Browsing by Subject "Ageing"

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  • Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero Olavi; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2016)
    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P-for trend 0.005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values <0.01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.
  • Calderon, M. A.; Demoly, P.; Casale, T.; Akdis, C. A.; Bachert, C.; Bewick, M.; Bilo, B. M.; Bohle, B.; Bonini, S.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D. P.; Canonica, G. W.; Cardona, V.; Chiriac, A. M.; Cox, L.; Custovic, A.; De Blay, F.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Di Lorenzo, G.; Du Toit, G.; Durham, S. R.; Eng, P.; Fiocchi, A.; Fox, A. T.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Gomez, R. M.; Haahtela, Tari Markku Kallevi; Halken, S.; Hellings, P. W.; Jacobsen, L.; Just, J.; Tanno, L. K.; Kleine-Tebbe, J.; Klimek, L.; Knol, E. F.; Kuna, P.; Larenas-Linnemann, D. E.; Linneberg, A.; Matricardi, M.; Malling, H. J.; Moesges, R.; Mullol, J.; Muraro, A.; Papadopoulos, N.; Passalacqua, G.; Pastorello, E.; Pfaar, O.; Price, D.; Rodriguez del Rio, P.; Rueff, R.; Samolinski, B.; Scadding, G. K.; Senti, G.; Shamji, M. H.; Sheikh, A.; Sisul, J. C.; Sole, D.; Sturm, G. J.; Tabar, A.; Van Ree, R.; Ventura, M. T.; Vidal, C.; Varga, E. M.; Worm, M.; Zuberbier, T.; Bousquet, J. (2016)
    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Sante). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing.
  • Siltari, Aino; Korpela, R.; Vapaatalo, H. (2016)
    Bradykinin exerts its vascular actions via two types of receptors, the non-constitutively expressed bradykinin receptor type 1 (BR1) and the constitutive type 2 receptor (BR2). Bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is age-dependent, a phenomenon related to the varying amounts of BR1 and BR2 in the vasculature. Isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro), a bioactive tripeptide, lowers elevated blood pressure and improves impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in hypertensive rats. It inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1). Other mechanisms of action have also been postulated. The aims of the study were to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the age-dependency of bradykinin-induced vasodilatation such as the roles of the two bradykinin receptors, themas-receptor and synergism with Ile-Pro-Pro. The vascular response studies were conducted using mesenteric artery and aorta rings from normotensive 6 wk. (young) and 22 wk. (old) Wistar rats. Cumulative dosing of acetylcholine, bradykinin and angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7))were tested in phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction with or without 10 min pre-incubation with antagonists against BR1-, BR2- or mas-receptors,Ang(1-7) or ACE1-inhibitors captopril and Ile-Pro-Pro. The bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in vitro was age-dependent and it was improved by pre incubation with Ile-Pro-Pro, especially in old rats with endothelial dysfunction. The mas-receptor antagonist, D-Pro7-Ang(1-7) abolished bradykinin-induced relaxation totally. Interestingly, BR1 and BR2 antagonists only slightly reduced bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation, as an evidence for the involvement of other mechanisms in addition to receptor activation. In conclusion, bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation was age -dependent and He-Pro-Pro improved it. Mas receptor antagonist abolished relaxation while bradykinin receptor antagonist only slightly reduced it, suggesting that bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is regulated also by other mechanisms than the classical BR1/BR2 pathway. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc: All rights reserved.
