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  • Puurunen, Jenni; Sulkama, Sini; Tiira, Katriina; Araujo, Cesar; Lehtonen, Marko; Hanhineva, Kati; Lohi, Hannes (2016)
    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes. Methods: We collected fresh plasma samples from 22 German Shepherds with varying ADHD-like behaviours. All dogs were on the same controlled diet for 2 weeks prior to sampling. A liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based non-targeted metabolite profiling was performed to identify plasma metabolites correlating with the ADHD-like behaviour of the dogs. Results: 649 molecular features correlated with ADHD-like behavioural scores (p(raw) <0.05), and three of them [sn-1 LysoPC(18: 3), PC(18: 3/18: 2) and sn-1 LysoPE(18: 2)] had significant correlations also after FDR correction (pFDR <0.05). Phospholipids were found to negatively correlate with ADHD-like behavioural scores, whereas tryptophan metabolites 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) had negative and positive correlations with ADHD-like behavioural scores, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified associations between canine ADHD-like behaviours and metabolites that are involved in lipid and tryptophan metabolisms. The identified metabolites share similarity with earlier findings in human and rodent ADHD models. However, a larger replication study is warranted to validate the discoveries prior to further studies to understand the biological role of the identified metabolites in canine ADHD-like behaviours.
  • Schiavone, Nella; Virta, Maarit; Leppämäki, Sami; Launes, Jyrki; Vanninen, Ritva; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Immonen, Satu; Järvinen, Ilkka; Lehto, Eliisa; Michelsson, Katarina; Hokkanen, Laura (2019)
    We investigated ADHD symptoms and life outcomes in adulthood and their association with childhood ADHD and subthreshold symptoms in a prospectively followed cohort with perinatal risks. We identified participants with childhood ADHD (cADHD, n = 37), subthreshold symptoms defined as attention problems (cAP, n = 64), and no ADHD or cAP (Non-cAP, n = 217). We compared the groups and a control group with no perinatal risks (n = 64) on self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive dysfunction, and life outcomes in adulthood. At age 40, 21.6% of the cADHD, 6.3% of the cAP, 6.0% of the Non-cAP group, and 1.6% of the controls reached a screener cutoff for possible ADHD. The cADHD group had lower educational level, more ADHD symptoms and executive dysfunction, and higher rates of drug use than the other groups. Childhood ADHD associated with perinatal risks persists into midlife whereas childhood subthreshold ADHD symptoms in this cohort were not associated with negative outcomes in adulthood.
  • Neumann, Alexander; Walton, Esther; Alemany, Silvia; Cecil, Charlotte; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Jima, Dereje D.; Lahti, Jari; Tuominen, Samuli T.; Barker, Edward D.; Binder, Elisabeth; Caramaschi, Doretta; Carracedo, Angel; Czamara, Darina; Evandt, Jorunn; Felix, Janine F.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Julvez, Jordi; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Maguire, Rachel; Maitre, Lea; Murphy, Susan K.; Murcia, Mario; Villa, Pia M.; Sharp, Gemma; Sunyer, Jordi; Räikkönen, Katri; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Guxens, Monica; Relton, Caroline L.; Tiemeier, Henning (2020)
    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the extent to which epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of the disorder is unknown. We performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium to identify DNA methylation sites associated with ADHD symptoms at two methylation assessment periods: birth and school age. We examined associations of both DNA methylation in cord blood with repeatedly assessed ADHD symptoms (age 4-15 years) in 2477 children from 5 cohorts and of DNA methylation at school age with concurrent ADHD symptoms (age 7-11 years) in 2374 children from 9 cohorts, with 3 cohorts participating at both timepoints. CpGs identified with nominal significance (p <0.05) in either of the EWAS were correlated between timepoints (rho = 0.30), suggesting overlap in associations; however, top signals were very different. At birth, we identified nine CpGs that predicted later ADHD symptoms (p <1 x 10(-7)), including ERC2 and CREB5. Peripheral blood DNA methylation at one of these CpGs (cg01271805 in the promoter region of ERC2, which regulates neurotransmitter release) was previously associated with brain methylation. Another (cg25520701) lies within the gene body of CREB5, which previously was associated with neurite outgrowth and an ADHD diagnosis. In contrast, at school age, no CpGs were associated with ADHD with p <1 x 10(-7). In conclusion, we found evidence in this study that DNA methylation at birth is associated with ADHD. Future studies are needed to confirm the utility of methylation variation as biomarker and its involvement in causal pathways.
