Browsing by Subject "Activation"

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  • Haikkola, Lotta (2019)
    Activation policies form the core of employment policies in most OECD countries. They are part of 'active' welfare states and associated neoliberal forms of governance that seek to govern through freedom by producing self-governing and responsible subjectivities. Ethnographies of governmentalities have been used in the research reported in this article to examine if and how such subjectivities are put in practice in street-level encounters in local welfare delivery. Based on an ethnographic research of youth services in the Public Employment Services (PES) in Helsinki, Finland, it is shown that despite the policy focus on active citizenship the street-level practice entails not only liberal ideas of self-governing individuals but also authoritarian measures. What is governed in the meetings is not the young people's selves but their time and behaviour. In the process, the notion of active citizenship is emptied and transformed to mean participation in supervised activities offered by the PES. Such practice also reworks the temporal structures and creates insecure and eventful experience of time for PES clients. In contrast to governing through freedom, the localized interpretation of activation policies represents the authoritarian and paternalistic side of neoliberal governance.
  • Kukkurainen, Sampo; Azizi, Latifeh; Zhang, Pingfeng; Jacquier, Marie-Claude; Baikoghli, Mo; von Essen, Magdalena; Tuukkanen, Anne; Laitaoja, Mikko; Liu, Xiaonan; Rahikainen, Rolle; Orlowski, Adam; Jänis, Janne; Määttä, Juha A. E.; Varjosalo, Markku; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz; Svergun, Dmitri; Cheng, R. Holland; Wu, Jinhua; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard (2020)
    Integrin activation and clustering by talin are early steps of cell adhesion. Membrane-bound talin head domain and kindlin bind to the beta integrin cytoplasmic tail, cooperating to activate the heterodimeric integrin, and the talin head domain induces integrin clustering in the presence of Mn2+. Here we show that kindlin-1 can replace Mn2+ to mediate beta 3 integrin clustering induced by the talin head, but not that induced by the F2-F3 fragment of talin. Integrin clustering mediated by kindlin-1 and the talin head was lost upon deletion of the flexible loop within the talin head F1 subdomain. Further mutagenesis identified hydrophobic and acidic motifs in the F1 loop responsible for beta 3 integrin clustering. Modeling, computational and cysteine crosslinking studies showed direct and catalytic interactions of the acidic F1 loop motif with the juxtamembrane domains of alpha- and beta 3-integrins, in order to activate the beta 3 integrin heterodimer, further detailing the mechanism by which the talin-kindlin complex activates and clusters integrins. Moreover, the F1 loop interaction with the beta 3 integrin tail required the newly identified compact FERM fold of the talin head, which positions the F1 loop next to the inner membrane clasp of the talin-bound integrin heterodimer. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.