Browsing by Subject "Age"

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  • Saviluoto, Anssi; Harve-Rytsälä, Heini; Lääperi, Mitja; Kirves, Hetti; Jantti, Helena; Nurmi, Jouni (2020)
    Background Identifying stroke and other intracranial lesions in patients with a decreased level of consciousness may be challenging in prehospital settings. Our objective was to investigate whether the combination of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age could be used to identify intracranial lesions. Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study including patients with a decreased level of consciousness who had their airway secured during prehospital care. Patients with intracranial lesions were identified based on the final diagnoses at the end of hospitalization. We investigated the ability of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age to identify intracranial lesions and derived a decision instrument. Results Of 425 patients, 127 had an intracranial lesion. Patients with a lesion were characterized by higher systolic blood pressure, lower heart rate and higher age (P <0.0001 for all). A systolic blood pressure >= 140 mmHg had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 7.0), and > 170 mmHg had an OR of 8.2 (95% CI 4.5-15.32) for an intracranial lesion (reference: <140 mmHg). A heart rate <100 beats/min had an OR of 3.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 6.0, reference: >= 100). Age 50-70 had an OR of 4.1 (95% CI 2.0 to 9.0), and > 70 years had an OR of 10.2 (95% CI 4.8 to 23.2), reference: <50. Logarithms of ORs were rounded to the nearest integer to create a score with 0-2 points for age and blood pressure and 0-1 for heart rate, with an increasing risk for an intracranial lesion with higher scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the instrument was 0.810 (95% CI 0.850-0.890). Conclusions An instrument combining systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age may help identify stroke and other intracranial lesions in patients with a decreased level of consciousness in prehospital settings.
  • Kasanen, Henna; Hernberg, Micaela; Mäkelä, Siru; Brück, Oscar; Juteau, Susanna; Kohtamäki, Laura; Ilander, Mette; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2020)
    Anti-PD1 treatment has improved the survival of metastatic melanoma patients, yet it is unknown which patients benefit from the treatment. In this exploratory study, we aimed to understand the effects of anti-PD1 therapy on the patients' immune system and discover the characteristics that would result in successful treatment. We collected peripheral blood (PB) samples from 17 immuno-oncology-naive metastatic melanoma patients before and after 1 and 3 months of anti-PD1 therapy. In addition, matching tumor biopsies at the time of diagnosis were collected for tissue microarray. The complete blood counts, PB immunophenotype, serum cytokine profiles, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed and correlated with the clinical data. Patients were categorized based on their disease control into responders (complete response, partial response, stable disease > 6 months, N = 11) and non-responders (progressive disease, stable disease
  • Ueda, Riyo; Kaga, Yoshimi; Kita, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Eiji; Okada, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi (2021)
    Background Poor reading ability is one of the common causes of low academic performance. In previous studies, children with dyslexia were found to demonstrate poor academic achievement due to poor reading ability. However, the relationship between academic achievement and reading ability in children with a borderline full-scale intellectual quotient (FSIQ) is unknown. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of children with borderline FSIQ and poor reading ability, and differentiate these characteristics from those of children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability. Methods A total of 126 children (aged 6-15 years) identified as having low academic performance were enrolled. The reading ability of children was assessed through their performance on the hiragana (Japanese syllabary) reading task, while their reading and writing achievement was assessed through their reading and writing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Children were categorized into two groups based on their FSIQ score (FSIQ > 85 and 85 >= FSIQ >= 70). Reading ability in children was evaluated by referring to the linear relationship between FSIQ and the standard deviation value of reading tasks in typically developing children. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine clinical characteristics between higher and lower FSIQ groups. Associations between reading and writing achievement, reading ability, and ages of children were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients for the higher and lower FSIQ groups. Results Poorer reading and writing achievement was associated with poorer reading ability in the higher FSIQ group. Conversely, poorer reading and writing achievement and poor reading ability were associated with older age in the lower FSIQ group. Conclusions Poor reading and writing achievement were associated with older age, not with poor reading ability in the lower FSIQ group. Children with lower FSIQ need appropriate educational interventions based on independent assessments to further their academic achievement and reading ability. Moreover, they need more frequent evaluations of their academic achievement than do children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability since they are more likely to be at a lower academic achievement level at an older age.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background: Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results: Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p <0.05). Discussion: In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion: The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003–2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p < 0.05). Discussion In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Alfthan, Henrik (2020)
    Objectives Fecal calprotectin is a valued surrogate marker for intestinal inflammation. It has been argued that calprotectin levels are higher in early age than in later life hampering the use of calprotectin in young children. Subjects and methods To study age-related variation, we used data from our laboratory information system on consecutive, unselected fecal calprotectin measurements from 2014 to 2017 in all children aged 0 to 18 years. From each individual, the first measurement was included and repeated measurements were excluded. Fecal calprotectin was quantitated in the major clinical laboratory in southern Finland, HUSLAB with an ELISA kit from Calpro AS (Calpro/Calprolab, Oslo, Norway). Currently, the assay is performed on two automatic pipetting analysers (Dynex DS2, Chantilly, USA) according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results There were altogether 11,255 fecal calprotectin results from as many children. The median level of fecal calprotectin was 51 mg/kg in infants <1 year of age (95(th)percentile 648 mg/kg;n = 239). This was 3-4-fold higher when compared to yearly age groups from 1 to 10 years (total number of children included 5,691). Across yearly age groups from 11 to 18, the median values varied from 11 to 19 mg/kg (total number of included children 5,325). The proportion of samples above the routine cut-off for an elevated concentration >100 mg/kg increased with increasing age. Conclusions Fecal calprotectin values in children beyond the first year of life are in general low and comparable in children and adolescents.
