Browsing by Subject "Age at first birth"

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  • Einiö, Elina; Goisis, Alice; Myrskylä, Mikko (2019)
    Becoming a father, particularly for the first time, is a central transition in men's lives, and whether this transition takes place early or later in life may have important ramifications on the whole later life course. Previous research has shown that men who father their first child early in life have poorer later-life health than men who postpone having children. However, it is not known how selection by cognitive ability and other childhood characteristics confound the association between the timing of fatherhood and later-life health, or how the association is changing over time as parenthood is postponed to an older age. We investigate the association between men's age at the birth of their first child and midlife self-rated health in two British cohorts born in 1958 and 1970. The study employs logit models. Relative to men who had their first child when they were between 25 and 29 years old, men who had their first child before the age of 20 have the poorest health, followed by men who had a child when they were 20-24 years old. This result was observed in both cohorts. Childhood cognitive ability, which previous research has not analyzed, strongly contributed to this association, and to a greater extent than other childhood characteristics. For the 1970 cohort, those who became fathers at age 35 or older had the best health. This advantage was not found for the 1958 cohort. These findings suggest that the relationship between young age at fatherhood and midlife health is strongly confounded by cognitive ability, and that in recent cohorts a new pattern of advantage among older fathers has emerged.
  • Barclay, Kieron; Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kolk, Martin; Myrskyla, Mikko (2016)
    A growing body of evidence suggests that reproductive history influences post-reproductive mortality. A potential explanation for this association is confounding by socioeconomic status in the family of origin, as socioeconomic status is related to both fertility behaviours and to long-term health. We examine the relationship between age at first birth, completed parity, and post-reproductive mortality and address the potential confounding role of family of origin. We use Swedish population register data for men and women born 1932-1960, and examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The contributions of our study are the use of a sibling comparison design that minimizes residual confounding from shared family background characteristics and assessment of cause-specific mortality that can shed light on the mechanisms linking reproductive history to mortality. Our results were entirely consistent with previous research on this topic, with teenage first time parents having higher mortality, and the relationship between parity and mortality following a U-shaped pattern where childless men and women and those with five or more children had the highest mortality. These results indicate that selection into specific fertility behaviours based upon socioeconomic status and experiences within the family of origin does not explain the relationship between reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality. Additional analyses where we adjust for other lifecourse factors such as educational attainment, attained socioeconomic status, and post-reproductive marital history do not change the results. Our results add an important new level of robustness to the findings on reproductive history and mortality by showing that the association is robust to confounding by factors shared by siblings. However it is still uncertain whether reproductive history causally influences health, or whether other confounding factors such as childhood health or risk-taking propensity could explain the association. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Katuwal, Sushmita; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Pukkala, Eero; Kauppila, Antti (2019)
    BackgroundThe length of interval between successive childbirths (birth interval) might influence the incidence of breast cancer, either by stimulating or by inhibiting the factors that are responsible for the initiation of breast cancer or its early development.MethodsThis is a case-control study nested in a cohort of 47,479 Finnish grand-multiparous (GM) women born after 1934, and registered as having had at least five births before 2013. The 1354 women with breast cancer diagnosis were compared with controls (1:5) matched by parity and date of birth of the mother. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of the risk of ductal and lobular breast cancer subtypes associated with each of the intervals between the 1st and 5th birth, stratified by age at diagnosis. Age at first and last birth before index date were used as covariates.ResultsIncreased intervals between the 1st and 5th births were associated with an increased risk of lobular breast cancer. In contrast, regarding ductal cancer, premenopausal women with shorter length of interval (
  • Katuwal, Sushmita; Tapanainen, Juha S; Pukkala, Eero; Kauppila, Antti (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The length of interval between successive childbirths (birth interval) might influence the incidence of breast cancer, either by stimulating or by inhibiting the factors that are responsible for the initiation of breast cancer or its early development. Methods This is a case-control study nested in a cohort of 47,479 Finnish grand-multiparous (GM) women born after 1934, and registered as having had at least five births before 2013. The 1354 women with breast cancer diagnosis were compared with controls (1:5) matched by parity and date of birth of the mother. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of the risk of ductal and lobular breast cancer subtypes associated with each of the intervals between the 1st and 5th birth, stratified by age at diagnosis. Age at first and last birth before index date were used as covariates. Results Increased intervals between the 1st and 5th births were associated with an increased risk of lobular breast cancer. In contrast, regarding ductal cancer, premenopausal women with shorter length of interval (< 2 years) between the 1st and 2nd birth had greater risk and longer intervals (3+ years) were associated with reduced risk. Spacing between the 2nd and 5th birth did not influence the risk of ductal breast cancer. Conclusion The findings of our study suggest that the effect of the length of birth interval on breast cancer depends on the age and histology. The protective effect of shorter birth intervals on lobular breast among postmenopausal women and the opposite effect on ductal cancer in premenopausal women may reflect distinct differentiation and functional roles of lobular and ductal cells, and possibly also different response to hormonal exposure.