Browsing by Subject "Aggression"

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  • Mogk, Hannu; Röning, Tiina; Reiman-Möttönen, Päivi; Isojärvi, Jaana; Mäkinen, Eeva (2016)
    Kouluym­pä­ris­tössä toteu­tetut inter­ventiot näyt­tivät onnis­tuvan tavoit­teissaan pa­remmin kuin lai­tos- tai ­po­lik­lii­niset inter­ventiot, mut­ta ai­neistot ja tu­lokset vaihte­levat.
  • Bartels, Meike; Hendriks, Anne; Mauri, Matteo; Krapohl, Eva; Whipp, Alyce; Bolhuis, Koen; Conde, Lucia Colodro; Luningham, Justin; Ip, Hill Fung; Hagenbeek, Fiona; Roetman, Peter; Gatej, Raluca; Lamers, Audri; Nivard, Michel; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Vermeiren, Robert; Hankemeijer, Thomas; Kluft, Cees; Medland, Sarah; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Rose, Richard; Pulkkinen, Lea; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lubke, Gitta; Finkenauer, Catrin; Fanos, Vassilios; Tiemeier, Henning; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2018)
    Childhood aggression and its resulting consequences inflict a huge burden on affected children, their relatives, teachers, peers and society as a whole. Aggression during childhood rarely occurs in isolation and is correlated with other symptoms of childhood psychopathology. In this paper, we aim to describe and improve the understanding of the co-occurrence of aggression with other forms of childhood psychopathology. We focus on the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems, including other externalising problems, attention problems and anxiety-depression. The data were brought together within the EU-ACTION (Aggression in Children: unravelling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies) project. We analysed the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems as a function of the child's age (ages 3 through 16years), gender, the person rating the behaviour (father, mother or self) and assessment instrument. The data came from six large population-based European cohort studies from the Netherlands (2x), the UK, Finland and Sweden (2x). Multiple assessment instruments, including the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory (MPNI), were used. There was a good representation of boys and girls in each age category, with data for 30,523 3- to 4-year-olds (49.5% boys), 20,958 5- to 6-year-olds (49.6% boys), 18,291 7- to 8-year-olds (49.0% boys), 27,218 9- to 10-year-olds (49.4% boys), 18,543 12- to 13-year-olds (48.9% boys) and 10,088 15- to 16-year-olds (46.6% boys). We replicated the well-established gender differences in average aggression scores at most ages for parental ratings. The gender differences decreased with age and were not present for self-reports. Aggression co-occurred with the majority of other behavioural and social problems, from both externalising and internalising domains. At each age, the co-occurrence was particularly prevalent for aggression and oppositional and ADHD-related problems, with correlations of around 0.5 in general. Aggression also showed substantial associations with anxiety-depression and other internalizing symptoms (correlations around 0.4). Co-occurrence for self-reported problems was somewhat higher than for parental reports, but we found neither rater differences, nor differences across assessment instruments in co-occurrence patterns. There were large similarities in co-occurrence patterns across the different European countries. Finally, co-occurrence was generally stable across age and sex, and if any change was observed, it indicated stronger correlations when children grew older. We present an online tool to visualise these associations as a function of rater, gender, instrument and cohort. In addition, we present a description of the full EU-ACTION projects, its first results and the future perspectives.
  • Alatupa, Saija; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Lipsanen, Jari; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2011)
  • Jakubaviciute, Egle; Candolin, Ulrika (2021)
    The invasion of non-native species into an ecosystem can markedly alter the structure and functioning of the system. Yet, we have limited knowledge of the factors that determine invasion success. Behavioural interactions have been suggested as critical determinants of invasion success in animals, but the exact mechanisms are less well known. We investigated if density-dependent behavioural interactions could have facilitated the invasion of the shrimp Palaemon elegans into the spawning habitat of the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea. This was done by manipulating the densities of the two species in mesocosms. We found the stickleback to dominate behaviourally over the shrimp through higher aggression, but that the impact on the shrimp was density-dependent; a high density of sticklebacks increased aggressive interactions, which caused the shrimps to decrease their activity and restrict their habitat use to dense vegetation, while a low density of sticklebacks had no impact on the distribution and activity of the shrimps. The density of the shrimps had no impact on stickleback behaviour. These results suggest that the present density of the stickleback has allowed the invasion of the shrimp into the habitat. However, a current increase in stickleback abundance caused by human-induced ecological disturbances could limit the further expansion of the shrimp. Thus, our results indicate that a behavioural mechanism-density-dependent aggression-can influence invasion success and subsequent population expansion. At a broader level, our results stress the importance of considering density-dependent behavioural interactions when investigating the mechanisms behind invasion success.
  • Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Raevuori, Anu; Heikkilä, Kauko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vuoksimaa, Eero (2019)
    Modestly prevalent in the general population (4%), but highly prevalent in prison populations (>40%), the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) involves aggression as one of several possible criteria. Using multiple informants, we aimed to determine if general aggression, as well as direct and indirect subtypes, assessed in early adolescence (ages 12, 14) predict young adulthood ASPD in a population-based sample. Using data from a Finnish population-based longitudinal twin cohort study with psychiatric interviews available at age 22 (N=1347), we obtained DSM-IV-based ASPD diagnoses. Aggression measures from ages 12 (parental and teacher ratings) and 14 (teacher, self, and co-twin ratings) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of ASPD from logistic regression models and the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and family structure. All informants' aggression ratings were significant (p
  • Brommer, Jon; Kluen, Edward (2012)
    When several personality traits covary, they form a behavioral syndrome. Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of a behavioral syndrome requires knowledge of its genetic underpinning. At present, our understanding of the genetic basis of behavioral syndromes is largely restricted to domestic and laboratory animals. Wild behavioral syndromes are mostly inferred on the basis of phenotypic correlations, and thus make the “phenotypic gambit” of assuming that these phenotypic correlations capture the underlying genetic correlations. On the basis of 3 years of reciprocal cross-fostering of 2896 nestlings of 271 families within a pedigreed population, we show that the nestling personality traits handling aggression, breathing rate, and docility are heritable (h2 = 16–29%), and often have a pronounced “nest-of-rearing” variance component (10–15%), but a relatively small “nest-of-origin” variance component (0–7%). The three nestling personality traits form a behavioral syndrome on the phenotypic and genetic level. Overall, the phenotypic correlations provide a satisfactory description of the genetic ones, but significantly underestimate the magnitude of one of the pairwise genetic correlations, which mirrors the conclusion based on domestic and laboratory studies.
  • Jokinen, Olli; Appleby, David; Sandbacka-Saxen, Sofi; Appleby, Tuulia; Valros, Anna (2017)
    Homing puppies before 8 weeks has been associated with lower instance of avoidance and types of aggression in adult dogs. The current study aimed to further assess the impact of homing age on these behaviours in adult dogs. Finnish dogs provide an interesting population for this further study, as based on the clinical experience of the co-authors, puppies in Finland are predominantly reared in domestic maternal environments before first homing, which was not the case in the countries where previous studies have been performed. Online questionnaire-based data on frequencies of problematic behaviours (n = 3689) were analysed using Chi-Square, comparing adult dogs homed at 6-7 weeks (6-7), 8 weeks (8), 9-12 weeks (9-12) and 13-16 weeks (13-16). 31% were 6-7, 41% 8, 23% 9-12, 5% 13-16. If an overall association was observed, pairwise comparisons between homing age groups were conducted. All of the dogs included in the study came from domestic maternal environments, where the puppies were kept in the breeders' living quarters. Homing age was associated with avoiding, growling and snapping at unfamiliar people when away from the home environment (p = 0.004, p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively); avoiding, barking at, growling at and snapping at unfamiliar people visiting the home (p = 0.02, p = 0.02, p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and barking at unfamiliar dogs when away from the home environment (p = 0.001). With one exception, dogs homed later than 8 weeks, namely during weeks 9-12 and 13-16, had higher than expected prevalence of avoidance and aggressive behaviour than dogs homed at other ages. The exception being that for the measure, barking at unfamiliar dogs away from the home environment, there were higher than expected values in dogs homed at 8 and 13-16 weeks and lower in dogs homed at 6-7 and 9-12 weeks. This research supports the view that homing age is associated with instances of avoidance behaviour and some types of aggression in adult dogs.