  • ARISE Investigators; Luethi, Nora; Bailey, Michael; Harjola, V-P; Okkonen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Sutinen, E.; Wilkman, E. (2020)
    Purpose: To assess the impact of gender and pre-menopausal state on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with septic shock. Material and methods: Cohort study of the Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial, an international randomized controlled trial comparing early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) to usual care in patients with early septic shock, conducted between October 2008 and April 2014. The primary exposure in this analysis was legal gender and the secondary exposure was pre-menopausal state defined by chronological age ( Results: 641 (40.3%) of all 1591 ARISE trial participants in the intention-to-treat population were females and overall, 337 (21.2%) (146 females) patients were 50 years of age or younger. After risk-adjustment, we could not identify any survival benefit for female patients at day 90 in the younger (50 years) age-group (aOR: 1.10 (0.81-1.49), p = .56). Similarly, there was no gender-difference in ICU, hospital, 1-year mortality nor quality of life measures. Conclusions: This post-hoc analysis of a large multi-center trial in early septic shock has shown no short- or long-term survival effect for women overall as well as in the pre-menopausal age-group. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Nilsson, Jenny; Norrby, Catrin; Lindström, Jan Krister; Wide, Camilla (2017)
    Swedish is a pluricentric language and has official status in both Sweden and Finland. Until recently, most studies on such languages have focused on differences and similarities in grammar and lexicon, and less on pragmatic variation. We suggest that a pragmatic perspective is of help in understanding the relationship between national varieties, and in this study we investigate greetings in Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish. Previous comparisons of the two varieties suggest that Sweden Swedish is less formal than Finland Swedish, and in this article we problematise the concept of formality and discuss whether formality could explain any differences in the use of greetings. We use three data sets from each of the two countries: videorecorded service encounters from box offices and information desks, recorded focus groups, and experiments. Combined, the data suggest that the Finland-Swedish greeting repertoire is larger than the Sweden-Swedish one, and that Swedish speakers in Finland are therefore more sensitive to social distance than their counterparts in Sweden. At the same time, the study highlights the complexity in the use of greetings, and shows that variables such as gender, age, context and degree of acquaintance all play an important part in the use of greetings in both Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish.
