Browsing by Subject "Acute intermittent porphyria"

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  • Gouya, Laurent; Ventura, Paolo; Balwani, Manisha; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Rees, David C.; Stölzel, Ulrich; Phillips, John D.; Kauppinen, Raili; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Desnick, Robert J.; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Parker, Charles; Naik, Hetanshi; Badminton, Michael; Stein, Penelope E.; Minder, Elisabeth; Windyga, Jerzy; Bruha, Radan; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Sardh, Eliane; Harper, Pauline; Sandberg, Sverre; Aarsand, Aasne K.; Andersen, Janice; Alegre, Félix; Ivanova, Aneta; Talbi, Neila; Chan, Amy; Querbes, William; Ko, John; Penz, Craig; Liu, Shangbin; Lin, Tim; Simon, Amy; Anderson, Karl E. (2020)
    Abstract Acute hepatic porphyria comprises a group of rare, genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes involved in heme biosynthesis. Patients can experience acute neurovisceral attacks, debilitating chronic symptoms, and long-term complications. There is a lack of multinational, prospective data characterizing the disease and current treatment practices in severely affected patients. EXPLORE is a prospective, multinational, natural history study characterizing disease activity and clinical management in patients with acute hepatic porphyria who experience recurrent attacks. Eligible patients had a confirmed acute hepatic porphyria diagnosis and had experienced ≥3 attacks in the prior 12 months or were receiving prophylactic treatment. A total of 112 patients were enrolled and followed for at least 6 months. In the 12 months prior to the study, patients reported a median (range) of 6 (0-52) acute attacks, with 52 (46%) patients receiving hemin prophylaxis. Chronic symptoms were reported by 73 (65%) patients, with 52 (46%) patients experiencing these daily. During the study, 98 (88%) patients experienced a total of 483 attacks, 77% of which required treatment at a healthcare facility and/or hemin administration (median [range] annualized attack rate 2.0 [0.0-37.0]). Elevated levels of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 messenger ribonucleic acid levels, δ-aminolevulinic acid, and porphobilinogen compared with the upper limit of normal in healthy individuals were observed at baseline and increased further during attacks. Patients had impaired quality of life and increased healthcare utilization. Conclusions: Patients experienced attacks often requiring treatment in a healthcare facility and/or with hemin, as well as chronic symptoms that adversely influence day-to-day functioning. In this patient group, the high disease burden and diminished quality of life highlight the need for novel therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Baumann, Katrin; Kauppinen, Raili (2022)
    Background: Acute hepatic porphyria includes four inherited disorders caused by partial deficiencies of enzymes related to the heme biosynthesis. Clinical manifestations include acute attacks, occurring mainly among female patients. This study describes the diversity of acute symptoms, changes in triggering factors and life expectancy among female patients during the past five decades. Methods: 107 Finnish female patients were enrolled into a retrospective, longitudinal study during 2015. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data was obtained from the medical reports, registry data and a questionnaire designed for the study. Causes of death were studied in additional 32 female patients. Results: Of the 43 patients with hospitalization, 33% had non-complicated, 35% prolonged and 28% severe attacks with no correlation with the disease-causing mutation. Of the deceased patients, 31% died of an acute attack during 1957-1979. Thereafter the incidence and severity of acute attacks have decreased substantially. 55% of the subjects reported acute symptoms (dysautonomia and mental symptoms) without hospitalization, 29% had porphyria symptoms >10 times, and 23% within the last year. Despite 22% of the female patients had died of primary liver cancer, the life expectancy increased more than 10 years during the follow-up, and did not differ from the normal population at present. Conclusions: The incidence of acute attacks requiring hospitalization has decreased, but more than half of the female patients reported acute symptoms affecting their well-being. Symptoms are currently triggered by hormonal changes and weight loss emphasizing the importance of early recognition and active management to avoid disease exacerbation. Death due to primary liver cancer is common and should be screened regularly.
  • Baumann, K.; Kauppinen, R. (2020)
    Objective: Penetrance, predictive value and female patients' perspectives on genetic testing were evaluated among Finnish patients with acute porphyria. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate prognosis among at-risk female family members depending on the primary method of diagnosis. Methods: The penetrance was calculated among 23 genetically heterogeneous families selected from the Finnish porphyria registry (n = 515, AIP 333; VP 182). We included kindreds with >= 9 patients in a family (range 9-23 patients, total 216 AIP; 129 VP). In 2015, the registry included 164 living female subjects between 14 and 85 years of age. A questionnaire was sent to 143 women, of whom 107 (75%, AIP 67; VP 40) replied. Female at-risk relatives (AIP 54; VP 30) were divided into two groups based on the primary method of diagnosis: mutation analysis (Group A, n = 40) or biochemical analysis (Group B, n = 44). Results: Mean penetrance for all acute symptoms was 35% among AIP and 40% among VP families. In both study groups, the penetrance was higher among female (AIP 50%; VP 44%) than male patients (AIP 17%; VP 33%). Penetrance for hospitalized attacks was 30% among AIP families (range 10-80%, for women 41%) and 25% in VP (range 0-50%, for women 27%) demonstrating wide variations among families even with the similar genotype. Acute porphyria was diagnosed at the median age of 26 years (range 0-76 years) among female patients, commonly after the onset of acute symptoms. Diagnostic delay was an average of 7.4 years (range 1-30 years). Acute symptoms occurred at the median age of 24 years (range 10-57 years) and the first hospitalization at the median age of 26.5 years (range 15-57 years). At the onset of symptoms, 38% of the women were Conclusions: Among female at-risk relatives the annual risk for hospitalization due to an acute attack is <1% and for acute symptoms <2% during the fertile years. Genetic testing of relatives diminishes the risk of acute attacks. Diagnosis before symptom onset is key for subjects to remain asymptomatic during follow-up, and genetic screening should be done earlier than currently.