Browsing by Subject "AU"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Hinks, J. A.; Hibberd, F.; Hattar, K.; Ilinov, A.; Bufford, D. C.; Djurabekova, F.; Greaves, G.; Kuronen, A.; Donnelly, S. E.; Nordlund, K. (2018)
    Nanostructures may be exposed to irradiation during their manufacture, their engineering and whilst in-service. The consequences of such bombardment can be vastly different from those seen in the bulk. In this paper, we combine transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation with complementary computer modelling techniques to explore the physics governing the effects of 1.7 MeV Au ions on gold nanorods. Phenomena surrounding the sputtering and associated morphological changes caused by the ion irradiation have been explored. In both the experiments and the simulations, large variations in the sputter yields from individual nanorods were observed. These sputter yields have been shown to correlate with the strength of channelling directions close to the direction in which the ion beam was incident. Craters decorated by ejecta blankets were found to form due to cluster emission thus explaining the high sputter yields.
  • Zhao, Junlei; Cao, Lu; Palmer, Richard E.; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2017)
    In this paper, we study the mechanisms of growth of Ag nanoclusters in a solid Ar matrix and the emission of these nanoclusters from the matrix by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The molecular dynamics simulations show that the cluster growth mechanism can be described as "thermal spike-enhanced clustering" in multiple sequential ion impact events. We further show that experimentally observed large sputtered metal clusters cannot be formed by direct sputtering of Ag mixed in the Ar. Instead, we describe the mechanism of emission of the metal nanocluster that, at first, is formed in the cryogenic matrix due to multiple ion impacts, and then is emitted as a result of the simultaneous effects of interface boiling and spring force. We also develop an analytical model describing this size-dependent cluster emission. The model bridges the atomistic simulations and experimental time and length scales, and allows increasing the controllability of fast generation of nanoclusters in experiments with a high production rate.
  • Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Kilpua, E.; Davies, J. A. (2019)
    The release of density structures at the tip of the coronal helmet streamers, likely as a consequence of magnetic reconnection, contributes to the mass flux of the slow solar wind (SSW). In situ measurements in the vicinity of the heliospheric plasma sheet of the magnetic field, protons, and suprathermal electrons reveal details of the processes at play during the formation of density structures near the Sun. In a previous article, we exploited remote-sensing observations to derive a 3D picture of the dynamic evolution of a streamer. We found evidence of the recurrent and continual release of dense blobs from the tip of the streamers. In the present paper, we interpret in situ measurements of the SSW during solar maximum. Through both case and statistical analysis, we show that in situ signatures (magnetic field magnitude, smoothness and rotation, proton density, and suprathermal electrons, in the first place) are consistent with the helmet streamers producing, in alternation, high-density regions (mostly disconnected) separated by magnetic flux ropes (mostly connected to the Sun). This sequence of emission of dense blobs and flux ropes also seems repeated at smaller scales inside each of the high-density regions. These properties are further confirmed with in situ measurements much closer to the Sun using Helios observations. We conclude on a model for the formation of dense blobs and flux ropes that explains both the in situ measurements and the remote-sensing observations presented in our previous studies.
  • Sundholm, Dage; Rabaa, Hassan; Chiheb, Mohammed; Balch, Alan L. (2019)
    Calculations have been performed at the MP2 and DFT levels for investigating the reasons for the difficulties in synthesizing bis(isocyanide)gold(I) halide complexes. Three-coordinated gold(I) complexes of the type (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I (1) can be synthesized, whereas the analogous isocyanide complexes (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I (2) are not experimentally known. The molecular structures of (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I (X = Cl, Br, and I) and (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I with X = halide, cyanide, nitrite, methylthiolate, and thiocyanate are compared and structural differences are discussed. Calculations of molecular properties elucidate which factors determine the strength of the gold-ligand interactions in (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I. The linear bonding mode of RNC favors a T-shaped geometry instead of the planar Y-shaped trigonal structure of (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I complexes that have been synthesized. An increased polarity of the Au-X bond in 2 leads to destabilization of the Y-shaped structure. Chalcogen-containing ligands or cyanide appear to be good X-ligand candidates for synthesis of (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I complexes.
