Browsing by Subject "AVERAGE PROPERTIES"

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  • Montanari, Francesco; Räsänen, Syksy (2017)
    We evaluate the effect of structure formation on the average expansion rate with a statistical treatment where density peaks and troughs are modelled as homogeneous ellipsoids. This extends earlier work that used spherical regions. We find that the shear and the presence of filamentary and planar structures have only a small impact on the results. The expansion rate times the age of the universe Ht increases from 2/3 to 0.83 at late times, in order of magnitude agreement with observations, although the change is slower and takes longer than in the real universe. We discuss shortcomings that have to be addressed for this and similar statistical models in the literature to develop into realistic quantitative treatment of backreaction.
  • Buchert, T.; Carfora, M.; Ellis, G. F. R.; Kolb, E. W.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Ostrowski, J. J.; Räsänen, S.; Roukema, B. F.; Andersson, L.; Coley, A. A.; Wiltshire, D. L. (2015)
    No. In a number of papers, Green and Wald argue that the standard FLRW model approximates our Universe extremely well on all scales, except close to strong-field astrophysical objects. In particular, they argue that the effect of inhomogeneities on average properties of the Universe (backreaction) is irrelevant. We show that this latter claim is not valid. Specifically, we demonstrate, referring to their recent review paper, that (i) their two-dimensional example used to illustrate the fitting problem differs from the actual problem in important respects, and it assumes what is to be proven; (ii) the proof of the trace-free property of backreaction is unphysical and the theorem about it fails to be a mathematically general statement; (iii) the scheme that underlies the trace-free theorem does not involve averaging and therefore does not capture crucial non-local effects; (iv) their arguments are to a large extent coordinate-dependent, and (v) many of their criticisms of backreaction frameworks do not apply to the published definitions of these frameworks. It is therefore incorrect to infer that Green and Wald have proven a general result that addresses the essential physical questions of backreaction in cosmology.