  • Gamburg, Bogdana (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis examines the ways of how different elements of identity are performed in massively multiplayer online games. It tries to find patterns in identity construction through observation of features, such as gender, age, race, ethnicity, status and religion and how individuals interact with each other. The aim is to explore the premise that because online games provide endless opportunities for identity performance, and thus these identities might have little to do with reality and the offline world. In order to analyze identities online, a number of key topics are covered. These include identity, performativity of identity, online games and players behavior online. Cross-disciplinary theoretical approach is used to attack the problem. Several identity theories are overviewed (Boellstorff, 2008, 2012; Deterding, Waltz, 2012; Jenkins, 2004; Gilchrist et al. 2015; Wetherell, 2015; Goffman, 1959, 1961a; Appelrouth & Desfor, 2008; Crenshaw, 1989). Here identity is understood as an action - individual’s reaction to the society and as a process. Next, performativity of identity is discussed. Special attention is given to the deeply rooted performance discourse in games (Butler, 1990, 1997, 1999; Deterding, Waltz, 2012; Schechner, 2006; Brooks, 2011; Turner, 1982). Finally, key issues on identity performing online are discussed. Those include interconnectivity of offline and online identity, and how they might correlate (Boellstorff, 2008; Horns, Miller 2012; Kozinets, 2011; McGonigal 2012; Thomas 2007; Nakamura, 2002; Sarkeesian, 2012). The methodology used for collecting and analyzing the data draws from netnography, a sub-discipline of online ethnography and digital anthropology, which allows observing online games as a spectacle (Kozinets, 2011; Boellstorff, 2008; Boellstorff et al. 2012). Massively multiplayer online games provide a good possibility to have a large human sample for performance, games, sociological and cultural studies. Online communities of one such game, Clash of Clans, are observed in the game environment and at forums, where players are interacting with each other through written communication over an extended period of time. Number of observations on how age, status, gender and other elements of identity are performed online are recorded. The examples of online conversations are documented and analyzed and parts of the collected data are presented in the paper. Key findings show that individuals demonstrate their feelings and opinions stronger than in offline setting, since online world assumes less moderation and social constraints. However, even though there is a certain degree of freedom online, it is used sparingly. Certain identity experiments are happening online, for example individuals are trying to play a game as a player of an opposite sex. However, on a verbal level, individuals tend to be more truth to their opinions and beliefs (Schau and Gilly, 2003; Whitty, 2004). A strong interconnectivity of online and offline identities in a digital age is found, so the basic hypothesis is contested. Currently hundreds of millions of people of all age groups are the participants of the massively multiplayer online games daily. Players start to take their online identities seriously and their online life starts to affect offline life, cultural, social norms and beliefs. And since we understand that online and offline identity is affecting each other on a deeper level than ever before, research in online massive multiplayer online games should be carried further. The field of game studies and performativity online should not be overlooked. The way identities are presented online mirror identity presentation in offline world closely.
  • Sahlberg, Lassi; Lapinleimu, Helena; Elovainio, Marko; Rönnlund, Hanni; Virtanen, Irina (2018)
    Objective: There are currently no reference values for actigraphy-measured sleep length and fragmentation in preschool children. We created standardized parameters using a community sample. Methods: Ninety-seven 2-to-6-year-old children (56 boys) wore an actigraph on their non-dominant wrist for seven days. The data was extracted and scored, calculating total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, fragmentation index, circadian rhythm length, cosine peak and light/dark ratio. Subjects were divided into groups of 2-3-year-olds, 4-5-year-olds and 6-year-olds. Means and standard deviations were calculated, and reference values were created using the 2.5th and the 97.5th percentiles. Results: Reference intervals were 7 h 23 min-9 h 47 min for 24-hour total sleep time, 0.2-48.4 min for sleep latency, 69-87% for sleep efficiency, 23-53% for fragmentation index, 23 h 39 min-24 h 24 min for circadian rhythm length, 12: 37-15: 53 for the timing of the cosine peak, and 1.14-5.63 for the light-dark ratio. With increasing age, daily sleep time, sleep latency, sleep fragmentation, and napping decreased. Conclusions: We were able to create previously non-established reference values, including trends with increasing age, on actigraphy-assessed sleep in preschool children. Significance: Sleep disorders in young children are easier to evaluate against normative data. (C) 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Juvela, Seppo (2020)
    The purpose was to obtain a reliable scoring for growth of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in a long-term follow-up study from variables known at baseline and to compare it with the ELAPSS (Earlier subarachnoid hemorrhage, Location of the aneurysm, Age > 60 years, Population, Size of the aneurysm, and Shape of the aneurysm) score obtained from an individual-based meta-analysis. The series consists of 87 patients with 111 UIAs and 1669 person-years of follow-up between aneurysm size measurements (median follow-up time per patient 21.7, range 1.2 to 51.0 years). These were initially diagnosed between 1956 and 1978, when UIAs were not treated in our country. ELAPSS scores at baseline did not differ between those with and those without aneurysm growth. The area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve (ROC) of the ELAPSS score for predicting long-term growth was fail (0.474, 95% CI 0.345-0.603), and the optimal cut-off point was obtained at >= 7 vs. = 4 vs.