  • Pulakka, Anna; Halonen, Jaana I.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Aims: We examined the effect of retirement transition on changes in smoking, identified trajectories of smoking around the retirement transition, and investigated factors predicting the membership in the trajectories. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included 1,432 current or former smokers who entered into statutory retirement in 2000-2011 and who filled out two to four questionnaires sent at four-year intervals. Effect of retirement on smoking was analysed as a non-randomized pseudo-trial in which we compared the likelihood of quitting and relapsing smoking between two subsequent survey waves among those who retired and did not retire. We used latent class analysis to identify trajectories of smoking status and smoking intensity (low: 10 cigarettes/day), and multinomial logistic regression models to assess pre-retirement factors associated with smoking trajectories. Results: Retirement transition was associated with 1.7-fold odds of quitting smoking (95% confidence intervals 1.3-2.2) compared with no retirement transition. We identified three smoking status trajectories: 'sustained non-smoking' (61% of the participants), 'sustained smoking' (23%) and 'decreasing smoking' (16%). For 489 baseline smokers, we identified three smoking intensity trajectories: 'sustained high intensity smoking' (32% of the participants), 'sustained low intensity smoking' (32%) and 'decreasing high intensity smoking' (35%). Living outside an inner urban area predicted membership in the 'decreasing smoking' versus 'sustained smoking' trajectory. Conclusions: Smokers are more likely to quit smoking during transition to retirement than before or after it. Characteristics of the smoking environment may affect smoking behaviour around retirement.
  • Gospodaryov, Dmytro V.; Lushchak, Oleh V.; Rovenko, Bohdana M.; Perkhulyn, Natalia V.; Gerards, Mike; Tuomela, Tea; Jacobs, Howard T. (2014)
  • Alyodawi, Khalid; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; Omairi, Saleh; Kretz, Oliver; Hopkinson, Mark; Solagna, Francesca; Joch, Barbara; Brandt, Renata M. C.; Barnhoorn, Sander; van Vliet, Nicole; Ridwan, Yanto; Essers, Jeroen; Mitchell, Robert; Morash, Taryn; Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli; Matsakas, Antonios; Collins-Hooper, Henry; Huber, Tobias B.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Patel, Ketan (2019)
    Background One of the principles underpinning our understanding of ageing is that DNA damage induces a stress response that shifts cellular resources from growth towards maintenance. A contrasting and seemingly irreconcilable view is that prompting growth of, for example, skeletal muscle confers systemic benefit. Methods To investigate the robustness of these axioms, we induced muscle growth in a murine progeroid model through the use of activin receptor IIB ligand trap that dampens myostatin/activin signalling. Progeric mice were then investigated for neurological and muscle function as well as cellular profiling of the muscle, kidney, liver, and bone. Results We show that muscle of Ercc1(Delta/-) progeroid mice undergoes severe wasting (decreases in hind limb muscle mass of 40-60% compared with normal mass), which is largely protected by attenuating myostatin/activin signalling using soluble activin receptor type IIB (sActRIIB) (increase of 30-62% compared with untreated progeric). sActRIIB-treated progeroid mice maintained muscle activity (distance travel per hour: 5.6 m in untreated mice vs. 13.7 m in treated) and increased specific force (19.3 mN/mg in untreated vs. 24.0 mN/mg in treated). sActRIIb treatment of progeroid mice also improved satellite cell function especially their ability to proliferate on their native substrate (2.5 cells per fibre in untreated progeroids vs. 5.4 in sActRIIB-treated progeroids after 72 h in culture). Besides direct protective effects on muscle, we show systemic improvements to other organs including the structure and function of the kidneys; there was a major decrease in the protein content in urine (albumin/creatinine of 4.9 sActRIIB treated vs. 15.7 in untreated), which is likely to be a result in the normalization of podocyte foot processes, which constitute the filtration apparatus (glomerular basement membrane thickness reduced from 224 to 177 nm following sActRIIB treatment). Treatment of the progeric mice with the activin ligand trap protected against the development of liver abnormalities including polyploidy (18.3% untreated vs. 8.1% treated) and osteoporosis (trabecular bone volume; 0.30 mm(3) in treated progeroid mice vs. 0.14 mm(3) in untreated mice, cortical bone volume; 0.30 mm(3) in treated progeroid mice vs. 0.22 mm(3) in untreated mice). The onset of neurological abnormalities was delayed (by similar to 5 weeks) and their severity reduced, overall sustaining health without affecting lifespan. Conclusions This study questions the notion that tissue growth and maintaining tissue function during ageing are incompatible mechanisms. It highlights the need for future investigations to assess the potential of therapies based on myostatin/activin blockade to compress morbidity and promote healthy ageing.
