Browsing by Subject "Accessibility"

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  • Jalkanen, Joel; Fabritius, Henna; Vierikko, Kati; Moilanen, Atte; Toivonen, Tuuli (2020)
    Maintaining enough green areas and ensuring fair access to them is a common planning challenge in growing and densifying cities. Evaluations of green area access typically use metrics like population around green areas (within a certain buffer), but these do not fully ensure equitable access. We propose that using systematic and complementarity-driven spatial prioritization, often used in nature conservation planning, could assist in the complex planning challenge. Here, we demonstrate the use of spatial prioritization to identify green areas with highest recreational potential based on their type and their accessibility for the residents of the Helsinki Metropolitan area, the capital district of Finland. We calculated travel times from each city district to each green area. Travel times were calculated separately to local green areas using active travel modes (walking and biking), and to large forests (attracting people from near and far) using public transport. We prioritized the green areas using these multimodal travel times from each district and weighting the prioritization with population data with Zonation, conservation prioritization software. Compared to a typical buffer analysis (population within a 500 m buffer from green areas), our approach identified areas of high recreational potential in different parts of the study area. This approach allows systematic integration of travel-time-based accessibility measures into equitable spatial prioritization of recreational green areas. It can help urban planners to identify sets of green areas that best support the recreational needs of the residents across the city.
  • Hyvönen, Hanna; Anttila, Heidi; Tallqvist, Susanna; Munoz, Minna; Leppäjoki-Tiistola, Sanna; Teittinen, Antti; Mäkitie, Outi; Hiekkala, Sinikka (2020)
    BackgroundSkeletal dysplasias are rare disorders often leading to severe short stature. This study aimed to gain new comprehensive information about functioning and equality in people affected by skeletal dysplasia compared to matched controls without skeletal dysplasia.MethodsFunctioning was assessed by questionnaire, which was formed by operationalizing International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set's categories into the items according to the ICF linking rules, using primarily Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System PROMIS (R) - items.ResultsAltogether 80 subjects with skeletal dysplasia and 55 age-, gender- and place of residence -matched controls participated. People with skeletal dysplasia experienced more pain (p
  • Hyvönen, Hanna; Anttila, Heidi; Tallqvist, Susanna; Muñoz, Minna; Leppäjoki-Tiistola, Sanna; Teittinen, Antti; Mäkitie, Outi; Hiekkala, Sinikka (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Skeletal dysplasias are rare disorders often leading to severe short stature. This study aimed to gain new comprehensive information about functioning and equality in people affected by skeletal dysplasia compared to matched controls without skeletal dysplasia. Methods Functioning was assessed by questionnaire, which was formed by operationalizing International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set’s categories into the items according to the ICF linking rules, using primarily Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System PROMIS® - items. Results Altogether 80 subjects with skeletal dysplasia and 55 age-, gender- and place of residence -matched controls participated. People with skeletal dysplasia experienced more pain (p < 0.001) and the pain interfered more their daily lives (p = 0.037) compared to the controls. They had more problems related to musculoskeletal functions and exercise tolerance, difficulties in mobility, used more assistive products and technology and were more affected by climate and seasonal changes (p < 0.001). They met challenges in self-care, acquisition of goods and services and household tasks (p < 0.001) and in participating in close social relationships, leisure time activities (p < 0.001) and associations and organizational services (p = 0.007). They felt less satisfied with remunerative work (p = 0.003), felt more inequality (p = 0.008), met more negative attitudes of others (p < 0.001) and felt having less support given by family and friends (p = 0.022). They used more social and health services and experienced more dissatisfaction with those. Conclusions Our study indicates that skeletal dysplasias restrict functioning extensively and significantly affect daily living. By building accessible environment and improving equal services, functioning could be improved.
  • Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria; Lattu, Matti Petteri; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (2015)
    Accessibility and transportation possibilities are key factors influencing societal conditions and land use patterns in rural areas. Thus, information on the spatial patterns of accessibility and transportation can be of paramount importance in understanding regional differences in development, human livelihood and land use patterns. Analysing spatio-temporal transportation patterns is particularly challenging in areas where everyday transportation is based on unscheduled public transportation and a naturally controlled seasonal transportation network, such as rivers. Here, our aim is to provide information on the seasonal dynamics of riverine transportation and its effects on accessibility patterns in Peruvian Amazonia. We analysed riverine transportation speeds using a low-cost GPS-based riverboat observation system. Spatio-temporal accessibility patterns were generalised from the GPS-observations that were classified according to seasons into the high water season, intermediate season and low water season. We show that navigation along the rivers has a clear seasonal and directional (upstream/downstream) variation, which varies with different types of rivers based on channel morphology. In addition, we conducted interviews with local people to study their perceptions of the seasonal changes in navigation and the accuracy of transportation schedules. As the travel distances in Peruvian Amazonia are generally long, seasonal and directional differences have clear impacts on the overall accessibility patterns in the area and on the livelihoods of riverine inhabitants. Furthermore, the lack of clearly scheduled transportation causes considerable uncertainty about transportation options for local communities. The baseline information of the seasonal and directional variation of riverine transportation and travel speeds provided by our work is usable in further accessibility and livelihood analyses for Peruvian Amazonia, but it may also be useful in other areas relying on riverine transportation.
  • Norberg, Ulf; Stachl-Peier, Ursula; Tiittula, Liisa (2015)
    Speech-to-text (STT) interpreting is a type of intralingual interpreting mostly used by late deafened and hearing impaired persons who have a spoken language as their first language. In Finland, Sweden and Austria the speech-to-text transfer is performed in real-time by interpreters using a (specially adapted or standard) keyboard that is connected to a screen. As a result of different legislative frameworks governing services for the disabled, STT interpreting has developed differently in different countries and so far there has been little international cooperation. STT interpreting has also been largely ignored by Translation and Interpreting Studies. This paper examines the situation in Finland and Sweden, where STT interpreting training programmes have been available since the 1980s, and Austria, where the first training programme started in 2010, and investigates the norms, values and expectations that guide STT interpreters’ practice in the three countries. It also looks at the factors necessary for the development of a distinct ‘STT interpreting culture’.