  • Hackenberg, E. A. M.; Sallinen, V.; Koljonen, Virve; Handolin, Lauri (2017)
    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 25-35 % of women and men in Western countries. Despite the high prevalence of IPV among trauma patients, very little is known about the associated injuries. Most previous studies excluded male victims and IPV is often limited to violence against women. Few reports on IPV among elderly patients exist. Methods We examined self-reports of IPV among patients at two major trauma centers of the Helsinki Central Hospital in Finland. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that we would find the most severe injuries among young and middle-aged women. Results We identified 29 patients with a total of 105 injuries; patients typically presented with multiple injuries. Half of all patients required hospitalization or surgery. Contrary to previous studies, 17 % of our cohort were male, while 17 % of patients were 65 years or older. We found that 40 % of male victims presented with a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) over 15, indicating severe trauma. Two elderly patients presented with an NISS of 27, the highest in our study. Conclusions IPV leads to severe injury across all age groups among both male and female patients. The injury mechanism should be clearly defined for all trauma patients, keeping IPV in mind as a potential cause despite patient age or gender.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; Halmesvaara, Otto; Fogelholm, Mikael; Saarijärvi, Hannu; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Although sociodemographic differences in dietary intake have been widely studied, the up-to-date evidence on the corresponding variations in motives for food selection is limited. We investigated how sociodemographic characteristics and special diets in households are associated with the relative importance of various food motives. Methods Participants were members of the S Group loyalty card program across Finland who consented to release their grocery purchase data to be used for research purposes and responded to a web-based questionnaire in 2018 (LoCard study). Self-reported information on sociodemographic factors (age, gender, marital status, living situation, education, household income), special diets in household and food motives (Food Choice Questionnaire) were utilized in the present analyses (N = 10,795). Age- and gender-adjusted linear models were performed separately for each sociodemographic predictor and motive dimension (derived by factor analysis) outcome. The importance of each sociodemographic predictor was evaluated based on an increase in R2 value after adding the predictor to the age- and gender-adjusted model. Results Age emerged as a central determinant of food motives with the following strongest associations: young adults emphasized convenience (∆R2 = 0.09, P < 0.001) and mood control (∆R2 = 0.05, P < 0.001) motives more than middle-aged and older adults. The relative importance of cheapness decreased with increasing socioeconomic position (SEP) (∆R2 = 0.08, P < 0.001 for income and ∆R2 = 0.04, P < 0.001 for education). However, the price item (“is good value for money”) depicting the concept of worth did not distinguish between SEP categories. Considerations related to familiarity of food were more salient to men (∆R2 = 0.02, P < 0.001) and those with lower SEP (∆R2 = 0.03, P < 0.001 for education and ∆R2 = 0.01, P < 0.001 for income). Respondents living in households with a vegetarian, red-meat-free, gluten-free or other type of special diet rated ethical concern as relatively more important than households with no special diets (∆R2 = 0.02, P < 0.001). Conclusions We observed sociodemographic differences in a range of food motives that might act as barriers or drivers for adopting diets that benefit human and planetary health. Interventions aiming to narrow SEP and gender disparities in dietary intake should employ strategies that take into account higher priority of familiarity and price in daily food selection in lower-SEP individuals and males.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; Halmesvaara, Otto; Fogelholm, Mikael; Saarijärvi, Hannu; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2021)
    Background Although sociodemographic differences in dietary intake have been widely studied, the up-to-date evidence on the corresponding variations in motives for food selection is limited. We investigated how sociodemographic characteristics and special diets in households are associated with the relative importance of various food motives. Methods Participants were members of the S Group loyalty card program across Finland who consented to release their grocery purchase data to be used for research purposes and responded to a web-based questionnaire in 2018 (LoCard study). Self-reported information on sociodemographic factors (age, gender, marital status, living situation, education, household income), special diets in household and food motives (Food Choice Questionnaire) were utilized in the present analyses (N = 10,795). Age- and gender-adjusted linear models were performed separately for each sociodemographic predictor and motive dimension (derived by factor analysis) outcome. The importance of each sociodemographic predictor was evaluated based on an increase in R-2 value after adding the predictor to the age- and gender-adjusted model. Results Age emerged as a central determinant of food motives with the following strongest associations: young adults emphasized convenience ( increment R-2 = 0.09, P < 0.001) and mood control ( increment R-2 = 0.05, P < 0.001) motives more than middle-aged and older adults. The relative importance of cheapness decreased with increasing socioeconomic position (SEP) ( increment R-2 = 0.08, P < 0.001 for income and increment R-2 = 0.04, P < 0.001 for education). However, the price item ("is good value for money") depicting the concept of worth did not distinguish between SEP categories. Considerations related to familiarity of food were more salient to men ( increment R-2 = 0.02, P < 0.001) and those with lower SEP ( increment R-2 = 0.03, P < 0.001 for education and increment R-2 = 0.01, P < 0.001 for income). Respondents living in households with a vegetarian, red-meat-free, gluten-free or other type of special diet rated ethical concern as relatively more important than households with no special diets ( increment R-2 = 0.02, P < 0.001). Conclusions We observed sociodemographic differences in a range of food motives that might act as barriers or drivers for adopting diets that benefit human and planetary health. Interventions aiming to narrow SEP and gender disparities in dietary intake should employ strategies that take into account higher priority of familiarity and price in daily food selection in lower-SEP individuals and males.
