Browsing by Subject "Agroteknologia"

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  • Raunio, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Automatic measurement of temporally varying soil moisture content could result in benefits both in agriculture and other applications. Mainly due to the ease of automation only electrical methods are suitable for measuring the variability of temporal moisture content. Capacitance technology is one of the most suitable methods for this kind of purpose. When determining soil moisture content by dielectricity means one will face two main properties: soil permittivity and soil electrical conductivity. Moisture measurement is based mainly on the changes of soil permittivity. Instead, changes in the soil electrical conductivity typically hamper the accuracy of moisture measurements. The measurement accuracy can be improved, however, by increasing the measurement frequency. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of sensor’s physical geometry and measuring frequency to the reliability of measurement. Combination of two measurement frequencies and an additional measurement of soil resistance were also determined for improving the accuracy. This study was carried out as part of the SAFETOOL project which aims were to monitor and to develop measurement tools for measuring and monitoring the status of the environment in field conditions. The sampling volume of capacitive sensors was examined in both field and laboratory conditions. To stabilize the weather moisture measurements were done only in laboratory conditions. The study was divided into two parts: pre-study and main-study. During the main-study five different capacitive geometries and the measurement of soil resistance were examined. Capacitance was measured using three frequencies: 5,5, 70 and 95 MHz. A commercial EC-5 capacitance sensor (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA, USA) was used as control. Measurements were carried out in containers of volume about 3 litres filled with fine sand. Moisture measurements were conducted with volumetric water contents of 5 %, 15 %, 25 % and 35 % while the electrical conductivity varied between 2 and 24. Changes in the physical geometry did not result in remarkable differences of accuracy. The measurement volumes were also similar within the variable geometries. The impact of changes in the electrical conductivity, or salinity, however, was significant. Measuring the resistance of the soil lead typically to better results. However, this could be due to relatively high soil electrical conductivity. While working within the framework of normal field conditions and the right calibration one might expect to get reliable moisture measurements with a capacitance moisture sensor.
  • Koskenniemi, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin ISOBUS-työkonemarkkinoiden nykytilaa. Tutkimuksen pääkysymyksinä olivat yhteensopivuusongelmien yleisyys, ISOBUS-teknologian ja ominaisuuksien tunnettavuus, sekä tulevaisuudennäkymät ISOBUS-työkoneiden osalta. Tunnettavuuden osalta keskityttiin erityisesti työkoneen käyttäjän ja myyjän myyjä-asiakassuhteeseen sekä asiantuntijamyyjän palvelukykyyn uuden teknologian osalta. Tutkimus toteutettiin laadullisena haastattelututkimuksena haastattelemalla työkoneiden käyttäjiä, myyjiä sekä työkonealan asiantuntijoita. Käyttäjien, eli työkonekaupan asiakkaiden osalta keskityttiin erityisesti keskikokoa suurempiin asiakkaisiin. ISOBUS-väylää hyödyntäviä työkoneita on ollut markkinoilla jo melko pitkään, mutta aihealue on vielä kohtuullisen tuntematon laajemmin työkonesektorilla. Tietoisuus väylän toimintatavasta, tai varsinkin sen eri toiminnallisuuksista ja niiden luomista mahdollisuuksista on vasta kehittymässä, jolloin ristiriitoja voi syntyä helposti. Myös markkinoilla olevat, eri vuotiset ja eri ISOBUS-toiminnallisuuksia tukevat työkoneet aiheuttavat haasteita erityisesti käytettyjen työkoneiden kauppiaille. Eri versioiden yhteensovittamisessa esiin nousseista yhteensopivuusongelmista voi myös helposti nousta koko ohjausväylää koskeva epäluotettavuuden leima, vaikka ongelmalle olisikin selkeä syy. ISOBUS-väylää hyödyntävien työkoneiden määrä on kuitenkin jatkuvasti kasvussa, ja samalla myös täsmäviljelyn lisääntyessä laajaa tietomäärää kerääville ja käsitteleville työkoneille on selkeä kysyntä, joka puoltaa ISOBUS-väylän paikkaa ja mahdollisuuksia työkonealalla. ISOBUS-väylä rakentuu tarkasti standardisoidun rakenteen lisäksi myös standardisoituihin toiminnallisuuksiin. Näitä toiminnallisuuksia ovat esimerkiksi työkoneen hallintaan käytetty universaaliterminaali, tai työsuoritteen tietojen keräämiseen ja hallitsemiseen liittyvä tehtäväohjain. Työsuoritteen tietojen keräämisen lisäksi tehtäväohjain on myös oleellisessa roolissa täsmäviljelyssä, sillä esimerkiksi paikkakohtainen määränsäätö rakentuu sen ympärille. Vaikka tuloksissa nousi esille useampia yhteensopivuusongelmia ISOBUS-traktoreiden ja työkoneiden välillä, ei niiden koettu kuitenkaan leimaavan järjestelmää. Useilla loppuasiakkaille nousi tuloksissa esille aiheen vieraus työkonemyyjille, mutta toisaalta myös vaihtelu koettiin suureksi. Vastaavasti kokonaisuudessaan ISOBUS-ominaisuuksia painottavia asiakkaita koettiin olevan vielä vähän kokonaisuuteen nähden. Joka tapauksessa väyläominaisuuksien merkityksen koettiin kasvavan tulevaisuudessa huomattavasti, niin työkoneiden käyttäjien kuin myös myyjien mielestä.