  • Syrjänen, Milla; Hautamäki, Airi; Pleshkova, Natalia; Maliniemi, Sinikka (2019)
    This study aimed to explore the self-protective strategies of six parents with ADHD and the sensitivity they displayed in dyadic interaction with their under 3-years-old children. The parents were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Interview. Parental sensitivity was assessed using the CARE-Index. The study showed a variation of the parents' self-protective strategies and sensitivity. The more complex the parent's self-protective strategy was, the less sensitive was the interaction. Some parents' need for self-protection compromised their ability to protect their child and decreased their sensitivity. All parents displayed indications of unresolved traumas, which also impaired their sensitivity to the signals of their child and ability to engage in mutual regulation of arousal and emotion with their child. Attachment-oriented family psychological assessment, including assessments of the self-protective strategies of each family member would make possible to design a treatment adapted to the unique family needs, also in order to alleviate early risk.
  • Sulkama, Sini; Puurunen, Jenni; Salonen, Milla; Mikkola, Salla; Hakanen, Emma; Araujo, Cesar; Lohi, Hannes (2021)
    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder impairing the quality of life of the affected individuals. The domestic dog can spontaneously manifest high hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention which are components of human ADHD. Therefore, a better understanding of demographic, environmental and behavioural factors influencing canine hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention could benefit both humans and dogs. We collected comprehensive behavioural survey data from over 11,000 Finnish pet dogs and quantified their level of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. We performed generalised linear model analyses to identify factors associated with these behavioural traits. Our results indicated that high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention were more common in dogs that are young, male and spend more time alone at home. Additionally, we showed several breed differences suggesting a substantial genetic basis for these traits. Furthermore, hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention had strong comorbidities with compulsive behaviour, aggressiveness and fearfulness. Multiple of these associations have also been identified in humans, strengthening the role of the dog as an animal model for ADHD.
  • Bartels, Meike; Hendriks, Anne; Mauri, Matteo; Krapohl, Eva; Whipp, Alyce; Bolhuis, Koen; Conde, Lucia Colodro; Luningham, Justin; Ip, Hill Fung; Hagenbeek, Fiona; Roetman, Peter; Gatej, Raluca; Lamers, Audri; Nivard, Michel; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Vermeiren, Robert; Hankemeijer, Thomas; Kluft, Cees; Medland, Sarah; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Rose, Richard; Pulkkinen, Lea; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lubke, Gitta; Finkenauer, Catrin; Fanos, Vassilios; Tiemeier, Henning; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2018)
    Childhood aggression and its resulting consequences inflict a huge burden on affected children, their relatives, teachers, peers and society as a whole. Aggression during childhood rarely occurs in isolation and is correlated with other symptoms of childhood psychopathology. In this paper, we aim to describe and improve the understanding of the co-occurrence of aggression with other forms of childhood psychopathology. We focus on the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems, including other externalising problems, attention problems and anxiety-depression. The data were brought together within the EU-ACTION (Aggression in Children: unravelling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies) project. We analysed the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems as a function of the child's age (ages 3 through 16years), gender, the person rating the behaviour (father, mother or self) and assessment instrument. The data came from six large population-based European cohort studies from the Netherlands (2x), the UK, Finland and Sweden (2x). Multiple assessment instruments, including the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory (MPNI), were used. There was a good representation of boys and girls in each age category, with data for 30,523 3- to 4-year-olds (49.5% boys), 20,958 5- to 6-year-olds (49.6% boys), 18,291 7- to 8-year-olds (49.0% boys), 27,218 9- to 10-year-olds (49.4% boys), 18,543 12- to 13-year-olds (48.9% boys) and 10,088 15- to 16-year-olds (46.6% boys). We replicated the well-established gender differences in average aggression scores at most ages for parental ratings. The gender differences decreased with age and were not present for self-reports. Aggression co-occurred with the majority of other behavioural and social problems, from both externalising and internalising domains. At each age, the co-occurrence was particularly prevalent for aggression and oppositional and ADHD-related problems, with correlations of around 0.5 in general. Aggression also showed substantial associations with anxiety-depression and other internalizing symptoms (correlations around 0.4). Co-occurrence for self-reported problems was somewhat higher than for parental reports, but we found neither rater differences, nor differences across assessment instruments in co-occurrence patterns. There were large similarities in co-occurrence patterns across the different European countries. Finally, co-occurrence was generally stable across age and sex, and if any change was observed, it indicated stronger correlations when children grew older. We present an online tool to visualise these associations as a function of rater, gender, instrument and cohort. In addition, we present a description of the full EU-ACTION projects, its first results and the future perspectives.
