Browsing by Subject "Adverse event"

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  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2017)
    Objective: To assess the success and factors affecting early intrauterine device (IUD) provision after first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). Study design: Subgroup analysis of a randomized contraceptive trial assessing the long-term effects of early provision of intrauterine contraception following abortion. Altogether, 606 women undergoing MTOP were included and followed for 3 months. The intervention group (n=307) was offered an IUD (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-IUD) at a follow-up visit 1-4 weeks after MTOP. The control group (n=299) contacted primary health care for follow-up and contraceptive provision. Adverse events (infections, bleeding, residual tissue and incomplete abortion) were analyzed on intention-to-treat basis and IUD expulsions on per-protocol (PP) basis. Results: In the intervention group, 234 women (76.2%) received the IUD as scheduled, 46 later (altogether 91.2%). In the control group, the corresponding figures were 8 (2.7%) and 64 [altogether 24.1%, Odds ratio (OR) (95% Confidence interval (Cl)) = 32.7 (20.3-52.6)]. Eighty-five (27.7%) women in the intervention group and 38 (12.7%) in the control group received treatment (administration of antibiotics, misoprostol or surgical evacuation) because of presumed adverse event [2.63 (1.72-4.01)], mainly residual tissue. In the control group, 23 (60.5%) of these occurred during the first 2 weeks. IUD expulsion occurred in 12 (5.4%) of the 222 women in the intervention group (PP basis). Conclusions: When provided as part of abortion service, most early insertions following MTOP were performed as planned. The main reason for postponement was overdiagnosis of adverse events suspected at follow-up. The rate of IUD expulsion was similar to that reported previously. Implications: Early insertion following MTOP is safe, and the rate of IUD expulsion is low. Most adverse events possibly delaying IUD insertion occur early. Based on timing of adverse events in the control group, IUD insertion at approximately 2 weeks after completed MTOP seems optimal. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Oura, Petteri (2022)
    Urban-rural disparity constitutes a major source of health inequity also in high-income countries. This study aimed to compare the distribution of deaths due to medical adverse events across urbanization levels among US hospital inpatients. An open dataset from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) comprised all certified deaths of US inpatients over the period 2010-2019. The urbanization level of each decedent was determined in accordance with the 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme (large metropolitan, medium or small metropolitan, or nonmetropolitan). The outcome was death due to a medical adverse event (ICD-10 codes Y40-Y84) proportional to total inpatient deaths. The data were standardized for sex, ethnicity, and age, and analyzed with linear mixed models. Of the 8 071 907 certified inpatient deaths during the study period, 21 444 (0.27%) were primarily attributed to medical adverse events. Decedents who resided in medium or small metropolitans and nonmetropolitans had approximately 0.5 units higher rate of adverse events per 1000 deaths (corresponding to a relative differece of 20%) when compared to decedents who resided in large metropolitans. Moreover, the urban-rural gradients showed an increasing trend towards the end of the study period, as the difference was found to increase at a rate of approximately 0.1 units per year (3%). There were no statistically significant differences between decedents from medium or small metropolitans and nonmetropolitans. The present findings highlight gradients in adverse event deaths between geographic areas, providing a basis for targeted preventive efforts. Future studies are invited to elucidate the underlying phenomena.