  • Åström, Max J.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Perälä, Mia M.; Salonen, Minna K.; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G. (2018)
    Aims To assess whether disturbances in glucose regulation are associated with impairment in physical performance during a 10-year follow-up. Methods 475 Men and 603 women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were studied. Glucose regulation was evaluated with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 2001-2004. Subjects were categorised as having either impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), newly diagnosed diabetes or previously known diabetes. Physical performance was assessed approximately 10 years later using the validated senior fitness test (SFT). The relationship between glucose regulation and the overall SFT score was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results The mean age was 70.8 years for men and 71.0 years for women when physical performance was assessed. The mean SFT score for the whole population was 45.0 (SD 17.5) points. The SFT score decreased gradually with increased impairment in glucose regulation. Individuals with previously known diabetes had the lowest overall SFT score in the fully adjusted model (mean difference compared to normoglycaemic individuals -11.56 points, 95% CI - 16.15 to - 6.98, p <0.001). Both individuals with newly diagnosed diabetes and individuals with IGT had significantly poorer physical performance compared to those with normoglycaemia. No significant difference in physical performance was found between those with IFG and those with normoglycaemia. Conclusions Among older people, impaired glucose regulation is strongly related with poor physical performance. More severe disturbances in glucose regulation are associated with a greater decrease in physical function, indicating the importance of diagnosing these disturbances at an early stage.
  • Beenackers, Marielle A.; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Noordzij, J. Mark; Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; Bobak, Martin; Chaix, Basile; Costa, Giuseppe; Dapp, Ulrike; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Huisman, Martijn; Grundy, Emily M.; Krokstad, Steinar; Martikainen, Pekka; Raina, Parminder; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J. (2018)
    Background: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. Methods: MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. Discussion: MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is combining population-based cohort data with publicly available datasets not typically used for ageing and mental well-being research. Integration of various data sources and observational units into a single platform will help to explain the differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between cities in Europe, the US, Canada, and Russia and to assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental well-being and cognitive ageing in older adults.
  • Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Noordzij, J. Mark; Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; Bobak, Martin; Chaix, Basile; Costa, Giuseppe; Dapp, Ulrike; Diez Roux, Ana V; Huisman, Martijn; Grundy, Emily M; Krokstad, Steinar; Martikainen, Pekka; Raina, Parminder; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. Methods MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. Discussion MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is combining population-based cohort data with publicly available datasets not typically used for ageing and mental well-being research. Integration of various data sources and observational units into a single platform will help to explain the differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between cities in Europe, the US, Canada, and Russia and to assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental well-being and cognitive ageing in older adults.
  • Barbera, Mariagnese; Kulmala, Jenni; Lisko, Inna; Pietilä, Eija; Rosenberg, Anna; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hallikainen, Merja; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Neuvonen, Elisa; Rusanen, Minna; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ngandu, Tiia; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia (2020)
    Background: The oldest old is the fastest growing age group worldwide and the most prone to severe disability, especially in relation to loss of cognitive function. Improving our understanding of the predictors of cognitive, physical and psychosocial wellbeing among the oldest old can result in substantial benefits for the individuals and for the society as a whole. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study investigated risk factors and determinants of cognitive impairment in a population-based longitudinal cohort, which was first examined between 1972 and 1992, when individuals were in their midlife, and re-assessed in 1998 and 2005-2009. Most of the study participants are currently aged 85 years or older. We aim to re-examine the cohort's survivors and gain further insights on the mechanisms underlying both cognitive and overall healthy ageing at old age. Methods: CAIDE85+ is the third follow-up of the CAIDE study participants. All individuals still alive and living in the Kuopio and Joensuu areas of Eastern Finland, from the original CAIDE cohort (two random samples,N = 2000 + similar to 900), will be invited to a re-examination. The assessment includes self-reported data related to basic demographics and lifestyle, as well as psychosocial and physical health status. Cognitive and physical evaluations are also conducted. Blood biomarkers relevant for dementia and ageing are assessed. Primary outcomes are the measurements related to cognition and daily life functioning (CERAD, Trail Making Test-A, Letter-Digit Substitution Test, Clinical Dementia Rating and Activities of Daily Living). Secondary endpoints of the study are outcomes related to physical health status, psychosocial wellbeing, as well as age-related health indicators. Discussion: Through a follow-up of more than 40 years, CAIDE85+ will provide invaluable information on the risk and protective factors that contribute to cognitive and physical health, as well as ageing and longevity. Study registration: The present study protocol has been registered at(registration nr, date 03.05.2019).
