Browsing by Subject "Acute heart failure"

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  • Farmakis, Dimitrios; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Baholli, Loant; Bautin, Andrei; Comin-Colet, Josep; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G.; Fedele, Francesco; García-Pinilla, Jose Manuel; Giannakoulas, George; Grigioni, Francesco; Gruchała, Marcin; Gustafsson, Finn; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hasin, Tal; Herpain, Antoine; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K.; Karason, Kristjan; Kivikko, Matti; Liaudet, Lucas; Ljubas-Maček, Jana; Marini, Marco; Masip, Josep; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Nikolaou, Maria; Ostadal, Petr; Põder, Pentti; Pollesello, Piero; Polyzogopoulou, Eftihia; Pölzl, Gerhard; Tschope, Carsten; Varpula, Marjut; von Lewinski, Dirk; Vrtovec, Bojan; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zima, Endre; Parissis, John (2019)
    Inotropes aim at increasing cardiac output by enhancing cardiac contractility. They constitute the third pharmacological pillar in the treatment of patients with decompensated heart failure, the other two being diuretics and vasodilators. Three classes of parenterally administered inotropes are currently indicated for decompensated heart failure, (i) the beta adrenergic agonists, including dopamine and dobutamine and also the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, (ii) the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone and (iii) the calcium sensitizer levosimendan. These three families of drugs share some pharmacologic traits, but differ profoundly in many of their pleiotropic effects. Identifying the patients in need of inotropic support and selecting the proper inotrope in each case remain challenging. The present consensus, derived by a panel meeting of experts from 21 countries, aims at addressing this very issue in the setting of both acute and advanced heart failure. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Öhman, J.; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Karjalainen, P.; Lassus, Johan (2018)
    Aims There is little evidence-based therapy existing for acute heart failure (AHF), hospitalizations are lengthy and expensive, and optimal monitoring of AHF patients during in-hospital treatment is poorly defined. We evaluated a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound (CaTUS) protocol, combining focused echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac filling pressures, that is, medial E/e' and inferior vena cava index, with lung ultrasound (LUS) for guiding treatment in hospitalized AHF patients. Methods and results We enrolled 20 consecutive patients hospitalized for AHF, whose in-hospital treatment was guided using the CaTUS protocol according to a pre-specified treatment protocol targeting resolution of pulmonary congestion on LUS and lowering cardiac filling pressures. Treatment results of these 20 patients were compared with those of a standard care sample of 100 patients, enrolled previously for follow-up purposes. The standard care sample had CaTUS performed daily for follow-up and received standard in-hospital treatment without ultrasound guidance. All CaTUS exams were performed by a single experienced sonographer. The CaTUS-guided therapy resulted in significantly larger decongestion as defined by reduction in symptoms, cardiac filling pressures, natriuretic peptides, cumulative fluid loss, and resolution of pulmonary congestion (P <0.05 for all) despite a shorter mean length of hospitalization. Congestion parameters were significantly lower also at discharge (P <0.05 for all), without any significant difference in these parameters on admission. The treatment arm displayed better survival regarding the combined endpoint of 6 month all-cause death or AHF re-hospitalization (log rank P = 0.017). No significant difference in adverse events occurred between the groups. Conclusions The CaTUS-guided therapy for AHF resulted in greater decongestion during shorter hospitalization without increased adverse events in this small pilot study and might be associated with a better post-discharge prognosis.
  • Miro, Oscar; Gil, Victor; Xipell, Carolina; Sanchez, Carolina; Aguilo, Sira; Martin-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Llorens, Pere; ICA-SEMES Res Grp (2017)
    Objective To define the short-and mid-term outcomes of patients discharged after an episode of acute-decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and evaluate the differences between patients discharged directly from the emergency department (ED) and those discharged after hospitalization. Methods We performed a prospective, multicenter, cohort-designed study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with ADHF in 27 Spanish EDs. Thirty-four variables on epidemiology, comorbidity, baseline status, vital signs, signs of congestion, laboratory tests, and treatment were collected in every patient. The primary outcome was a combined endpoint of ED revisit (without hospitalization) or hospitalization due to ADHF, or all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were each of these three events individually. Outcomes were obtained by survival analysis at different timepoints in the entire cohort, and crude and adjusted comparisons were carried out between patients discharged directly from the ED and after hospitalization. Results Of the 3233 patients diagnosed with ADHF during a 2-month period, we analyzed 2986 patients discharged alive: 787 (26.4%) discharged from the ED and 2199 (73.6%) after hospitalization. The cumulative percentages of events for the whole cohort (at 7/30/180 days) for the combined endpoint were 7.8/24.7/57.8; for ED revisit 2.5/9.4/25.5; for hospitalization 4.6/15.3/40.7; and for death 0.9/4.3/16.8. After adjustment for patient profile and center, significant increases were found in the hazard ratios for ED-compared to hospital-discharged patients in the combined endpoint, ED revisit and hospitalization, being higher at short-term [at 7 days, 2.373 (1.678-3.355), 2.069 (1.188-3.602), and 3.071 (1.915-4.922), respectively] than at mid-term [at 180 days, 1.368 (1.160-1.614), 1.642 (1.265-2.132), and 1.302 (1.044-1.623), respectively]. No significant differences were found in death. Conclusions Patients with ADHF discharged from the ED have worse outcomes, especially at short term, than those discharged after hospitalization. The definition and implementation of effective strategies to improve patient selection for direct ED discharge are needed.