  • Vuori, Miika; Martikainen, Jaana E.; Koski-Pirilä, Anna; Sourander, Andre; Puustjärvi, Anita; Aronen, Eeva T.; Chudal, Roshan; Saastamoinen, Leena K. (2020)
    Using population-based register data, we examine the association between children's birth month and ADHD medication use in a single jurisdiction (Finland). OBJECTIVES: The youngest children in a classroom are at increased risk of being medicated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association between children's birth month and ADHD medication rates in Finland. METHODS: Using a population-based study, we analyzed ADHD medication use among children born in 2005 to 2007. Cases (n= 7054) were identified from the first purchase of medication for ADHD. Cox proportional hazard models and hazard ratios (HRs) were examined by birth month and sex. Finnish children start first grade in the year of their seventh birthday. The cutoff date is December 31. RESULTS: Risk of ADHD medication use increased throughout the year by birth month (ie, January through April to May through August to September through December). Among boys born in September to December, the association remained stable across cohorts (HR: 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.5). Among girls born in September to December, the HR in the 2005 cohort was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8), whereas in the 2007 cohort it was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.2). In a restricted follow-up, which ended at the end of the year of the children's eighth birthday, the HRs for boys and girls born in September to December 2007 were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Relative immaturity increases the likelihood of ADHD medication use in Finland. The association was more pronounced during the first school years. Increased awareness of this association is needed among clinicians and teachers.
  • Cowley, Benjamin; Holmstrom, Edua; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Kovarskis, Levas; Krause, Christina M. (2016)
    Background: We report a randomized controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow. Methods: Trial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved 40 h-long sessions 2-5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel "inverse-training" condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing) will consist of self-report and executive function tests. Setting: Intake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki. Randomization: We randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimize baseline differences in prognostic variables. Blinding: Waiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded. Participants: Fifty-four adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females) were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. Forty-four had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD. Measurements: Symptoms were assessed by computerized attention test (T.O.V.A.) and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded. Results: Participants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis. Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T.O.V.A. Comprehensive analysis will be reported elsewhere.
  • Cavonius-Rintahaka, Diana; Aho, Anna Liisa; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher (2021)
    Aim: To describe the development and implementation of a Dialogical Family Guidance (DFG) intervention, aimed at families with a child with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Design: The DFG components are presented and the content of a DFG training course. Professionals' experiences after the DFG training were evaluated. Methods: Dialogical Family Guidance development phases and implementation process are examined. The Revised Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence checklist (SQUIRE 2.0) was used to provide a framework for reporting new knowledge. Results: The DFG training course seemed to increase possibilities of a more independent role as a nurse to deliver the DFG family intervention. The project showed that the use of dialogue can be difficult for some professionals. Analysis of the questionnaire completed after DFG training reported a high level of satisfaction. DFG training offered a new approach to deliver knowledge and understanding to families using dialogue, including tailored psychoeducation and emotional and practical guidance.
