Browsing by Subject "Adipogenesis"

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  • Huttala, Outi; Mysore, R.; Sarkanen, J. R.; Heinonen, T.; Olkkonen, Vesa; Ylikomi, T. (2016)
    Adipose tissue-related diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are worldwide epidemics. In order to develop adipose tissue cultures in vitro that mimic more faithfully the in vivo physiology, new well-characterized and publicly accepted differentiation methods of human adipose stem cells are needed. The aims of this study are (1) to improve the existing natural adipose tissue extract (ATE)-based induction method and (2) to study the effects of a differentiation method on insulin responsiveness of the resulting adipocytes. Different induction media were applied on human adipose stromal cell (hASC) monocultures to study the differentiation capacity of the induction media and the functionality of the differentiated adipocytes. Cells were differentiated for 14 days to assess triglyceride accumulation per cell and adipocyte-specific gene expression (PPAR gamma, adiponectin, AP2, leptin, Glut4, Prdm16, CIDEA, PGC1-alpha, RIP140, UCP and ADCY5). Insulin response was studied by measuring glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis after incubation with 100 or 500 nM insulin. The selected differentiation method included a 3-day induction with ATE, 6 days in serum-free medium supplemented with 1.15 mu M insulin and 9.06 mu M Troglitazone, followed by 4 days in a defined serum- and insulin-free stimulation medium. This protocol induced prominent general adipocyte gene expression, including markers for both brown and white adipocytes and triglyceride accumulation. Moreover, the cells were sensitive to insulin as observed from increased glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis. This differentiation protocol provides a promising approach for the induction of hASC adipogenesis to obtain functional and mature human adipocytes.
  • Mysore, Raghavendra; Zhou, You; Sädevirta, Sanja; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Haridas, P. A. Nidhina; Soronen, Jarkko; Leivonen , Marja; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2016)
    We investigated the expression of miR-192* (miR-192-3p) in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects and its function in cultured human adipocytes. This miRNA is a 3' arm derived from the same pre-miRNA as miR-192 (miR-192-5p) implicated in type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cancers, and is predicted to target key genes in lipid metabolism. In morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery preceded by a very low calorie diet, miR-192* in VAT correlated negatively (r = -0.387; p = 0.046) with serum triglyceride (TG) and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (r = 0.396; p = 0.041). In a less obese patient cohort, the miRNA correlated negatively with the body mass index (r = -0.537; p = 0.026). To characterize the function of miR-192*, we overexpressed it in cultured adipocytes and analyzed the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers as well as cellular TG content. Reduced TG and expression of the adipocyte marker proteins aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) and perilipin 1 were observed. The function of miR-192* was further investigated by transcriptomic profiling of adipocytes expressing this miRNA, revealing impacts on key lipogenic genes. A number of the mRNA alterations were validated by qPCR. Western analysis confirmed a marked reduction of the lipogenic enzyme SCD (stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase-1), the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3A2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A2) and the high-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 (scavenger receptor B, type I). SCD and ALDH3A2 were demonstrated to be direct targets of miR-192*. To conclude, the present data identify miR-192* as a novel controller of adipocyte differentiation and lipid homeostasis. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ahonen, Maria A.; Haridas, P. A. Nidhina; Mysore, Raghavendra; Wabitsch, Martin; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2019)
    MicroRNA-107 (miR-107) plays a regulatory role in obesity and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms of its function in adipocytes have not been elucidated in detail. Here we show that overexpression of miR-107 in pre- and mature human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes attenuates differentiation and lipid accumulation. Our results suggest that miR-107 controls adipocyte differentiation via CDK6 and Notch signaling. CDK6 is a validated target of miR-107 and was downregulated upon miR-107 overexpression. Notch3, a signaling receptor involved in adipocyte differentiation, has been shown to decrease upon CDK6 depletion; Here Notch3 and its target Hes1 were downregulated by miR-107 overexpression. In mature adipocytes, miR-107 induces a triglyceride storage defect by impairing glucose uptake and triglyceride synthesis. To conclude, our data suggests that miR-107 has distinct functional roles in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes; Its elevated expression at these different stages of adipocytes may on one hand dampen adipogenesis, and on the other, promote ectopic fatty acid accumulation and reduced glucose tolerance.