  • Bouchez, S.; Fedele, F.; Giannakoulas, G.; Gustafsson, F.; Harjola, V. -P.; Karason, K.; Kivikko, M.; von Lewinski, D.; Oliva, F.; Papp, Z.; Parissis, J.; Pollesello, Piero; Pölzl, G.; Tschöpe, C. (2018)
    Levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer and potassium channel-opener, is widely appreciated by many specialist heart failure practitioners for its effects on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and for the relief of symptoms of acute heart failure. The drug's impact on mortality in large randomized controlled trials has been inconsistent or inconclusive but, in contrast to conventional inotropes, there have been no indications of worsened survival and some signals of improved heart failure-related quality of life. For this reason, levosimendan has been proposed as a safer inodilator option than traditional agents in settings, such as advanced heart failure. Positive effects of levosimendan on renal function have also been described. At the HEART FAILURE 2018 congress of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, safe and effective use levosimendan in acute and advanced heart failure was examined in a series of expert tutorials. The proceedings of those tutorials are summarized in this review, with special reference to advanced heart failure and heart failure with concomitant renal dysfunction. Meta-analysis of clinical trials data is supportive of a renal-protective effect of levosimendan, while physiological observations suggest that this effect is exerted at least in part via organ-specific effects that may include selective vasodilation of glomerular afferent arterioles and increased renal blood flow, with no compromise of renal oxygenation. These lines of evidence require further investigation and their clinical significance needs to be evaluated in specifically designed prospective trials.
  • EMS-AHF Study Grp; Harjola, Pia; Miro, Oscar; Martin-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Kuisma, Markku; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hoppu, Sanna; Iirola, Timo; Kurola, Jouni; Lund, Vesa; Martikainen, Matti; Makela, Pekka; Torronen, Kari; Wilen, Susanna (2020)
    Aim To illustrate the pre-hospital management arsenals and protocols in different EMS units, and to estimate the perceived difficulty of diagnosing suspected acute heart failure (AHF) compared with other common pre-hospital conditions. Methods and results A multinational survey included 104 emergency medical service (EMS) regions from 18 countries. Diagnostic and therapeutic arsenals related to AHF management were reported for each type of EMS unit. The prevalence and contents of management protocols for common medical conditions treated pre-hospitally was collected. The perceived difficulty of diagnosing AHF and other medical conditions by emergency medical dispatchers and EMS personnel was interrogated. Ultrasound devices and point-of-care testing were available in advanced life support and helicopter EMS units in fewer than 25% of EMS regions. AHF protocols were present in 80.8% of regions. Protocols for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, chest pain, and dyspnoea were present in 95.2, 80.8, and 76.0% of EMS regions, respectively. Protocolized diagnostic actions for AHF management included 12-lead electrocardiogram (92.1% of regions), ultrasound examination (16.0%), and point-of-care testings for troponin and BNP (6.0 and 3.5%). Therapeutic actions included supplementary oxygen (93.2%), non-invasive ventilation (80.7%), intravenous furosemide, opiates, nitroglycerine (69.0, 68.6, and 57.0%), and intubation 71.5%. Diagnosing suspected AHF was considered easy to moderate by EMS personnel and moderate to difficult by emergency medical dispatchers (without significant differences between de novo and decompensated heart failure). In both settings, diagnosis of suspected AHF was considered easier than pulmonary embolism and more difficult than ST-elevation myocardial infarction, asthma, and stroke. Conclusions The prevalence of AHF protocols is rather high but the contents seem to vary. Difficulty of diagnosing suspected AHF seems to be moderate compared with other pre-hospital conditions.
