Browsing by Subject "Affect"

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  • Adriaense, J. E. C.; Koski, S. E.; Huber, L.; Lamm, C. (2020)
    The aim of this review is to discuss recent arguments and findings in the comparative study of empathy. Based on a multidisciplinary approach including psychology and ethology, we review the non-human animal literature concerning theoretical frameworks, methodology, and research outcomes. One specific objective is to highlight discrepancies between theory and empirical findings, and to discuss ambiguities present in current data and their interpretation. In particular, we focus on emotional contagion and its experimental investigation, and on consolation and targeted helping as measures for sympathy. Additionally, we address the feasibility of comparing across species with behavioural data alone. One main conclusion of our review is that animal research on empathy still faces the challenge of closing the gap between theoretical concepts and empirical evidence. To advance our knowledge, we propose to focus more on the emotional basis of empathy, rather than on possibly ambiguous behavioural indicators, and we provide suggestions to overcome the limitations of previous research
  • Koivunen, Anu; Kanner, Antti; Janicki, Maciej Michal; Harju, Auli; Hokkanen, Julius; Mäkelä, Eetu (2021)
    In this article, we introduce a linguistic approach to studying affectivity as a fundamental feature of news journalism. By reconceptualising affectivity beyond emotive storytelling, intentional stance-taking or evaluative expression, we propose a methodology that highlights how conventions related to mediating, modulating and managing affectivity permeate journalistic genres. Drawing from conversation analysis, Bakhtinian theory of language as dialogical and notion of affective meaning-making, we investigate how selected linguistic forms and structures – namely evidential and epistemic modals and lexical items signalling affective intensity (such as emotive and evaluative words and metaphorical expressions) – participate in affective meaning-making in news journalism. A scalable computational methodology is introduced to study multiple linguistic structures in conjunction. In investigating a case study – the news reporting and commentary on a highly charged, year-long political conflict between the right-wing conservative government and the trade unions in Finland (2015–2016) – the approach allows a focus on the ways in which affectivity operates in journalistic texts in response to both generic expectations of the audience and journalistic conventions. Our findings include identification of the intertwining of strategic rituals of objectivity and emotionality, recognition of metaphoricity as a key source of affectivity and detection of different news article types having their own conventions for managing affectivity. We also observe a connection between emotive and evaluative words and the grammatical constructions used to express degrees of certainty, which suggests these modal constructions play an important part in how affectivity informs journalistic texts.
  • Helosvuori, Elina (2020)
    For over four decades, feminist studies of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been interested in the ethical, political and personal implications of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other infertility treatments. Most work on the implications of ART for women has focused on the demanding cyclical process of trying to become pregnant by using the technology. However, less attention has been paid to the implications of experiencing IVF after the conception phase. This article tackles the under-researched topic of the aftermath of IVF, and discusses the temporality of affective embodied experiences of infertility after one has stopped IVF. Drawing on an ethnographic study of peer support groups for the involuntarily childless in Finland, and on in-depth interviews with women suffering from infertility, this article juxtaposes two groups of women who have had IVF: those who have had children as a result of the procedure, and those who have not. The article proposes an exploration of experiences of childlessness after IVF as 'lingering technological entanglements' - that is, as affective and embodied experiences of the effects of IVF, including after the cessation of treatment. It argues that the lingering of these entanglements manifests itself in the enactment of childlessness in relation to the available technology. Furthermore, this results in parents identifying themselves as childless, even after they have gained temporal distance from IVF practices.
  • Määttanen, Ilmari; Henttonen, Pentti; Väliaho, Julius; Palomäki, Jussi; Thibault, Maisa; Kallio, Johanna; Mäntyjärvi, Jani; Harviainen, Tatu; Jokela, Markus (2021)
    Personality describes the average behaviour and responses of individuals across situations; but personality traits are often poor predictors of behaviour in specific situations. This is known as the "personality paradox". We evaluated the interrelations between various trait and state variables in participants' everyday lives. As state measures, we used 1) experience sampling methodology (ESM/EMA) to measure perceived affect, stress, and presence of social company; and 2) heart rate variability and 3) real-time movement (accelerometer data) to indicate physiological stress and physical movement. These data were linked with self-report measures of personality and personality-like traits. Trait variables predicted affect states and multiple associations were found: traits neuroticism and rumination decreased positive affect state and increased negative affect state. Positive affect state, in turn, was the strongest predictor of observed movement. Positive affect was also associated with heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Negative affect, in turn, was not associated with neither movement, HR or HRV. The study provides evidence on the influence of personality-like traits and social context to affect states, and, in turn, their influence to movement and stress variables.