  • Barbera, Mariagnese; Kulmala, Jenni; Lisko, Inna; Pietilä, Eija; Rosenberg, Anna; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hallikainen, Merja; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Neuvonen, Elisa; Rusanen, Minna; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ngandu, Tiia; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The oldest old is the fastest growing age group worldwide and the most prone to severe disability, especially in relation to loss of cognitive function. Improving our understanding of the predictors of cognitive, physical and psychosocial wellbeing among the oldest old can result in substantial benefits for the individuals and for the society as a whole. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study investigated risk factors and determinants of cognitive impairment in a population-based longitudinal cohort, which was first examined between 1972 and 1992, when individuals were in their midlife, and re-assessed in 1998 and 2005–2009. Most of the study participants are currently aged 85 years or older. We aim to re-examine the cohort’s survivors and gain further insights on the mechanisms underlying both cognitive and overall healthy ageing at old age. Methods CAIDE85+ is the third follow-up of the CAIDE study participants. All individuals still alive and living in the Kuopio and Joensuu areas of Eastern Finland, from the original CAIDE cohort (two random samples, N = 2000 + ~ 900), will be invited to a re-examination. The assessment includes self-reported data related to basic demographics and lifestyle, as well as psychosocial and physical health status. Cognitive and physical evaluations are also conducted. Blood biomarkers relevant for dementia and ageing are assessed. Primary outcomes are the measurements related to cognition and daily life functioning (CERAD, Trail Making Test-A, Letter-Digit Substitution Test, Clinical Dementia Rating and Activities of Daily Living). Secondary endpoints of the study are outcomes related to physical health status, psychosocial wellbeing, as well as age-related health indicators. Discussion Through a follow-up of more than 40 years, CAIDE85+ will provide invaluable information on the risk and protective factors that contribute to cognitive and physical health, as well as ageing and longevity. Study registration The present study protocol has been registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ (registration nr NCT03938727 , date 03.05.2019).
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Pentti, Jaana; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background and AimsLife transitions such as retirement may influence alcohol consumption, but only a few studies have described this using longitudinal data. We identified patterns and predictors of risky drinking around the time of retirement. DesignA cohort study assessing trajectories and predictors of risky drinking among employees entering statutory retirement between 2000 and 2011. Setting and ParticipantsA total of 5805 men and women from the Finnish Public Sector study who responded to questions on alcohol consumption one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. MeasurementsWe assessed trajectories of risky drinking (> 24 units per week among men, > 16 units among women, or an extreme drinking occasion during past year) from pre- to post-retirement, as well as predictors of each alcohol consumption trajectory. FindingsThree trajectories were identified: sustained healthy drinking (81% of participants), temporary increase in risky drinking around retirement (12%) and slowly declining risky drinking after retirement (7%). The strongest pre-retirement predictors for belonging to the group of temporary increase in risky drinking were current smoking [odds ratio (OR)=3.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.70-5.64], male sex (OR=2.77, 95% CI=2.16-3.55), depression (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.05-1.99) and work-place in the metropolitan area (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.00-1.66). Compared with the slowly declining risky drinking group, the temporary increase in risky drinking group was characterized by lower occupational status and education, and work-place outside the metropolitan area. ConclusionsIn Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption. Male gender, smoking, being depressed and working in a metropolitan area are associated with increased likelihood of increased alcohol consumption.