Browsing by Subject "Adsorption"

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  • Suuronen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    People spend more than 90% of time indoors. That has made the analysis of indoor air quality an subject of interest. There is a growing popularity of miniaturized sample extraction techniques utilizing solid adsorbent materials and thermal desorption allowing direct sample introduction for analysis. This approach is solvent free and there is possibility for reusing adsorbent materials depending of adsorbent properties. This thesis covers the basics of adsorption-desorption process and takes detailed look on different adsorbent materials such as activated carbon (AC), metal-organic framework (MOF) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and evaluates the effect of surface functionality and pore size distribution for adsorption process. In experimental part, a self-made autosampler functionality and its injection parameters were optimized. The autosampler is able to independently inject up to six in-tube extraction (ITEX) needles with complete desorption. The ITEX was constructed during this experiment with TENAX-GR adsorbent and the repeatability of autosampler and ITEXs were tested and compared to commercial system with extraction of different amines. The effectiveness of this system was also demonstrated for indoor volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis.
  • Kinnunen, Niko; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Pumpanen, Jukka; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Palviainen, Marjo (2021)
    A 96-h laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the potential of biochar as a water protection tool for acid sulfate soil runoff. Acid sulfate soils pose a risk to water bodies due to acid, metal-rich runoff, especially in drained peatland forests. New water protection methods, such as adsorption with biochar, are needed. We investigated the capability of spruce and birch biochar to adsorb metals and reduce acidity in the water. Water from an acid sulfate site was stirred with biochar, biochar with lime, and biochar with ash. We determined water Al, S, Fe, Cu, Co, Cd, Ni, and Zn concentrations periodically, as well as pH and total organic carbon at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The studied substances are considered the most abundant and environmentally harmful elements in the acid sulfate soils in Finland. Biochar surface characteristics were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. Concentration changes were used to parametrize adsorption kinetics models. Biochar adsorbed metals and increased pH, but lime and ash additives did not always improve the adsorption. Spruce biochar and ash addition had generally higher adsorption than birch biochar and lime addition. The adsorption was dominated by Al and Fe at lower pH, while increasing pH improved the adsorption of Cd and Zn. The results show that biochar can increase the water pH, as well as adsorb Al, Fe, Co, Cd, Ni, and Zn. Further work could include an actual-scale biochar reactor in a laboratory and field conditions.
  • Virtanen, Tiina; Parkkila, Petteri; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Lahti, Jussi; Viitala, Tapani; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Bunker, Alex (2018)
    Adsorptive fouling, by phenolic compounds, is a serious issue regarding the development and use of membrane based filtration technologies for water purification and wastewater treatment. We have developed a novel, combined, protocol of Raman spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments, along with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, to study the interaction of vanillin, a model phenolic compound, with the polyethersulfone (PES) surface of a membrane. The adsorption of vanillin to the PES surface was found to be highly pH dependent; the source of this was determined, by MD simulation, to be the stronger interaction with the protonated form of vanillin, predominant at low pH. Vanillin interacts with the PES surface, both through entropy driven, hydrophobic, interactions and, for the case of the protonated form, H-bonding of the hydroxyl group with the sulphur oxygens of the PES molecules. In addition to general insight into the fouling process that can be used to develop new methods to inhibit adsorptive fouling, our results also elucidate the specific interaction of the PES membrane with vanillin that can be used in the development of anti-fouling coatings, based on the structure of vanillin.
  • Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E.; Soltanpour-Gargari, A. (Elsevier, 2003)
    Adsorption and desorption of mercury was studied under laboratory conditions using moss (Sphagnum girgensohnii) and Rye grass (Lolium perenne) at different temperatures.Desorption was also studied in a transplantation experiment. The adsorption was rapid and strong for both plant species at different temperatures (q10 to q60 8C) and exposure times (1 h, 1 month) while the evaporation was negligible.Also the leaching of adsorbed mercury was of minor importance.The results emphasise the importance of vegetation in removal of mercury from the atmosphere. They also confirm the suitability of moss and grass for biomonitoring purposes.The high retention of mercury in moss even at q60 8C indicates the possibility of using higher temperatures in pretreatment of samples for mercury analyses. (c) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Fu, Zihao; He, Ning; Zhou, Putian; Xie, Hong-Bin; Fu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Cong; Chen, Jingwen (2019)
    Aniline has been found to have frequent environmental occurrence and high toxicity. However, little study has been performed on its environmental fate. Here, we employed Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations (GCMC) to investigate the adsorption behavior of aniline on hexagonal ice surface at 200 K using our modified force field of aniline and TIP5P force field of water. The results indicate that the adsorption isotherm of aniline exhibits a “monolayer saturation plateau”, starting with a rapid increase, then a plateau, and finally a condensed phase. Under very low surface coverage, the adsorption isotherm apparently follows Langmuir type adsorption isotherm although anilines can be adsorbed to various sites. Within the range of the apparent Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm, adsorbed anilines are independent from each other and most anilines are almost parallel to the ice surface and form two N−H•••O hydrogen bonds. With the increase of coverage, the adsorbed anilines can interact with each other, resulting in the deviation from the apparent Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. In addition, the adsorption energy from GCMC simulation (−65.91 kJ mol−1) is well consistent that from our validating quantum chemistry calculation (−69.34 kJ mol−1), further confirming the reliability of our GCMC simulation results.
  • Näkki, Pinja; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva Liisa; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Kankaanpää, Harri; Setälä, Outi; Vahtera, Emil; Lehtiniemi, Maiju (2021)
    Resistant to degradation, plastic litter poses a long-term threat to marine ecosystems. Biodegradable materials have been developed to replace conventional plastics, but little is known of their impacts and degradation in marine environments. A 14-week laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to conventional (polystyrene PS and polyamide PA) and bio-based, biodegradable plastic films (cellulose acetate CA and poly-L-lactic acid PLLA), and to examine the composition of bacterial communities colonizing these materials. Mesoplastics (1 cm(2)) of these materials were incubated in sediment and seawater collected from two sites in the Gulf of Finland, on the coast of the highly urbanized area of Helsinki, Finland. PS sorbed more PAHs than did the other plastic types at both sites, and the concentration of PAHs was consistently and considerably smaller in plastics than in the sediment. In general, the plastic bacterial biofilms resembled those in the surrounding media (water and/or sediment). However, in the sediment incubations, the community composition on CA diverged from that of the other three plastic types and was enriched with Bacteroidia and potentially cellulolytic Spirochaetia at both sites. The results indicate that certain biodegradable plastics, such as CA, may harbour potential bioplastic-degrading communities and that PAH sorption capacity varies between polymer types. Since biodegradable plastics are presented as replacements for conventional plastics in applications with risk of ending up in the marine environment, the results highlight the need to carefully examine the environmental behaviour of each biodegradable plastic type before they are extensively introduced to the market. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.