  • Alhede, Christina; Lauridsen, Trine K.; Johannessen, Arne; Dixen, Ulrik; Jensen, Jan S.; Raatikainen, Pekka; Hindricks, Gerhard; Walfridsson, Haakan; Kongstadf, Ole; Pehrson, Steen; Englund, Anders; Hartikainen, Juha; Hansen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Jens C.; Jons, Christian (2018)
    Introduction: Supraventricular ectopic complexes (SVEC) are known risk factors of recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the impact of SVEC in different age groups is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of AF recurrence with higher SVEC burden in patients +/- 57 years, respectively, after treatment with antiarrhythmic medication (AAD) or catheter ablation (CA). Methods: In total, 260 patients with LVEF >40% and age 195 SVEC/day. AF recurrence was defined as AF >= 1 min, AF-related cardioversion or hospitalization. Results: Age >57 years were significantly associated with higher AF recurrence rate after CA (58% vs 36%, p = 0.02). After CA, we observed a higher SVEC burden during follow-up in patients >57 years which was not observed in the younger age group treatedwith CA (p = 0.006). High SVEC burden at 3 months after CA was associated with AF recurrence in older patients but not in younger patients (>57 years: HR 3.4 [1.4-7.9], p = 0.005). We did not find any age-related differences after AAD. Conclusion: We found that younger and older patients respond differently to CA and that SVEC burden was only associated with AF recurrence in older patients. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A. (2017)
    Aims and Objectives: Several studies have reported associations between the habit of chewing qat and the deterioration of periodontal health among adults in Yemen; however, qat's effect on the number of teeth has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between the number of natural teeth and qat-chewing status among Yemeni participants. Materials and Methods: The participants were interviewed with a structured questionnaire by a researcher on the day of the dental check-up. The surveyed items were age. sex. chewing-qat status (nonchewer: current chewer. nonsmoker; current chewer and smoker: current chewer. ex-smoker: ex-chewer. never smoked; ex-chewer and smoker). The dental examination was conducted with dental mirrors by a single examiner under sufficient artificial light. A linear regression was performed. stratified by sex, with the number of natural teeth as the dependent variable and with age and qat status as independent variables using SAS/STAT software. Results: Results show that age was a significant factor for both males and females having few natural teeth. Females had a higher tooth loss than males. The habit of chewing qat did not affect the number of natural teeth for both males and females. In males, a small, but not significant, relationship between chewing-qat status and the number of natural teeth was found. All smokers were qat chewers. Conclusion: This study highlights for the first time the relationship between having fewer teeth and the habit of chewing qat and provides useful findings for dental health workers to advise people about the benefits of cessation of both qat chewing and smoking.
  • Huttunen, Kristiina (2002)
    This study investigates the changes in the skill structure of labour demand using panel data on Finnish private sector establishments, with linked information on worker characteristics. We also examine whether directly observable measures of technological change and trade explain the changes in skill structure of Finnish manufacturing sector plants' work force. Worker's skill level is defined by both education and age. The data on Finnish private sector establishments for years 1988-1998 reveal that the skill structure of work force has shifted towards highly educated and older. The increase in the share of both highly and less educated older workers has mainly occurred within establishments while the increase in the share of younger highly educated workers has occurred between establishments and by entry of new establishments. The decomposition analysis by plant characteristics reveals that the increase in the share of highly educated younger workers is attributed to relative increase in employment of exporting and R&D intensive plants, while the increase in the share of older workers has occurred equally within all plants. The panel estimation results without plant controls show that increase in the selected technology variables, industry- and firm-level R&D intensity increases significantly the demand for highly educated younger workers while the impact of this variables is much less pronounced or even insignificant for older highly educated workers. However, the fixed effects estimation results provide no evidence that R&D intensity would have an impact on the within-plant changes in the skill mix. With respect to the export-share variable the estimation results provide some evidence that trade decreases the demand for older workers.