  • Jonauskaite, Domicele; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Atitsogbe, Kokou Amenyona; Barma, Marodégueba; Barratt, Daniel; Bogushevskaya, Victoria; Bouayed Meziane, Maliha Khadidja; Chamseddine, Amer; Charernboom, Thammanard; Chkonia, Eka; Ciobanu, Teofil; Corona, Violeta; Creed, Allison; Dael, Nele; Daouk, Hassan; Dimitrova, Nevena; Doorenbos, Cornelis B.; Fomins, Sergejs; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Gaspar, Augusta; Gizdic, Alena; Griber, Yulia A.; Grimshaw, Gina; Hasan Aya, Ahmed; Havelka, Jelena; Hirnstein, Marco; Karlsson, Bodil S.A.; Kim, Jejoong; Konstantinou, Nikos; Laurent, Eric; Lindeman, Marjaana; Manav, Banu; Marquardt, Lynn; Mefoh, Philip; Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Mutandwa, Phillip; Muthusi, Steve; Ngabolo, Georgette; Oberfeld, Daniel; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Perchtold, Corinna M.; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia; Pouyan, Niloufar; Rashid Soron, Tanjir; Roinishvili, Maya; Romanyuk, Lyudmyla; Salgado Montejo, Alejandro; Sultanova, Aygun; Tau, Ramiro; Uusküla, Mari; Vainio, Suvi; Vargas-Soto, Veronica; Volkan, Eliz; Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Zdravković, Sunčica; Zhang, Meng; Mohr, Christine (2019)
    Across cultures, people associate colours with emotions. Here, we test the hypothesis that one driver of this cross-modal correspondence is the physical environment we live in. We focus on a prime example – the association of yellow with joy, – which conceivably arises because yellow is reminiscent of life-sustaining sunshine and pleasant weather. If so, this association should be especially strong in countries where sunny weather is a rare occurrence. We analysed yellow-joy associations of 6625 participants from 55 countries to investigate how yellow-joy associations varied geographically, climatologically, and seasonally. We assessed the distance to the equator, sunshine, precipitation, and daytime hours. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants who live further away from the equator and in rainier countries are more likely to associate yellow with joy. We did not find associations with seasonal variations. Our findings support a role for the physical environment in shaping the affective meaning of colour.
  • Graziotin, Daniel; Fagerholm, Fabian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka (2018)
    The growing literature on affect among software developers mostly reports on the linkage between happiness, software quality, and developer productivity. Understanding happiness and unhappiness in all its components – positive and negative emotions and moods – is an attractive and important endeavor. Scholars in industrial and organizational psychology have suggested that understanding happiness and unhappiness could lead to cost-effective ways of enhancing working conditions, job performance, and to limiting the occurrence of psychological disorders. Our comprehension of the consequences of (un)happiness among developers is still too shallow, being mainly expressed in terms of development productivity and software quality. In this paper, we study what happens when developers are happy and unhappy while developing software. Qualitative data analysis of responses given by 317 questionnaire participants identified 42 consequences of unhappiness and 32 of happiness. We found consequences of happiness and unhappiness that are beneficial and detrimental for developers’ mental well-being, the software development process, and the produced artifacts. Our classification scheme, available as open data enables new happiness research opportunities of cause-effect type, and it can act as a guideline for practitioners for identifying damaging effects of unhappiness and for fostering happiness on the job.
