Browsing by Subject "Acute otitis media"

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  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Jero, Jussi (2016)
    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.
  • Seppala, Elina; Sillanpaa, Saara; Nurminen, Noora; Huhtala, Heini; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Sipila, Markku; Laranne, Jussi; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyoty, Heikki (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM). OBJECTIVES:The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms were recorded by a questionnaire every 3-6 months. RESULTS:Altogether 610 AOM episodes were reported during the follow-up. 9.8% of the stool samples were positive for HRV and 6.8% for HEV. HRV positivity peaked at the age of 3-6 months declining gradually after this age, whereas HEV positivity peaked later, at the age of 12-24 months. The risk of AOM was increased in children who were HEV positive at least once at the age of 6-12 months (OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.1-4.2], P=0.023) or who were HRV positive at least once at the age of 18-24 months (OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.0-5.2], P=0.042). Having an older sibling, short breast-feeding and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also significantly associated with AOM. CONCLUSIONS: HRV and HEV infections are frequent during the first months of life. The observed trend for increased risk of AOM in HRV and HEV positive children is in line with the results from hospital series suggesting that these viruses may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of AOM. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.