3) two invitation letters and a self-sampling kit. The program costs were derived from actual performance and costs in the original studies and a national estimate on management costs of HPV related diseases. Results: The price per extra participant and price per detected and treated CIN2+ lesion was lower with a reminder letter than by self-sampling as a first reminder. When self-sampling was used as a second reminder with a low sampler price and a triage Pap-smear as a follow-up test for HPV-positive women instead of direct colposcopy referral, the eradication of a CIN2+ lesion by self-sampling was not more expensive than in routine screening, and the addition of two reminders to the invitation protocol did not increase the price of an treated CIN2+ lesion in the entire screened population. Conclusions: As a first reminder, a reminder letter is most likely a better choice. As second reminder, the higher costs of self-sampling might be compensated by the higher prevalence of CIN2+ in the originally non-attending population.
  • Suominen, Anna L.; Helminen, Sari; Lahti, Satu; Vehkalahti, Miira M.; Knuuttila, Matti; Varsio, Sinikka; Nordblad, Anne (2017)
    Background: During the 2000s, two major legislative reforms concerning oral health care have been implemented in Finland. One entitled the whole population to subsidized care and the other regulated the timeframes of access to care. Our aim was, in a cross-sectional setting, to assess changes in and determinants of use of oral health care services before the first reform in 2000 and after both reforms in 2011. Methods: The data were part of the nationally representative Health 2000 and 2011 Surveys of adults aged >= 30 years and were gathered by interviews and questionnaires. The outcome was the use of oral health care services during the previous year. Determinants of use among the dentate were grouped according to Andersen's model: predisposing (sex, age group), enabling (education, recall, dental fear, habitual use of services, household income, barriers of access to care), and need (perceived need, self-rated oral health, denture status). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were used for statistical evaluation. Results: No major changes or only a minor increase in overall use of oral health care services was seen between the study years. An exception were those belonging to oldest age group who clearly increased their use of services. Also, a significant increase in visiting a public sector dentist was observed, particularly in the age groups that became entitled to subsidized care in 2000. In the private sector, use of services decreased in younger age groups. Determinants for visiting a dentist, regardless of the service sector, remained relatively stable. Being a regular dental visitor was the most significant determinant for having visited a dentist during the previous year. Enabling factors, both organizational and individual, were emphasized. They seemed to enable service utilization particularly in the private sector. Conclusions: Overall changes in the use of oral health care services were relatively small, but in line with the goals set for the reform. Older persons increased use of services in both sectors, implying growing need. Differences between public and private sectors persisted, and recall, costs of care and socioeconomic factors steered choices between the sectors, sustaining inequity in access to care.