  • Grandin, Maxime; Aikio, Anita T.; Kozlovsky, Alexander (2019)
    We study the properties and geoeffectiveness of solar wind high-speed streams (HSSs) emanating from coronal holes and associated with stream interaction regions (SIRs). This paper presents a statistical study of 588 SIR/HSS events with solar wind speed at 1 AU exceeding 500 km/s during 1995-2017, encompassing the decline of solar cycle 22 to the decline of cycle 24. Events are detected using measurements of the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field. Events misidentified as or interacting with interplanetary coronal mass ejections are removed by comparison with an existing interplanetary coronal mass ejection list. Using this SIR/HSS event catalog (list given in the supporting information), a superposed epoch analysis of key solar wind parameters is carried out. It is found that the number of SIR/HSSs peaks during the late declining phase of solar cycle (SC) 23, as does their velocity, but that their geoeffectiveness in terms of the AE and SYM-H indices is low. This can be explained by the anomalously low values of magnetic field during the extended solar minimum. Within SC23 and SC24, the highest geoeffectiveness of SIR/HSSs takes place during the early declining phases. Geoeffectiveness of SIR/HSSs continues to be up to 40% lower during SC24 than SC23, which can be explained by the solar wind properties.
  • Schlindwein, Simon H.; Nieger, Martin; Gudat, Dietrich (2021)
    Reaction of a phosphane-decorated benzenedithiol (pbdtH(2)) with coinage metal salts furnished polynuclear complexes [M-2(pbdtH)(2)] (M=Au-I) or [cat][M-5(pbdt)(3)] (cat=unipositive cation, M=Ag-I, Cu-I), which were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Furthermore, a double salt with an anion [Ag-5(pbdt)(3)(PPh3)](-) that proved unstable in solution was characterized crystallographically. The spectroscopic and crystallographic data revealed that the Cu(I) and Ag(I) complexes exhibit, despite their like stoichiometric composition, isomeric molecular structures. The observed disparities were reproduced by DFT studies. The dinuclear Au(I) complex was found to undergo air-oxidation to furnish a mixed-valent complex [(Au-III)(2)(Au-I)(2)(pbdt)(4)]. The copper(I) - but not the isomeric silver(I) complexes - showed luminescence in the solid state.
  • Amekura, Hiro; Kluth, Patrick; Mota-Santiago, Pablo; Sahlberg, Isac; Jantunen, Ville; Leino, Aleksi A.; Vázquez, Henrique; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, Norito (2018)
    When a swift heavy ion (SHI) penetrates amorphous SiO2, a core/shell (C/S) ion track is formed, which consists of a lower-density core and a higher-density shell. According to the conventional inelastic thermal spike (iTS) model represented by a pair of coupled heat equations, the C/S tracks are believed to form via "vaporization" and melting of the SiO2 induced by SHI (V-M model). However, the model does not describe what the vaporization in confined ion-track geometry with a condensed matter density is. Here we reexamine this hypothesis. While the total and core radii of the C/S tracks determined by small angle x-ray scattering are in good agreement with the vaporization and melting radii calculated from the conventional iTS model under high electronic stopping power (S-e) irradiations (>10 keV/nm), the deviations between them are evident at low-S, irradiation (3-5 keV/nm). Even though the iTS calculations exclude the vaporization of SiO2 at the low S-e, both the formation of the C/S tracks and the ion shaping of nanoparticles (NPs) are experimentally confirmed, indicating the inconsistency with the V-M model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the two-temperature model, which is an atomic-level modeling extension of the conventional iTS, clarified that the "vaporlike" phase exists at S-e similar to 5 keV/nm or higher as a nonequilibrium phase where atoms have higher kinetic energies than the vaporization energy, but are confined at a nearly condensed matter density. Simultaneously, the simulations indicate that the vaporization is not induced under 50-MeV Si irradiation (S-e similar to 3 keV/nm), but the C/S tracks and the ion shaping of nanoparticles are nevertheless induced. Even though the final density variations in the C/S tracks are very small at the low stopping power values (both in the simulations and experiments), the MD simulations show that the ion shaping can be explained by flow of liquid metal from the NP into the transient low-density phase of the track core during the first similar to 10 ps after the ion impact. The ion shaping correlates with the recovery process of the silica matrix after emitting a pressure wave. Thus, the vaporization is not a prerequisite for the C/S tracks and the ion shaping.