Browsing by Subject "Administration"

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  • Wirta, Kaarle; Tikka, Katja; Björklund, Jaakko (2022)
    The article illustrates the importance of business diplomacy practised by free agents, who navigated and negotiated between northern European empires for widespread commercial, legal and administrative developments. Abraham Cabiljau’s career is an example from the early modern Swedish empire, which stands on the threshold of a new era. In the Swedish empire, Cabiljau was involved in several different sectors, from military recruitment to the development of state accounting and administration of international trade. He represents the Swedish empire’s vast economic relationships with international merchant networks operating in a broad spectrum of military and commercial arenas. The Swedish empire was economically dependent on the financial resources of the merchants in Amsterdam, and economic prosperity was not the sole contribution of these merchants. The education, knowledge and connections provided by Cabiljau greatly enhanced the administration and organisation of Sweden’s international trade by importing a new legal mindset and organisational culture. In return, northern mining resources and Baltic commerce were alluring for Dutch merchants. We argue that the modelling of international organisations was an essential part of Swedish economic development. However, the first Swedish trading companies remained an experimental attempt to transplant the Dutch East India Company (VOC) model to Sweden. Individuals like Cabiljau represent key actors who ignited, taught and promoted commercial law development in Sweden, on which international commerce was later built upon, with long-lasting impacts.
  • Kettunen, Karoliina; Nevas, Mari; Lunden, Janne (2017)
    We surveyed Finnish local food control officials' opinions about the use and challenges of administrative enforcement measures. Responses to the questionnaire were received from a total of 129 food control officials, covering 72.6% of the 62 local food control units in Finland. In the opinion of 42.7% of the respondents, enforcement measures are not used often enough in their unit to ensure forod safety. Based on our results, large units have better practical tools such as templates for enforcement decisions and guidelines that facilitate the use of enforcement measures than small units, but uncertain practices and a lack of routine appear to impede the use of the measures in many units. Particular challenges highlighted by the officials were related to laboriousness and slowness of the administrative process and reasoning for using enforcement measures. Moreover, impairment of cooperation with the food business operator as a consequence of using enforcement measures was of concern for many officials. The officials assessed the expertise of the head of the unit more positively in the units in which enforcement measures were used than in the units in which enforcement measures were not used, and participation in trainings was the strongest explanatory factor for the use of enforcement measures among the inspectors. Our results indicate that development of operating procedures and provision of specific training on administrative procedure with a practical approach play a key role in strengthening officials' expertise and confidence in using enforcement measures. Moreover, merging the small units with the large ones may promote uniform practices and better capabilities to use enforcement measures in all units. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa (2018)
    The article analyzes the evolution of Russian migration policy vis-à-vis national security thinking in a historical perspective. The idea put forward is that Russian migration policy is built on the early Soviet experiences of population control, in which ‘national security’ was an essential component of policy developments. In today’s conditions, the interconnectedness of transnational security challenges, such as large-scale migration, is an important factor that officially motivates Russia to emphasize pragmatic institutional choices. Russia has followed the global trend of securitization of legislation and administrative policies underlying the re-emergence of national security as an important policy framework. This ambitious framework is constrained by unfinished institutional changes and legacies rooted in the Soviet past. Migration continues to be an arena of policy-making where different interests override each other. Russian migration policy can best be described as an attempt to find a balance between economic incentives and security concerns, or between institutional pathologies and recycled dysfunctions and the need for modernization.