Browsing by Subject "AUSTRALIA"

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  • Salonen, Anne; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2017)
    Background: Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Conclusions: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
  • Irfan, Furqan B.; Consunji, Rafael; El-Menyar, Ayman; George, Pooja; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan; Thomas, Stephen Hodges; Alinier, Guillaume; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Singh, Rajvir; Castren, Maaret; Cameron, Peter A.; Djarv, Therese (2017)
    Background: Traumatic cardiac arrest studies have reported improved survival rates recently, ranging from 1.7-7.5%. This population-based nationwide study aims to describe the epidemiology, interventions and outcomes, and determine predictors of survival from out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (OHTCA) in Qatar. Methods: An observational retrospective population-based study was conducted on OHTCA patients in Qatar, from January 2010 to December 2015. Traumatic cardiac arrest was redefined to include out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (OHTCA) and in-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (IHTCA). Results: A total of 410 OHTCA patients were included in the 6-year study period. The mean annual crude incidence rate of OHTCA was 4.0 per 100,000 population, in Qatar. OHTCA mostly occurred in males with a median age of 33. There was a preponderance of blunt injuries (94.3%) and head injuries (66.3%). Overall, the survival rate was 2.4%. Shockable rhythm, prehospital external hemorrhage control, in-hospital blood transfusion, and surgery were associated with higher odds of survival. Adrenaline (Epinephrine) lowered the odds of survival. Conclusion: The incidence of OHTCA was less than expected, with a low rate of survival. Thoracotomy was not associated with improved survival while Adrenaline administration lowered survival in OHTCA patients with majority blunt injuries. Interventions to enable early prehospital control of hemorrhage, blood transfusion, thoracostomy and surgery improved survival. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.; Kröger, Björn; Nielsen, Morten L.; Colmenar, Jorge (2019)
    The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. In addition, we apply capture-recapture modeling approaches to calculate a biodiversity curve that also considers taphonomy and sampling biases with four times better resolution of previous estimates. Our method reveals a stepwise biodiversity increase with distinct Cambrian and Ordovician radiation events that are clearly separated by a 50-million-year-long period of slow biodiversity accumulation. The Ordovician Radiation is confined to a 15-million-year phase after which the Late Ordovician extinctions lowered generic richness and further delayed a biodiversity rebound by at least 35 million years. Based on a first-differences approach on potential abiotic drivers controlling richness, we find an overall correlation with oxygen levels, with temperature also exhibiting a coordinated trend once equatorial sea surface temperatures fell to present-day levels during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Age. Contrary to the traditional view of the Late Ordovician extinctions, our study suggests a protracted crisis interval linked to intense volcanism during the middle Late Ordovician Katian Age. As richness levels did not return to prior levels during the Silurian-a time of continental amalgamation-we further argue that plate tectonics exerted an overarching control on biodiversity accumulation.
  • Vikstedt, T; Arffman, M; Heliovaara-Peippo, S; Manderbacka, K; Reissell, E; Keskimaki, I (2021)
  • Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Vanska, Simopekka; Bi, Dan; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Struyf, Frank; Jenkins, David; Pukkala, Eero; Garnett, Geoff; Dubin, Gary (2015)
  • Kononen, Jukka (2018)
    The regulation of legal statuses and differentiation of non-citizens' rights within the states has become a significant site in the management of migration, yet the actual operations of differential inclusion remain an underexamined issue in the migration research. This article provides an empirically grounded analysis of the differential inclusion of non-citizens and demonstrates the legal hierarchies between non-citizens' entitlements using Finland as a case study. I argue that in addition to the regulation of residence and the access to labour markets, the unequal access to the welfare system represents a significant sphere of differentiation in the immigration process. Non-citizens' social entitlements differ depending on the nationality, the type of legal status and the form of employment, affecting their position in the labour markets and in the society. The article highlights the role of immigration law in manipulating the residence status of non-citizens, consequently invalidating the universalism of rights and a residence-based welfare system. Immigration controls, rather than representing a neutral framework of regulation of immigration, function as an institution, which produces conditional subjects and asymmetrical social relations in the sphere of universal citizenship.
