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  • Rabaa, Hassan; Omary, Mohammad A.; Taubert, Stefan; Sundholm, Dage (2018)
    The molecular structure of stacked cyclic trinuclear gold(I) complexes [Au-3(RN=CR'(3)](n), with n = 1-4, where R = H, methyl (Me), cyclopentyl ((c)Pe), and phenyl (Ph) and R' = OH and methoxy (OMe) were studied computationally at the second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory. At the DFT level, the aurophilic and dispersion interactions were accounted for by using the TPSS functional in combination with the semiempirical D3 correction. The structure optimizations yielded the lowest energy for a slided stacked structure of the [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)](2) dimer, where monomers are slightly shifted relative to one another. At the MP2 level, the slided structure is 32 kJ/mol more stable than the staggered dimer structure, which in turn is energetically 11 kJ/mol below the eclipsed structure. The calculations show that aromatic ligands lead to a planar and prismatic structure of [Au-3(PhN=COMe)(3)](4), whereas for [Au-3('PeN=COMe)(3)](4), a chair conformation is obtained due to steric effects. Excitation energies were calculated for [Au-3(RN=CR')(3)] and [Au-3(RN=CR'(3)](2) with R = H, Me, and 'Pe and R' = OH and OMe at the time-dependent DFT level using the optimized molecular structures of the singlet ground state. To simulate the luminescence spectra, the lowest triplet excitation energy was also calculated for the molecular structure of the lowest triplet state. The calculated excitation energies of [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)] and [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)](2) are compared with values obtained at the approximate singles and doubles coupled cluster (CC2) and the second-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) levels of theory. The calculated absorption and emission energies reproduce the experimental trends, with extremely large Stokes shifts. A solvoluminescence mechanism is also proposed.
  • Greiner, Jonas; Valiev, Rashid R.; Sundholm, Dage (2020)
    Rate constants for radiative and non-radiative transitions of the [Au(HN & xe001;COH)](3) complex and its dimer were calculated within the Herzberg-Teller approximation based on quantum mechanical principles. A high triplet quantum yield was estimated for the monomer. Internal conversion (IC) was found to be the major competing process to the intersystem crossing (ISC) from the lowest excited singlet state (S-1) to the lowest triplet state (T-1). ISC and IC from the spin-mixed T & x303;(1) state also dominate the triplet relaxation process resulting in a negligible phosphorescence quantum yield for the monomer. The IC and ISC rate constants of the dimer are considerably smaller due to much lower Franck-Condon factors. For the dimer a triplet quantum yield of 0.71 was estimated using the extended multi-configuration quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation theory (XMCQDPT2) method to calculate the transition energies. Fluorescence is the major competing process to the ISC relaxation of the S-1 state of the dimer. The ISC and IC processes are insignificant for the relaxation of the T-1 state, resulting in unity phosphorescence quantum yield. The high triplet and phosphorescence quantum yields of the [Au(HN & xe001;COH)](3) dimer make it and its higher oligomers potential candidates as dopants for phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes and as down-converters in solid-state lighting systems.
  • Sundholm, Dage; Rabaa, Hassan; Chiheb, Mohammed; Balch, Alan L. (2019)
    Calculations have been performed at the MP2 and DFT levels for investigating the reasons for the difficulties in synthesizing bis(isocyanide)gold(I) halide complexes. Three-coordinated gold(I) complexes of the type (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I (1) can be synthesized, whereas the analogous isocyanide complexes (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I (2) are not experimentally known. The molecular structures of (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I (X = Cl, Br, and I) and (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I with X = halide, cyanide, nitrite, methylthiolate, and thiocyanate are compared and structural differences are discussed. Calculations of molecular properties elucidate which factors determine the strength of the gold-ligand interactions in (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I. The linear bonding mode of RNC favors a T-shaped geometry instead of the planar Y-shaped trigonal structure of (R3P)(2)(AuX)-X-I complexes that have been synthesized. An increased polarity of the Au-X bond in 2 leads to destabilization of the Y-shaped structure. Chalcogen-containing ligands or cyanide appear to be good X-ligand candidates for synthesis of (RNC)(2)(AuX)-X-I complexes.