  • Afrane, Yaw (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The world population is growing and is expected to reach over 9 billion in about 30 years. Climate change is also widely expected to worsen famines in certain regions of the world. This will drastically increase global food demand. Food security efforts should be therefore be geared towards promoting food crops that can thrive in these regions and can withstand the condition likely to be brought about by changing climate. Cassava is a typical example of such a crop. This study investigated the use of digital images to estimate growth parameters of young cassava plants. Cassava was cultivated in pots at the University of Helsinki greenhouse at Viikki. The plants were given different water level (100%, 60% and 30% saturation) and potassium (0.1, 1.0, 4.0, 16.0 and 32.0mM) treatments. Digital red-green-blue (RGB) and multispectral images were taken every other week for 5 consecutive times. The images were processed to obtain leaf area, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Crop Senescence Index (CSI) and correlated with directly measured growth parameters of the young cassava crops. It was observed that leaf area that was computed from images, and NDVI which was computed from the multispectral images have significant positive correlations with the growth parameters, ie, actual leaf area, chlorophyll content, and plant biomass. CSI however showed weak a correlation between the growth parameters of the young cassava plants. Images leaf area and NDVI were then used to identify the changes in the effects of the water and potassium treatments.
  • Islam, Md. Safiqul (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Mulching, as a cultivation technique, has been adopted since the early twentieth century in agriculture for improving various aspects of crop production. However, the use of mulching was boosted by the introduction of plastic mulch, which has been reported as a harmful substance to the farm environment. Therefore, the need for an environmentally benign mulch material is obvious. The present study investigated the effects of paper and biodegradable plastic mulches on the cucumber yield, soil temperature and moisture content (at 10 cm depth), and the control of weed growth in an agricultural field located at the University of Helsinki in Southern Finland. The degradability of mulches was also investigated. The null hypothesis was that all the mulches would have a similar effect on the abovementioned aspects. Four paper mulches, i.e., BP, KB, CK, and OB, accompanied by biodegradable mulch (BIO) and a bare soil (BG) treatment were under investigation. Each of these treatments had 4 replicates, and a randomized complete block design (RCBD) was adopted. Sensors were installed at 10 cm depth in each study plot to measure the soil temperature and moisture content. In addition, the experimental plots were watered by drip irrigation. All the attained data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The results of the study revealed noteworthy positive effects (P<0.05) of mulch application on cucumber yields together with soil temperature, early fruiting, and weed growth regulation compared to the un-mulched bare ground, exclusive of soil moisture content. The daytime soil temperature (DST) was higher than at night (NST), indicating a positive association of the mulch effect with plant growth and crop earliness. However, no suggestive improvement in soil moisture was found through mulch application during the study period. Edge degradation was only found for paper mulches during the study period, suggesting their environment friendliness. The CK and KB papers were the most effective and most environmentally positive mulch materials, and could be a suitable choice for Finnish vegetable growers. The findings of this study could assist paper manufacturers in improving the qualities of mulch papers regarding vegetable production. Future research aims at assessing the effects of mulches on the physiology of plants studied under mulched techniques together with the development of cheaper and more environmentally benign mulch materials.