  • Hannula, Markku S. (2019)
    This article is a commentary for the special issue on affect and mathematics in young children, written from the perspective of research on affect in mathematics education. The studies in this special issue focus on the individual learners' affective traits and use primarily surveys as the method. The most common type of affect is emotions, but some studies do examine student beliefs and motivation. The analysis of concept definitions and operationalizations identified some inconsistencies between the different articles, especially with how they operationalize anxiety either as sadness, worry, or fear. The results of the studies provide evidence that young learners' affect can be reliably measured and that there is a correlation between affect and achievement. This correlation is weaker than for older students and longitudinal data suggests that the causal direction is more likely from achievement to affect.
  • Korhonen, Marie; Luoma, Ilona (2017)
    •Äidin masennus suurentaa lapsen käytösongelmien ja tunne-elämän oireiden riskiä. •Etenkin raskausaikana tai synnytyksen jälkeen ilmenevät masennusoireet voivat vaikuttaa sikiön ja imeväisen aivojen kehitykseen ja siten myöhemmin lapsen stressinsietokykyyn, oppimiseen sekä käytöksen ja tunne-elämän säätelyyn. •Masennuksen negatiivisia vaikutuksia voivat lisätä tai välittää geneettinen alttius ja herkkyys, kiintymys¬suhteen laatu, lapsen ja vanhemman vuorovaikutussuhde, lapsen yksilölliset ominaisuudet, sukupuoli ja -riskitekijöiden kumuloituminen. •Interventiot tulisi kohdistaa ennaltaehkäisevästi koko perheeseen.
  • Haavisto, Rosa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In the past years social equality has been a hot topic in the western world. Traditional social hierarchies have been challenged by feminist policies, women’s increased societal engagement and the recognition of the rights of historically oppressed groups. However, the advancements in equality have not been embraced unanimously, as anti-feminist and racist discourses have reared its head, especially online. Central in modern anti-feminist discourse is the idea of reversed gender hierarchy: that historical female oppression never existed, and thus feminist policies supporting women and minorities are actually discriminating men. The aim of these discourses is to sustain traditional social hierarchies favouring white western men. Today’s anti-feminist mobilization consists by large of angry white men, trying to renew the respect and honour of traditional masculinity. By leaning on the theoretical frameworks of social constructionism and critical discursive psychology (CDP), this thesis examined how discourses resisting social equality manifest online. Especially of interest was how affects, as discursive action, were used to constitute understandings of equality. In this, this thesis leaned on Wetherell’s theory of affective-discursive practice (2012) and treated affects as part of the discursive realm. The data used consisted of blog posts written by a globally known public figure, Jordan Peterson, who in newspapers has been cited as the most influential public intellectual of the western world. The aim of this study was to explore what kinds of interpretative repertoires were drawn upon in Peterson’s writings when discussing social equality, and how affect and discourse worked together in positioning within these meanings. As CDP carries the idea of broader societal implications, this study also discusses how the meanings and positions constructed in Peterson’s writings relate to larger societal discussions. The analysis shows that in Peterson’s writings social equality is understood through four interpretative repertoires: threat, truth, justice and virtues. Firstly, equality is constructed as a threat to the society and the whole existence of men. This understanding positions women as emotional fools, and feminists as criminals, who by feminist policies threaten traditional western values. Secondly, equality and feminist policies are understood by the means of truth and veracity. This understanding distinguishes true and false science, and positions men as advocates of the true science, whereas women/feminist as impostors. Third understanding has the central idea that aiming for social equality by feminist policies is unjust, as they discriminate men. This understanding allows feminists to be seen as villains while men are positioned as innocent and downtrodden. Finally, the fourth repertoire emphasizes masculine virtues and works to legitimize current social hierarchies by positioning and constructing men through a hegemonic masculine ideal. Alongside these understandings, several affects are being triggered and manipulated. The most repetitive is anger, which is constantly directed towards women and feminists, who are characterized as hateful and full of resentment. In contrast, the writings evoke pride and sympathy among men, who are constituted as the wronged victims of the situation. The results of this study resonate greatly with recent studies around anti-gender movement and discourses of the manosphere. Similarities are apparent particularly in relation to how genders are constructed and understood, and how the societal situation at large is constituted as discriminating men, young and white in particular. In conclusion, Petersons writings seem to be connected to larger anti-gender movement, aiming at sustaining traditional social hierarchies and restoring the honour and respect of white masculinities.