  • Harjola, Pia; Boyd, James; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Mattila, Juho; Koski, Reijo; Kuisma, Markku; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2017)
    Background: Real-life data on the role of emergency medical services (EMS) in acute heart failure (AHF) are scarce. Our aim was to describe prehospital treatment of AHF and to compare patients using EMS with self-presented, non-EMS patients. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from three university hospitals in Helsinki metropolitan area between July 1, 2012 and July 31, 2013. According to the use of EMS, patients were divided into EMS and non-EMS groups. Results: The study included 873 AHF patients. One hundred were (11.5%) EMS and 773 (88.5%) non-EMS. EMS patients more often had comorbidities. Initial heart rate (HR) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) differed between EMS and non-EMS patients; mean HR 89.2 (SD 22.5) vs. 83.7 (21.5)/min (p = 0.02) and SpO(2) 90.3 (8.6) vs. 92.9 (6.6)% (p= 0.01). However, on presentation to ED EMS patients' vital signs were similar to non-EMS patients'. On presentation to ED 46.0% were normotensive and 68.2% "warm and wet". Thirty-four percentage of EMS patients received prehospital medication. In-hospital mortality was 6.0% and 7.1% (p = 0.84) and length of stay (LOS) 7.7 (7.0) and 8.5 (7.9) days (p= 0.36) in EMS and non-EMS groups. Conclusion: The use of EMS and administration of prehospital medication was low. EMS patients had initially worse HR and SpO(2) than non-EMS patients. However, EMS patients' signs improved and were similar on presentation to ED. There were no differences in in-hospital mortality and LOS. This underscores the need for equal attention to any AHF patient independent of the arrival mode. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Harjola, Pia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background: Real-life data on the role of emergency medical services (EMS) in acute heart failure (AHF) are scarce. Our aim was to describe prehospital treatment of AHF and to compare patients using EMS with self-presented, non-EMS patients. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from three university hospitals in Helsinki metropolitan area between July 1 2012 and July 31 2013. According to the use of EMS, patients were divided into EMS and non-EMS groups. Results: The study included 873 AHF patients. One hundred were (11.5%) EMS and 773 (88.5%) non-EMS. EMS patients tended to have more comorbidities. Initial heart rate (HR) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) differed between EMS and non-EMS patients; mean HR 89.2 (SD 22.5) vs. 83.7 (21.5) /min (p=0.02) and SpO2 90.3 (8.6) vs. 92.9 (6.6)% (p=0.01). However, on presentation to ED EMS patients' vital signs were similar to non-EMS patients'. On presentation to ED 46.0% were normotensive and 68.2% "warm and wet". Thirty-four percentage of EMS patients received prehospital medication. In-hospital mortality was 6.0% and 7.1% (p=0.84) and length of stay (LOS) 7.7 (7.0) and 8.5 (7.9) days (p= 0.36) in EMS and non-EMS groups. Conclusion: The use of EMS and administration of prehospital medication was low. EMS patients had initially worse HR and SpO2 than non-EMS patients. However, EMS patients' signs improved and were similar on presentation to ED. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality and LOS. This underscores the need for equal attention to any AHF patient independent of the arrival mode.
  • Jalava, Maina P.; Laakso, Teemu; Virtanen, Marko; Niemelä, Matti; Ahvenvaara, Tuomas; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Maaranen, Pasi; Husso, Annastiina; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Jaakkola, Jussi; Airaksinen, Juhani; Anttila, Vesa; Rosato, Stefano; D’Errigo, Paola; Savontaus, Mikko; Laine, Mika; Mäkikallio, Timo; Valtola, Antti; Raivio, Peter; Eskola, Markku; Biancari, Fausto (2020)
    Background. Patients with severe aortic stenosis and heart failure have poor prognosis, and their outcomes may be suboptimal even after transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Methods. This is an analysis of the nationwide FinnValve registry, which included patients who underwent primary TAVR or SAVR with a bioprothesis for aortic stenosis. We evaluated the outcome of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) within 60 days prior to TAVR or SAVR. Results. The prevalence of recent AHF was 11.4% (484 of 4241 patients) in the SAVR cohort and 11.3% (210 of 1855 patients) in the TAVR cohort. In the SAVR cohort, AHF was associated with lower 30-day survival (91.3% vs 97.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.801, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.125-2.882) and 5-year survival (64.0% vs 81.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.482, 95% CI 1.207-1.821). SAVR patients with AHF had higher risk of major bleeding, need of mechanical circulatory support, acute kidney injury, prolonged hospital stay, and composite end-point (30-day mortality, stroke and/or acute kidney injury). Patients with AHF had a trend toward lower 30-day survival (crude rates 95.2% vs 97.9%; adjusted odds ratio 2.028, 95% CI 0.908-4.529) as well as significantly lower 5-year survival (crude rates 45.3% vs 58.5%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.530, 95% CI 1.185-1.976) also after TAVR. AHF increased the risk of acute kidney injury, prolonged hospital stay, and composite end-point after TAVR. Conclusions. Recent AHF is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity after SAVR and TAVR. These findings suggest that aortic stenosis patients should be referred for invasive treatment before the development of clinically evident heart failure.