  • Lehtinen, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Need for higher productivity motivates and forces farmers to adapt new technological solutions. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have enabled several solutions to increase efficiency specially in field operations in terms of assisted or automatic steering, yield monitoring and precision farming. Accuracy of raw GNSS-data is poor and not suitable for any field operation. Methods to minimize error caused by different sources are in conclusive role to adapt positioning solutions to agriculture and to field operations. Aim of this study was to compare different GNSS correction methods by means of static and dynamic measurements. Results of the measurements occurred that high precision is achievable. Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) were more precise (RTK base station, AgriVRS and Centerpoint RTX) than Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) (Omnistar G2 and Egnos). RMS values in 8 hour static measurements were between 0.004 and 0.406 m. Autonomic positioning RMS value was 1.014 m. In dynamic measurements scale was from 1.610 m to 0.015 m. Correction methods performed better in relative positioning than in repeating same position in subsequent days. Automatic steering is possible with every correction method. When using paid license corrections accuracy rises. Accuracy should be chosen by need of the field work, for example seeding needs higher accuracy than broadcasting of fertilizer. Due to Northern location of Finland SBAS are not available everywhere. Correction sent from satellite can be blocked for example by tree line. Also radio signal is hard to utilise in data transfer due to scattered field structure. Finland has excellent cellular network. Corrections loaded via cellular to receiver were available in test sites most practically.
  • Zhao, Chuanhui (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The research of this thesis was focused on anaerobic digestion of cow manure mixed with different types of biowaste, especially those material that are available in Finland. The research was conducted by search, collection, and analysis of different data in literature. Topic of the thesis was predetermined by the Co-Creation Lab project of Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), which was seeking solution to achieve carbon neutral cow milk production. The solution was co-approached by three participants conducting thesis from technological, economical, and legislative points of view, in which I was responsible for writing mainly the technological part, and general findings in economic efficiency and legislative terms by the other two co-creators were also included in this thesis. The research was mainly related with the whole cycle of biogas production, including basics about anaerobic digestion (AD), applications of the biogas and digestate as a product and by-product of AD. Substrates for AD were researched with a focus to find the best combination of cow manure (CM) and biowaste in regard with methane yield outcome, especially a mixture of CM and silage waste that suits the cow farming situation in Finland. Methane yields for mono-digestion of various types of biowaste and co-digestion of CM with different biomass were collected and analyzed. Premises for biogas plant establishment were researched briefly, including facility composition, and consideration of feasibility and raw material availability. CM with grass containing 75% timothy and 25% meadow fescue grass at 70%:30% mixing ratio could be the best combination of CM: grass co-digestion, followed by 0.5:0.5 mixed CM and perennial ryegrass. Furthermore, CM mixed with food waste at 52:48% ratio could be the best combination among co-digestion of CM with biowaste other than grass, followed by CM and food waste mixed with 68%:32% ratio, and CM with oat straw mixed at 1:2 ratio could be a considerable combination of CM and crop waste.
  • Rauhala, Jussi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    High quality milk is an important thing for dairy industry and the most important determinator for milk price paid to the producer. The quality of milk is measured with somatic cell and bacteria count. Milks somatic cell count doesn’t change after milking that emphasizes the importance of udder health and successful milking. The total annual cost of the mastitis in an 100 head of cattle was estimated to be 21 000 – 25 000 euros in Finland (calculated with price level in 2010). Liner is the only part of the milking machine that contacts cow’s teat and the only way of bacteria into udder is through teat canal. Many bacterial infections occur in teat injuries and due to the teat-end roughness that makes teat canal closure slower, which makes bacteria access easier into udder. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of CloverTM -liner on milking. Results were compared to the traditional HarmonyTM -liner. Cross section of a CloverTM -liner looks like clover whereas the shape of traditional liner cross section is round. Udder health and milking characteristics were measured attributes for comparison of the two liner models in this thesis. Udder health was evaluated by measuring somatic cell count, teat-end health and short-term changes in teat condition after milking. Milking characteristics were evaluated by measuring milk yield, milking duration and milk flow. The measurements were taken in two farms in summer 2015. The results of this study were estimated with line and bar charts as well as statistical significances were estimated with appropriate models. The differences between groups were small in teat-end health and there was a lot of deviation in the results so there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Total number of teats with short-term changes in teat condition after milking was so small that statistical testing was not appropriate. There were no differences in milk yield, milk flow, milking duration or somatic cell count between groups. The only statistically significant difference was peak flow that was lower for ClowerTM -liner.
