Browsing by Subject "Absorption"

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  • Esterhuizen, Maranda; Schmitner, Nicole; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2021)
    The adverse effects of exposure to microcystins in terrestrial crops have been well documented. However, the retention and bioavailability of microcystin-LR, one of the most prevalent cyanotoxins, from soil to plants, is poorly understood. In the present study, the amount of free microcystin-LR from two soil types, a silty sand and clayey loam, with exposure to three toxin concentrations and time was investigated. Using the two soil types, the effects on Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) growth after microcystin-LR exposure via irrigation with spiked water and pre-spiked soil was investigated and the amount of microcystin-LR taken up by the plant quantified. After 3 weeks of growth, the amount of free microcystin-LR remaining in the two soil types with each treatment was quantified. The results indicated that in clayey loam more microcystin-LR is bound to the soil. However, the growth of Alfalfa was only affected in the clayey loam with microcystin/LR exposure via irrigation. Nevertheless, microcystin-LR was detected in Alfalfa grown in both soil types exposed by both irrigation and via pre-spiked soil. Interestingly, more microcystin-LR remained in the silty sand after 3 weeks; yet, more microcystin-LR was taken up by the Alfalfa grown in the silty sand, with a larger concentration in the roots compared to the shoots. The results indicate that the soil type substantially influences the bioavailability and uptake of microcystin-LR and present some insight into the ecological risk posed by microcystin-LR.
  • Peuhkuri, Katri; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta (2011)
  • Ylöstalo, Pasi; Seppälä, Jukka; Kaitala, Seppo; Maunula, Petri; Simis, Stefan (2016)
    We studied the loadings of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nutrients from the Neva River into the Eastern Gulf of Finland, as well as their distribution within the salinity gradient. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 390 to 840 mu M, and were related to absorption of colored DOM (CDOM) at 350 nm, a(CDOM)(350), ranging from 2.70 to 17.8 m(-1). With increasing salinity both DOC and a(CDOM) decreased, whereas the slope of a(CDOM) spectra, S-CDOM(300-700), ranging from 14.3 to 21.2 mu m(-1), increased with salinity. Deviations of these properties from conservative mixing models were occasionally observed within the salinity range of approximately 1-4, corresponding to the region between 27 and 29 degrees E. These patterns are suggested to mostly reflect seasonal changes in properties of river end-member and hydrodynamics of the estuary, rather than non-conservative processes. On the other hand, observed nonlinear relationships observed between a(CDOM)*(350) and S-CDOM(275-295) emphasized the importance of photochemistry among various transformation processes of DOM. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen was effectively transformed in the estuary into particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), of which DON was mostly exported from the estuary, enhancing productivity in nitrogen limited parts of the Gulf of Finland. DON concentrations ranged from 12.4 to 23.5 mu M and its estuarine dynamics were clearly uncoupled from DOC. In contrast to DOC, estuarine DON dynamics suggest that its production exceeds losses in the estuary. Total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) loadings from the Neva River and St. Petersburg were estimated as 73.5 Gg N yr(-1) and 4.2 Gg P yr(-1), respectively. Approximately 59% of TN and 53% of TP loads were in organic forms. DOC and DON loadings were estimated as 741.4 Gg C yr(-1) and 19.0 Gg N yr(-1), respectively. Our estimate for DOC loading was evaluated against a previously published carbon budget of the Baltic Sea. According to the updated model, the Baltic Sea could be identified as a weak source of carbon into the atmosphere. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Ojala, Krista E M; Schilderink, Ronald; Nykänen, P; van Veen, Bert; Malmström, Chira; Juppo, Anne; Korjamo, Timo (2020)
    The prediction of absorption properties plays a key role in formulation development when the compound under development shows poor solubility and its absorption is therefore presumed to be solubility limited. In our work, we combined and compared data obtained from in vitro dissolution tests, transit intestinal model studies (TIM -1) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling. Our aim was to determine the ability of these methods to predict performance of poorly soluble lipophilic weak base in vivo. The validity of the predictive methods was evaluated against the in vivo clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data obtained after administration of the first test formulation, Tl. The aim of our study was to utilize the models in evaluating absorption properties of the second test formulation, T2, which has not yet been clinically administered. The compound in the studies was ODM-204, which is a novel, orally administered, investigational, nonsteroidal dual inhibitor of CYP17A1 and androgen receptor. Owing to its physicochemical properties ODM-204 is prone to low or variable bioavailability. The models examined provided congruent data on dose dependent absorption, food effect at a dose of 200 mg and on the effect of API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) particle size on absorption. Our study shows that the predictive tools of in vitro dissolution, TIM-1 system and the PBPK (physiologically based pharmacokinetic) simulation, showed predictive power of different mechanisms of bioavailability and together provided valuable information for decision making.