  • Kaunomäki, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Kontio, Raija; Laiho, Tero; Sailas, Eila; Lindberg, Nina (2017)
    Background: Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were. Methods: The data were collected in a naturalistic setting during a 6-month period in a Finnish psychiatric admission ward with a total of 331 patients with a mean age of 42.9 years (SD 17.39) suffering mostly from mood, schizophrenia-related and substance use disorders. The total number of treatment days was 2399. The staff assessed the patients daily with the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA), which is a structured violence risk assessment considering the upcoming 24 h. The interventions in order to reduce the risk of violence following a high DASA total score (>= 4) were collected from the patients' medical files. Inductive content analysis was used. Results: There were a total of 64 patients with 217 observations of high DASA total score. In 91.2% of cases, at least one intervention aiming to reduce the violence risk was used. Pro re nata (PRN)-medication, seclusion and focused discussions with a nurse were the most frequently used interventions. Non-coercive and non-pharmacological interventions like daily activities associated significantly with the decrease of perceived risk of violence. Conclusion: In most cases, a high score in violence risk assessment led to interventions aiming to reduce the risk. Unfortunately, the most frequently used methods were psychopharmacological or coercive. It is hoped that the findings will encourage the staff to use their imagination when choosing violence risk reducing intervention techniques.
  • Kaunomäki, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Kontio, Raija; Laiho, Tero; Sailas, Eila; Lindberg, Nina (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were. Methods The data were collected in a naturalistic setting during a 6-month period in a Finnish psychiatric admission ward with a total of 331 patients with a mean age of 42.9 years (SD 17.39) suffering mostly from mood, schizophrenia-related and substance use disorders. The total number of treatment days was 2399. The staff assessed the patients daily with the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA), which is a structured violence risk assessment considering the upcoming 24 h. The interventions in order to reduce the risk of violence following a high DASA total score (≥4) were collected from the patients’ medical files. Inductive content analysis was used. Results There were a total of 64 patients with 217 observations of high DASA total score. In 91.2% of cases, at least one intervention aiming to reduce the violence risk was used. Pro re nata (PRN)-medication, seclusion and focused discussions with a nurse were the most frequently used interventions. Non-coercive and non-pharmacological interventions like daily activities associated significantly with the decrease of perceived risk of violence. Conclusion In most cases, a high score in violence risk assessment led to interventions aiming to reduce the risk. Unfortunately, the most frequently used methods were psychopharmacological or coercive. It is hoped that the findings will encourage the staff to use their imagination when choosing violence risk reducing intervention techniques.
  • Aronen, Eeva (2016)
  • Talaslahti, Tiina; Vataja, Risto; Ginters, Milena; Koponen, Hannu (2019)
  • Laiho, Tero; Lindberg, Nina; Joffe, Grigori; Putkonen, Hanna; Hottinen, Anja; Kontio, Raija; Sailas, Eila (2014)
  • Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina; Arvio, Maria; Järventausta, Kaija (2019)
  • Salin, Denise (Sage Publications, 2003)
    This paper summarizes literature explaining workplace bullying and focuses on organisational antecedents of bullying. In order to better understand the logic behind bullying, a model discussing different types of explanations is put forward. Thus, explanations for and factors associated with bullying are classified into three groups, i.e. enabling structures or necessary antecedents (e.g. perceived power imbalances, low perceived costs, and dissatisfaction and frustration), motivating structures or incentives (e.g. internal competition, reward systems, and expected benefits), and precipitating processes or triggering circumstances (e.g. downsizing and restructuring, organisational changes, changes in the composition of the workgroup). The paper concludes that bullying is often an interaction between structures and processes from all three groupings.