  • Sarvela, Konsta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis was to design, build and test a system, which is capable of measuring in real time simple quantities influencing on tire-soil contact of agricultural tractors mobility. The measuring equipment is based on acceleration and distance sensors connected to the Arduino Uno microcontroller. The tractor’s CAN bus was logged and the data was saved using a CAN bus card connected to a Raspberry Pi minicomputer. The sensors were calibrated, and their sensitivity checked before performing the experiments while driving in the field. Accelerometers were placed on top of the rear axle of the tractor at both ends in housings printed for them and distance sensors were mounted behind the rear axle. All sensors were logged by using Raspberry's Raspbian operating system with a python program. The Raspberry was chosen as a computer because of its demanding low space, low cost, and versatility of interfaces. The properties of the field were monitored by monthly penetrometer measurements as well as SoilScout sensors embedded in the ground, which indicated the moisture and temperature of the ground at that depth in real time. The purpose of this was to find out the changes in the field during the growing season, which would also affect the tractor's mobility. The measurement were carried out successfully and the result were considered to be reliable and provide many other opportunities for the future. The results clearly indicated the factors influencing the tractor’s mobility and the different stages of the tillage could be recognized. Future challenges remain the filtering of large amounts of data and the application of measuring equipment in further research. The measurement equipment developed in the work is well suited for its purpose in terms of measurement accuracy and economical affordability. In the future, better accuracy could be achieved with more accurate measuring devices as well as data obtained from this work.
  • Karim, Md Rezaul (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Peat lands are net sinks of carbon (C) and a net source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage during the growing season. The surface peat layer can be lost because of aerobic decomposition (oxidation) after drainage resulting in emissions of CO2. One way to reduce these emissions is to keep the water table at a high level as much as possible. The resulting anoxic conditions reduce the decomposition of organic matter and hence CO2 emissions. In the current Finnish agri-environmental scheme, the farmers may receive subsidies for controlled drainage on peatlands, and a raised ground water level through controlled drainage could be used as a greenhouse gas mitigation measure. This study reports the carbon balance of drained peatland under controlled drainage during the growing season in Mouhijärvi, Southwestern Finland. The CO2 fluxes measured with a transparent chamber method were divided into gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for modelling based on environmental factors (light and temperature) and canopy reflectance (leaf area index, LAI). The GPP model estimates the effect of light and vegetation status, whereas the ER model captures the share of foliar biomass-dependent respiration and the ground water table. The sum of the study period (June–August 2016) GPP varied from -1301 to -670 g C m-2, ER from 632 to 1029 g C m-2 and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from -322 to 68.5 g C m-2. NEE indicated a net sink of C in all plots except one with poor crop growth. The net ecosystem carbon balance (as the sum of NEE and carbon export as grains), indicated a net source of carbon in both plots with controlled drainage and a net sink in conventionally drained plots during the cultivation period. The greatest sink reported either as NEE or with the harvest included was the wettest plot, indicating that cereal production is possible in wetter than normal conditions.
  • Vuorentola, Ari-Pekka (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this research was to measure energy consumption and energy loss through ventilation in the Viikki research farm, as well as to find possible targets to decrease energy consumption. In order to properly achieve an efficient use of energy it is important to first know how much energy is being used and where. In the literature review I found that the greatest energy consumption comes from ventilation, milking, cooling the milk, warming the water, lightning, taking of the manure and feeding. Previous research has shown that most of the energy is used for feeding and milking. Feeding took 133–650 kWh/year/cow. The energy consumption of milking was 380–570 kWh/year/cow. Milking the cows, cooling the milk and washing up the tank were included in energy consumption of milking. If internal combustion engines are used for feeding the overall energy consumption is higher than when electrical engines are used. To determine energy consumption in the Viikki research farm`s barn, measuring devices were installed. Due to the limited number of devises I concentrated on the sources of the highest energy consumption, as was determined from previous research. The reliability of the results from the chosen targets was acceptable, however, measurement of the total consumption of energy of the entire barn was very challenging and its measurement was eventually abandoned. The barn used for this research is an old renovated stone barn where cows are kept unchained. There are 60 to 70 cows, a couple of heifers and 0 to 30 calves in the barn. The total energy consumption of the barn as measured by the devices is 197 475 kWh/year or 0,267 kWh/kg of milk/year. Most of the energy is used for lightning (56 132 kWh per annum) or 0,076 kWh/kg of milk and 823 kWh/cow per annum. Feeding accounted for 42 000 kWh/year or 0,050 kWh/kg/year. The feeding of one cow required 615 kWh a year of energy. The amount of energy used for one kilo of milk was: milking, 0,047; warming 0,041; manure disposal 0,029; and ventilation 0,018 kWh/year. According to my calculations the amount of energy passing through the ventilation system was 580 000 kWh/year.