  • Cavonius-Rintahaka, Diana; Aho, Anna Liisa; Voutilainen, Arja; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher (2019)
    Introduction: Several studies have reported that having a child with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) increases parental stress and that parental psychosocial functioning influences child's development and behavior. It is unclear how parents of children with NDD experience family functionality, family health and receive support and if there are differences between experiences of mothers and fathers. Methods: Families with children referred to a neurocognitive unit were invited to the study. A modified version of the FAmily Functionality, HEalth, and Social support (FAFHES) questionnaire was used. Open-ended questions were also included. Results: Parents rated their social support lower than their family functionality and family health. Family functionality correlated positively with family health. No significant differences were found between mothers' and fathers' experiences. A three-months test-retest using the FAFHES showed no significant change in ratings of family functionality, family health, and social support. Conclusions: Family functionality was connected to family health in families with a child with NDD. Mothers and fathers experienced their family health, family functionality, and received social support in similar ways.
  • Teivaanmäki, Sini; Huhdanpää, Hanna; Kiuru, Noona; Aronen, Eeva T.; Närhi, Vesa; Klenberg, Liisa (2020)
    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and deficits in executive functions (EF) as well as to examine the overall heterogeneity of EFs in a sample of preschool children attending a psychiatric clinic (n = 171). First, based on cut-off points signifying clinical levels of impairment on the parent-completed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were assigned into groups of internalizing, externalizing, combined or mild symptoms and compared to a reference group (n = 667) with regard to day care teacher ratings of EFs on the Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory-Preschool (ATTEX-P). Second, latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to identify distinct subgroups of children representing different EF profiles with unique strengths and weaknesses in EFs. The first set of analyses indicated that all symptom groups had more difficulties in EFs than the reference group did, and the internalizing group had less inhibition-related problems than the other symptom groups did. Using LPA, five EF profiles were identified: average, weak average, attentional problems, inhibitory problems, and overall problems. The EF profiles were significantly associated with gender, maternal education level, and psychiatric symptom type. Overall, the findings suggest that the comparison of means of internalizing and externalizing groups mainly captures the fairly obvious differences in inhibition-related domains among young psychiatric outpatient children, whereas the person-oriented approach, based on individual differences, identifies heterogeneity related to attentional functions, planning, and initiating one's action. The variability in EF difficulties suggests that a comprehensive evaluation of a child's EF profile is important regardless of the type of psychiatric symptoms the child presents with.
  • Maasalo, Katri; Wessman, Jaana; Aronen, Eeva T. (2017)
    Background: Not much is known about low mood and its associates in child psychiatric patients. In this study, we examined the prevalence of low mood, how it associates with disruptive behaviour, and affects clinician-rated global functioning in child psychiatric outpatients. Methods: The study population consisted of 862 5-12 year-old child psychiatric patients. The study sample was a subsample of all 1251 patients attending a child psychiatric outpatient clinic at Helsinki University Hospital in 20132015 formed by excluding 4 year-old and 13 year-old patients and those with missing or incomplete data. The parentrated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, collected as part of the routine clinical baseline measure, was used as a measure of psychiatric symptoms. The diagnoses were set according to ICD-10 by the clinician in charge after an initial evaluation period. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) score set by clinicians provided the measure of the patients' global functioning. All information for the study was collected from hospital registers. Associations between emotional symptoms and conduct problems/hyperactivity scores were examined using ordinal regression in univariate and multivariate models, controlling for age and sex. The independent samples T test was used to compare the CGAS values of patient groups with low/normal mood. Results: In our sample, 512 children (59.4%) showed low mood. In multivariate ordinal regression analysis, low mood associated with conduct problems (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.39-2.67), but no association was found between low mood and hyperactivity. Low mood was prevalent among children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (51.8%). The global functioning score CGAS was lower among children with parent-reported low mood (52.21) than among children with normal mood (54.62, p <0.001). The same was true in the subgroup of patients with no depression diagnosis (54.85 vs. 52.82, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Low mood is prevalent in child psychiatric outpatients regardless of depression diagnosis and it has a negative effect on global functioning. Low mood and behavioural problems are often associated. It is important to pay attention to low mood in all child psychiatric patients. We recommend prevention measures and low-threshold services for children with low mood.
