Browsing by Subject "AUSTRIA"

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  • Tapaninen, Anna-Maria; Helen, Ilpo (2020)
    This article examines the role of DNA testing in immigration management practices in which individuals and their kin relationships are modified as objects of investigation: defined, categorised and "made up" (Hacking in Historical ontology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2002) as families. Analysis focuses on the interplay of documents (or lack thereof), narratives and DNA analysis that produces evidentiary facts and knowledge about migrants and, simultaneously, forges relationships between individuals, families and other collectives. Analysis of the Finnish administrative and legal data concerning family reunification shows that DNA testing does much more than just provide evidence of the existence of a genetic tie between alleged family members; testing can also be translated into proof of 'true' families or extended to test the credibility of the applicants. Via translations and extensions, the accuracy of DNA analysis is intertwined with the contingencies of decision-making in the context of immigration management. Related to this, the article demonstrates that DNA testing supports the process by which immigration authorities in the Global North constitute the family as contingent, indefinite and even arbitrary, rather than consolidating a clear and solid model of eligibility for family reunification.
  • Tapaninen, Anna-Maria; Halme-Tuomisaari, Miia; Kankaanpaa, Viljami (2019)
  • Ranacher, Lea; Lähtinen, Katja; Järvinen, Erno; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina (2017)
    This paper investigates public perceptions related to forest ecosystem services (ES), which have been identified as one of the key topics in forest sector communication. ES represents a prime example of an issue that merits more in-depth analysis. In this study, we (I) evaluate the views of the general public on the importance of forests contributing to different ES; (II) determine the public's need for information on the impact of forest sector businesses on ecosystems; and (Ill) assess how responsibly the public believes that forest sector companies act in relation to their impacts on ecosystems. A structured questionnaire using a 5-point Likert-scale was made available as an online survey targeting respondents from four European countries (Austria, Germany, Finland and Slovenia) in each national language and English. Between May and September 2015, 219 responses were received and analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, t-test, and ANOVA. Respondents showed high levels of agreement for items accounting for regulating and supporting ES. Information needs on forest sector business impacts were found to be high, whereas there was much greater division about the level of perceived forest sector responsibility. Regarding the public perception of forest ES, three dimensions were identified: "primary ES", "consumable ES", and "social cohesion related ES". Some relationships between the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and the three dimensions of ES were uncovered: for example, "Consumable ES" are more important for female respondents and those who do not derive income from the forest sector. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kadi; Hutt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka (2016)
    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.