  • Sikkilä, Markus (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In Finland, the most common envelope materials around the drain pipe are gravel together with coconut prewrapping and thin fabric sheet. The use of prewrapped envelopes has increased due to the benefits in drainage installationtime compared with other envelope materials. However, failure of subsurface drains with prewrapped envelope materials have been reported in several studies. This has caused disagreement in the use of prewrapped envelopes. Disfunction of subsurface drains leads to wetness of soil, which can cause problems in the bearing capacity of the soil and in the field crop production. Prewrapped envelope materials are important element in subsurface drainage, but there isn t enough information on their functionality in Finnish drainage. The purpose of this study was to examine how prewrapped envelope materials have worked in clay and sandy soils for over 10 years. The most important task was to find out the tendency to the degradation of the envelope materials, and how the degradation influenced in the function of envelopes. Studied prewrapped envelope materials were coconut fibre and a Finnish thin fabric sheet, which didn t meet the standards of prewrapped materials. The chosen soil types, clay and sand soils, had different characteristics, and their influence on the functionality of the prewrapping and clogging of the drain pipe was examined. Field investigations were carried out on subsurface drained fields in seven localities across Finland. Drain pipes were dug open at least in three places of the field and soil samples were collected until the depth of the drain pipe. Particle-size distribution and soil type were determined in the laboratory. Degradation of the envelope material around the pipe was examined visually. The drain pipe was cut open and the quantity and texture of the sediment in the pipe were studied. A sewer camera was used to inspect the condition of the pipe. According to the results, degradation of envelopes had advanced greatly in most of the sites. The thin fabric sheet had decayed totally except one research field. Envelope degradation was also found on quite new drains. The coconut prewrapping was better preserved than the thin fabric sheet in most of the target fields. Clogging of the drain pipes was not directly explained by degradation of the envelopes. Pipes were clogged more sensitively in envelope s problem soil areas, especially when envelopes around the pipes were degradated.
  • Kinnarinen, Anneli (2019)
    Room attendants’ tasks at hotels consist of daily cleaning of the hotel guest rooms, making beds, handling materials, taking care of guest room facilities, and maintenance of the working areas. Surveys conducted (interviews and questionnaires) on hotel guestroom cleaning have shown that room attendants’ tasks involve a high amount of physical work, they work under time pressure and experience discomfort in different parts of the body. There were no objectively measured data available about the amount of the physical workload. The main objective of this case study research was to quantify the level of energetic workload in guest room cleaning. The second objective of the study was to discover the key features impacting on the room attendants’ physical work load. The field study was conducted at five hotels from same hotel chain. Aerobic capacity of the room attendants was assessed with a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Work operations throughout the work shift were video-taped with direct measuring of the heart rate (HR). Also physical conditions (°C, % RH) and number of steps taken were measured during the work operations. Perceived workload was assessed in these actual work situations on the Borg scale RPE (6–20). Load factors of the work system and working environment were discovered through group interviews. Furthermore, additional measurements were carried out in the working areas. Changes in working conditions and technology were identified 17 years afterwards by interviewing cleaning managers at those the hotels that still had an in-house cleaning organization. Room temperature exceeded the recommended limits for physical cleaning work. Functionality of the tools sometimes mismatched with the working environment. Heavy hotel trolleys, heavy textiles, lack of space to do the cleaning work, and furnishings and fittings of the guest rooms caused additional effort during the cleaning work. Work pace (rooms/hour) increased towards the end of the work shift. Approximately 23.4 (SD ±4.3) rooms were cleaned per work shift. Time spent on guest room cleaning cycles covered approximately 76.3% of an entire work shift. During guest room cleaning cycles, estimated oxygen consumption was approximately 35.5% VO2max and energy expenditure approximately over 270 W. In terms of heart rate response, over half of the whole work shift was moderate work and over one third heavy work for the women participating this study (age ≤ 45 years). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at the end of the workshift was almost at the same level as it was at the end of the submaximal cycle ergometer test (heavy work). The WHO (World Health Organization) has accepted the classification of work by its demand for energy (W·kg-1). According to this classification, room attendants’ workload is moderate for women aged 20–45 years. As a complement to the results, the foremen were also interviewed. Development in information technology, redesigned work procedures and the furnishings and fittings of the guest rooms have on the one hand lightened room attendants’ workload, but on the other hand the demand for output (rooms/hour) has increased. Notwithstanding its limitations, this study suggests that the results can be used to improve both the job design of hotel guest room cleaning and the space and interior design of hotel rooms, in order to decrease the physical workload and whole body work performed under time pressure. Space and interior planning has a major impact on creating possibilities for accessible cleaning and accessible housing, both at hotels and other companies or public institutions providing accommodation. However, lightening the work-load also increases both the speed of the work and the risk of work overload, especially in team work. Therefore, future research could be directed to re-assess the productivity norms used especially in service organizations so as to avoid unexpected outcomes.
  • Farzam, Neda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study provides the green (the share of rain water in crop production) and blue (the share of surface and groundwater in crop production) water footprint (WF) of four annual crops in Finland and five annual crops in Iran for the growing period 2007?2012. It aims to present more recent water footprint accounting on annual crops in this study. Due to the large scale water footprint accounting (country level), the calculation for grey water footprint was omitted from this study. The green and blue water footprints of barley, maize, oilseed rape, soybeans and wheat for Iran and barley, oats, oilseed rape, and wheat for Finland were calculated over the annual growing period 2007 to 2012. Crops were selected upon the availability of crop production in each country. WF values were estimated based on crop water use (CWU) and crop yield, where CWU was estimated upon the accumulative ET over the growing season of the crops. For daily evapotranspiration values AQUACROP model was used. For running the AQUACROP model, different parameters were needed such as climatic parameters (including minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration), soil type, land management, irrigation practice, groundwater and initial condition for sowing, sowing and harvesting dates. This data were mined from databases. Due to the fact that crop production in Finland is rain-fed, only green WF of the selected crops were calculated for Finland. In Finland oilseed rape had the highest average green water footprint per ton of production, which was 2471 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1 and it was followed by oats (1036 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1), wheat (944? m?^3 t¯¹yr¯^1), and barley (838? m?^3 t¯¹yr¯^1). Considering the annual crop production, the average total green water footprint of selected crops was 3669 Mm^3 yr¯^1 in Finland. Water saving through crop trade was estimated -294 Mm^3 yr¯^1. The negative saving water amount showed the virtual water loss through crop trade of selected crops in Finland. The highest export crop in Finland was oats during 2007?2012. In Iran the major share of annual crop production comes from irrigated crop lands and that shows the importance of blue water footprint accounting beside green water footprint. The sum of green and blue water footprints of the growing crops in Iran was considered as water footprint of the crops. Water footprint per ton of crops in Iran increased from maize (696 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1), wheat (1235 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1), barley (1350 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1), soybeans (2210 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1) to oilseed rape (3503 m^3 t¯¹yr¯^1). Total average water footprint of the selected crops in Iran considering their production in the country was estimated 22816? Mm?^3 yr¯^1. Regarding the crop trade balances in Iran, the country saved 8902? Mm?^3 yr¯^1 water by importing the crops. Wheat was the major import crop during 2007?2012. WF can be a strong tool for assessing the consumptive water use of the agricultural systems in place and time according to different agricultural and water managements. It can bring a ground for comparing the production sites for certain crops or products considering the lower WF of the produced items. This study aimed at producing recent calculations of water footprint of crops in Finland and Iran, using local data.