  • Leivonen, Susanna; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.; Chudal, Roshan; Gyllenberg, David; Sucksdorff, Dan; Suominen, Auli; Voutilainen, Arja; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre (2017)
    Objective: To determine the associations between maternal and paternal psychiatric diagnoses and Tourette syndrome (TS)/chronic tic disorder (CT) in a nationwide study. Method: This nested case-control study linked data derived from three national registers. All singletons born and diagnosed with TS/CT in Finland between January 1991 and December 2010 were identified (n = 1,120) and matched to four controls (n = 4,299). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between parental psychopathology and TS/CT. Results: Altogether, 24.9% of patients with TS/CT and 12.00/0 of controls had a mother with a psychiatric diagnosis. Similarly, 17.9% and 12.9% had a father with a psychiatric diagnosis. Any maternal and any paternal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with offspring TS/CT (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% CI 1.9-2.7 and OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.01-1.5, respectively). The association between maternal psychiatric diagnosis and TS/CT was stronger than that between paternal psychiatric diagnosis and TS/CT (p Conclusion: Parental psychiatric diagnoses (especially in the mother) are associated with diagnosed offspring TS/CT. Further studies are required before the results can be generalized to all children with TS/CT. The associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and TS may reflect both maternal specific environmental and/or genetic influences.
  • Ueda, Riyo; Okada, Takashi; Kita, Yosuke; Ozawa, Yuri; Inoue, Hisami; Shioda, Mutsuki; Kono, Yoshimi; Kono, Chika; Nakamura, Yukiko; Amemiya, Kaoru; Ito, Ai; Sugiura, Nobuko; Matsuoka, Yuichiro; Kaiga, Chinami; Kubota, Masaya; Ozawa, Hiroshi (2021)
    Background: This study seeks to ascertain how the COVID-19 stay-at-home period has affected the quality of life (QOL) of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) who had experienced sleep schedules alteration and clarify what psychological status predicted low QOL in children with and without altered sleep patterns. Materials and Methods: Study participants were 86 children between 8 and 17 years of age (mean age, 11.7 years; 70 boys, 16 girls; mean intellectual quotient, 83.6). QOL was evaluated using the self-assessment KINDL(R). Participants answered questions regarding depression and anxiety on a visual analog scale (VAS) for temporary mood. Their parents answered questionnaires regarding their maladaptive behaviors and differences in sleep patterns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The student's t-test was performed to examine the presence or absence of sleep changes in the children, which affected QOL, temporary mood, and maladaptive behaviors. Multiple or simple linear regression analyses were also performed to identify the psychogenic factors that significantly affected decreased QOL for each group with and without changes in sleep schedule. Results: During the COVID-19 stay-at-home period, 46.5% of participants experienced changes in sleep patterns. These changes were associated with decreased QOL as well as internalized symptoms. The decreased QOL of children with sleep patterns changed was predicted by a high level of depression. In addition, low QOL in children with unchanged sleep patterns was predicted by a high level of depression and low current mood status. Conclusions: Almost half of the participants experienced a poor sleep schedule during the stay-at-home period. These alterations in sleep patterns were associated with a low QOL. The QOL of children with a stable life schedule was affected not only by depressive tendencies but also temporary moods. Therefore, they need to live a fulfilling life to maintain their QOL. However, the QOL of children with poor sleep patterns was affected only by depressive tendencies. Hence, clinicians need to ensure that children with NDDs are well-diagnosed with depression and treated for sleep problems.