  • Launonen, Essiina; Wallace, Isla; Kotovirta, Elina; Alho, Hannu; Simojoki, Kaarlo (2016)
    Background: The intravenous (IV) use of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) medications and other intoxicating drugs among OMT patients is a challenge for many OMT units and affects treatment outcomes. The aim of this study is to examine factors associated with IV use of OMT medications and other intoxicating drugs among Finnish OMT patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all Finnish OMT patients of whom 60% (n = 1508) participated. The data were collected by anonymous questionnaire. Binominal regression analysis with unadjusted and adjusted ORs was conducted to evaluate predictors for IV use. Findings: Factors associated with the injection of a patient's own OMT medication were: being treated with buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) (OR 2.60, p = 0.005) with a low dose ( Conclusions: More effort should be made to reduce concurrent injecting use during OMT. This may be done by addressing concurrent substance use orders more effectively, by ensuring that patients receive an optimal BNX dose and by providing more psychosocial support. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hay, Simon I.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adedeji, Isaac A.; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Sutapa; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Maskari, Fatma; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Kivimaki, Mika; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2016 DALYs HALE Collaborators (2017)
    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75.2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71.9-78.6) for females and 72.0 years (68.8-75.1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45.6 years [42.0-49.5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41.5 years [39.0-44.0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6.24 years (5.97-6.48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6.04 years (5.74-6.27) for males and 6.49 years (6.08-6.77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1.78 years (1.61-1.93) for males and 1.96 years (1.69-2.13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2.3% [-5.9 to 0.9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the five lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16.1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs offset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention efforts, and development assistance for health, including financial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Gustafsson, Camilla Maria; Norkko, Alf Mattias (2019)
    1. Aquatic plant meadows are important coastal habitats that sustain many ecosystem functions such as primary production and carbon sequestration. Currently, there is a knowledge gap in understanding which plant functional traits, for example, leaf size or plant height underlie primary production in aquatic plant communities. 2. To study how plant traits are related to primary production, we conducted a field survey in the Baltic Sea, Finland, which is characterized by high plant species and functional diversity. Thirty sites along an exposure gradient were sampled (150 plots), and nine plant morphological and chemical traits measured. The aim was to discern how community-weighted mean traits affect community production and whether this relationship changes along an environmental gradient using structural equation modelling (SEM). 3. Plant height had a direct positive effect on production along an exposure gradient (r = 0.33) and indirect effects through two leaf chemical traits, leaf δ15N and leaf δ13C (r = 0.24 and 0.18, respectively) resulting in a total effect of 0.28. In plant communities experiencing varying exposure, traits such as root N concentration and leaf δ15N had positive and negative effects on production, respectively. 4. Synthesis. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between aquatic plant functional traits and community production is variable and changes over environmental gradients. Plant height generally has a positive effect on community production along an exposure gradient, while the link between other traits and production changes in plant communities experiencing varying degrees of exposure. Thus, the underlying biological mechanisms influencing production differ in plant communities, emphasizing the need to resolve variability and its drivers in real-world communities. Importantly, functionally diverse plant communities sustain ecosystem functioning differently and
  • Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Johnson, Christopher N.; Llewelyn, John; Weisbecker, Vera; Strona, Giovanni; Saltre, Frederik (2021)
    The causes of Sahul's megafauna extinctions remain uncertain, although several interacting factors were likely responsible. To examine the relative support for hypotheses regarding plausible ecological mechanisms underlying these extinctions, we constructed the first stochastic, age-structured models for 13 extinct megafauna species from five functional/taxonomic groups, as well as 8 extant species within these groups for comparison. Perturbing specific demographic rates individually, we tested which species were more demographically susceptible to extinction, and then compared these relative sensitivities to the fossil-derived extinction chronology. Our models show that the macropodiformes were the least demographically susceptible to extinction, followed by carnivores, monotremes, vombatiform herbivores, and large birds. Five of the eight extant species were as or more susceptible than the extinct species. There was no clear relationship between extinction susceptibility and the extinction chronology for any perturbation scenario, while body mass and generation length explained much of the variation in relative risk. Our results reveal that the actual mechanisms leading to the observed extinction chronology were unlikely related to variation in demographic susceptibility per se, but were possibly driven instead by finer-scale variation in climate change and/or human prey choice and relative hunting success.
  • Kendal, Dave; Raymond, Christopher M. (2019)
    Despite rich theorisation on the structure and content of people’s values and great interest in the concept of value change, there is currently little coordinated understanding of how people’s values might shift over time. This paper draws upon different value traditions in a multi-level framework that articulates possible pathways of value change within individuals and groups and within a social–ecological context. Individual- and group-level values may change in response to events over an individual’s life course or changes in the social–ecological context that people are living in. Group-level values may also change as the composition of individuals within a social group change. These pathways are likely to act differently on values conceived as guiding principles (transcendental values) and values that people assign to people, places, or things around them (contextual values). We present a research agenda to develop a better understanding of these pathways: assessing the associations between value change and demographic change in a highly mobile world; developing a theoretical and empirical basis for understanding value shifts associated with social–ecological and land-use change; clearer identification of the groups of people that are subject to proposed mechanisms explaining value shifts; and bridging psychological framing of values to other more embodied understandings that may be better placed to explain value shift in the context of social–ecological change.