Browsing by Subject "Aerosols"

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  • Assendelft, Alexader van; Rosendahl, Henrik; Groop, Per-Henrik; Kovanen, Petri (2020)
    Koronatartunnan tiedetään levinneen ihmisten kokoontumisissa, vaikkei kenelläkään ole ollut oireita, kuten yskää. Aerosolivälitteinen tartuntavaara syntyy lähekkäin puhuessakin – tai kirkkokuoron harjoituksissa.
  • Lauer, Axel; Eyring, Veronika; Righi, Mattia; Buchwitz, Michael; Defourny, Pierre; Evaldsson, Martin; Friedlingstein, Pierre; de Jeu, Richard; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Loew, Alexander; Merchant, Christopher J.; Mueller, Benjamin; Popp, Thomas; Reuter, Maximilian; Sandven, Stein; Senftleben, Daniel; Stengel, Martin; Van Roozendael, Michel; Wenzel, Sabrina; Willen, Ulrika (2017)
    The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is now moving into its sixth phase and aims at a more routine evaluation of the models as soon as the model output is published to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). To meet this goal the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool), a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the systematic evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) in CMIP, has been developed and a first version (1.0) released as open source software in 2015. Here, an enhanced version of the ESMValTool is presented that exploits a subset of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) Phase 2 and this version is used to demonstrate the value of the data for model evaluation. This subset includes consistent, long-term time series of ECVs obtained from harmonized, reprocessed products from different satellite instruments for sea surface temperature, sea ice, cloud, soil moisture, land cover, aerosol, ozone, and greenhouse gases. The ESA CCI data allow 'extending the calculation of performance metrics as summary statistics for some variables and add an important alternative data set in other cases where observations are already available. The provision of uncertainty estimates on a per grid basis for the ESA CCI data sets is used in a new extended version of the Taylor diagram and provides important additional information for a more objective evaluation of the models. In our analysis we place a specific focus on the comparability of model and satellite data both in time and space. The ESA CCI data are well suited for an evaluation of results from global climate models across ESM compartments as well as an analysis of long-term trends, variability and change in the context of a changing climate. The enhanced version of the ESMValTool is released as open source software and ready to support routine model evaluation in CMIP6 and at individual modeling centers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Durand, Maxime; Murchie, Erik H.; Lindfors, Anders; Urban, Otmar; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Robson, T. Matthew (2021)
    The sunlight received by plants is affected by cloudiness and pollution. Future changes in cloud cover will differ among regions, while aerosol concentrations are expected to continue increasing globally as a result of wildfires, fossil fuel combustion, and industrial pollution. Clouds and aerosols increase the diffuse fraction and modify the spectral composition of incident solar radiation, and both will affect photosynthesis and terrestrial ecosystem productivity. Thus, an assessment of how canopy and leaf-level processes respond to these changes is needed as part of accurately forecasting future global carbon assimilation. To review these processes and their implications: first, we discuss the physical basis of the effect of clouds and aerosols on solar radiation as it penetrates the atmosphere; second, we consider how direct and diffuse radiation are absorbed and transmitted by plant canopies and their leaves; and finally, we assess the consequences for photosynthesis at the canopy and ecosystem levels. Photobiology will be affected at the atmospheric level by a shift in spectral composition toward shorter or longer wavelengths under clouds or aerosols, respectively, due to different scattering. Changes in the microclimate and spectral composition of radiation due to an enhanced diffuse fraction also depend on the acclimation of canopy architectural and physiological traits, such as leaf area index, orientation, and clumping. Together with an enhancement of light-use efficiency, this makes the effect of diffuse solar radiation on canopy photosynthesis a multilayered phenomenon, requiring experimental testing to capture those complex interactions that will determine whether it produces the persistent enhancement in carbon assimilation that land-surface models currently predict.
  • Oksanen, Lotta-Maria; Sanmark, Enni; Tuhkuri, Anna; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Geneid, Ahmed (2021)
  • Zubko, Nataliya; Muñoz, Olga; Zubko, Evgenij; Gritsevich, Maria; Escobar-Cerezo, Jesús; Berg, Matthew J.; Peltoniemi, Jouni (2019)
    The light-scattering properties of volcanic sand collected in Iceland are studied here to characterize the sand particles and develop a reference for future remote-sensing observations. While such sand is common in Iceland, the smaller-size fraction can be readily transported by winds and found in the atmosphere at distant locations. The sand appears dark when deposited on a surface due to the high optical absorption of the material. Therefore, atmospheric regions containing such particles during a dust storm may absorb sunlight considerably, causing redistribution of solar energy. Here, we measure the angular scattered-light intensity and degree of linear polarization from the sand. This is done with two experimental apparatuses, the Cosmic Dust Laboratory (CoDuLab) at the Institute de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) and the goniospectropolarimeter (FIGIFIGO) at the Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI). Two scattering-scenarios of practical interest for remote-sensing applications are considered: (1) single sand-particles suspended in aerosol as an optically thin cloud, and (2) the same particles deposited on a substrate. We also model the measurements with the discrete dipole approximation to estimate the complex-valued refractive index m, where we find that m ≈ 1.6 + 0.01i at λ = 647 nm. Lastly, we present a comparative analysis of the polarimetric response of the sand particles with that reported in the literature for carbon-soot, another highly absorbing atmospheric contaminant.