  • Koutsoklenis, Athanasios; Honkasilta, Juho; Brunila, Kristiina (2020)
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a controversial phenomenon and the link between schooling and the burgeoning occurrence of ADHD diagnoses is problematic. This paper contributes to the discussion regarding the issue by providing a literature review of the evidence on the influence of relative age effect (RAE) on being diagnosed with ADHD. Firstly, the review presents a general cross-national trend for a positive association between relative age and the probability of being diagnosed with ADHD compared to peers, thus showing that the younger-in-class children are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Secondly, this paper outlines and discusses the suggested explanations of the phenomenon as depicted in the reviewed literature. Finally, the paper proceeds to provide alternative frameworks for the explanation of the RAE on ADHD diagnosis that go beyond individual psychopathology and instead take into account the broader social, cultural and political contexts in which the phenomenon takes place.
  • Huhdanpää, Hanna; Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Aronen, Eeva T.; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    Objective: Sleep difficulties are associated with cognitive and behavioral problems in childhood. However, it is still unclear whether early sleep difficulties are related to later development. We studied whether parent-reported sleep duration, night awakenings, and parent-reported sleep problems in early childhood are associated with symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity at the age of 5 years. Method: Our study is based on the Child-Sleep birth cohort initially comprising 1673 families, of which 713 were retained at the age of 5 years. We used the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire and the Infant Sleep Questionnaire, which were filled out by the parents when their child was 3, 8, and 24 months and 5 years old. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity at the age of 5 years were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Five-to-Fifteen questionnaire. Results: Sleep duration at the age of 3, 8, and 24 months was associated with inattentiveness at 5 years of age. Moreover, parent-reported sleep problems at the age of 24 months were related to both inattentive and hyperactive symptoms at the age of 5 years. Finally, at the age of 5 years, parent-reported sleep problems and night awakenings were associated with concurrent symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that certain sleep characteristics related to sleep quality and quantity in early childhood are associated with inattentiveness and hyperactivity at the age of 5 years. Interestingly, sleep duration in early childhood is consistently related to inattention at the age of 5 years.
  • Klenberg, Liisa; Hokkanen, Laura; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Närhi, Vesa (2017)
    School-age children with difficulties in executive functions (EFs) are at risk for substantial academic impairment and poorer developmental outcome. Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is generally associated with weaknesses in EFs, a relatively minimal amount is known about school-related EF difficulties and differences between ADHD subtypes. The present study examined teacher ratings of EF behaviors in 7- to 15-year-old Finnish children with combined symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-C; n =189), predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I; n = 25), and no ADHD (n = 691). The teacher ratings showed that both ADHD groups had more EF difficulties than controls. Ratings also indicated specific EF profiles for the ADHD subtypes, students with ADHD-I having more wide-ranging EF difficulties in attention as well as initiation, planning, and execution of actions than children with ADHD-C. According to the present findings, the school-related EF difficulties of children with ADHD-I need to be specifically acknowledged. Teacher ratings seem to be sensitive indicators of EF difficulties and distinguish between different kinds of EF profiles. In clinical practice, rating scales with reliable psychometric properties and normative data relevant to the specific cultural environment should be employed.
  • Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari (2015)
    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS: A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS: A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
  • Honkasilta, Juho; Vehkakoski, Tanja (2019)
    This study presents co-narrated school experiences of a young Finnish girl diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and those of her parents. The discourse analysis of the family interview focused on the discrepant ways family members gave meanings to and mobilised the ADHD categorisation while narrating their broken school trajectory. The results showed that the ADHD diagnosis was laden with the promise of the whole family being recognised differently by the school. However, this cultural promise proved disillusioning as daughter's support needs and parents' expertise were not recognised nor did the diagnostic category emancipate from stigmatising identities and blame. Interestingly, the parents leaned more on the diagnostic categorisation while accounting for the disillusion of these promises, whereas the daughter aimed at distancing herself from the ADHD category and behaviour characteristics related to it. The discussion concludes by comparing the viewpoints of cure and care when catering to children's needs.
  • Ziermans, T.; Dumontheil, I.; Roggeman, C.; Peyrard-Janvid, M.; Matsson, H.; Kere, J.; Klingberg, T. (2012)