  • Sotunde, Sobowale Adedapo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In meeting the crop water needs in the arid and semi-arid regions, alternative source of water must be explored, like the harvesting of dew and fog. To estimate the quantity of potential harvestable water in semi-arid Nigeria, a 3-hourly meteorological data from 8 weathers stations across the semi-arid region of Nigeria were analysed. The data; from January to December 2009; was retrieved in June 2015 from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) database, by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The available data includes the wind speed (WS) and direction, air temperature, and the relative humidity (RH). From the available data, the following needed parameters to calculate the potential water harvestable in each area were first calculated; the air saturated vapour pressure, air vapour pressure, absolute humidity, and finally the potential water harvestable through air humidity over 3hours (WH3). Only the RH ≥69% were used in calculating the WH3, at lower values water harvesting isn’t possible. Also, only the WS ≤2 was used, at higher values of WS, evaporation occurs. All the areas showed the possibility of harvesting water from dew and fog. The possibility was however higher during the wet season both in quantity and in frequency in all the areas considered than in the dry season.
  • Laajalahti, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Traktorien nostolaitteen sivurajoittimia on yritetty hydraulisoida 1970-luvulta lähtien. Kiuruvetinen yritys Piippo Hydraulic on kehittänyt Farmiventtiili -nimisen erikoisventtiilin, joka kykenee ohjaamaan sivurajoittimia yhdessä ja erikseen. Lisäksi traktorin ohjausjärjestelmiä varten on kehitetty ISO 11783-standardi, jossa määritellään traktorin, työkoneiden ja niiden ohjainlaitteiden välinen väyläliikenne. Tämä mahdollistaa eri valmistajien laitteiden kytkemisen yhteen ja samaan ohjaus- sekä tietoväylään. Tässä maisterintutkielmassa tehtiin prototyyppi Farmiventtiilin ISOBUS-pohjaisesta ohjauksesta. Farmiventtiilin ohjaus toteutettiin Epec Oy:n toimittamalla ohjauslaitteella, Multitool-konfigurointiohjelmalla, CodeSys PLC-ohjelmointiympäristöllä sekä IsoDesigner-käyttöliittymän suunnitteluohjelmalla. Näillä työkaluilla suunniteltiin virtuaaliterminaalille käyttönäkymä, laitteen ECU:lle toimintalogiikka sekä 3D-tulostamisen avulla prototyyppiasteen monitoimiohjain. Laitteelle tehtiin myös valmius väyläpohjaiselle ohjaukselle traktorin oman tai muun valmistajan hallintalaitteiden kautta AUX-N -standardiosan mukaisesti. Prototyypissä testattiin myös nostolaitteen työntövarren, kallistajan ja sivurajoittimien anturointia ja siihen pohjautuvaa automatiikkaa. Lopputuloksena saatiin prototyyppiasteen ohjausjärjestelmä, jossa on toteutettu nämä toiminnallisuudet. Työn edetessä havaittiin, että sinällään yksinkertaiseen venttiiliin voidaan mahduttaa ohjelmoitavuuden ansiosta runsaasti sellaisia toiminnallisuuksia, joita yksinkertaisella analogiohjauksella ei voida saavuttaa. ISOBUS:ssa toimiva ohjausyksikkö kykenee toimimaan myös muiden venttiilijärjestelmien siltalaitteena, jos järjestelmää on laajennettava. ISOBUS:n avulla toteutettu ohjaus alentaa kustannuksia, kun omia ohjainlaitteita ja kaikkia antureita ei tarvita väylällä valmiiksi olevien laitteiden ansiosta.
  • Leminen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää kirjallisuustutkimuksena ISOBUS-väylän hyödyntämismahdollisuuksia. Hyödyntämismahdollisuuksia etsittiin sekä peltotöidenteon aikaisista hyödyistä, että jälkikäteen työn analysoinnin hyödyistä sekä hyödyistä valmistauduttaessa seuraavaan työtapahtumaan ja seuraaviin vuosiin. Työn aikaiset hyödyt jakautuvat kahteen eri luokkaan. Sellaisiin, mistä on apua viljelijälle sekä työkoneen ja traktorin autonomisen toiminnan lisäämisen hyötyihin. Viljelijälle apua on mm. polttoaineenkulutusmittarista, joka näyttää reaaliaikaista polttoaineenkulutusta myös hehtaaria kohti, työkoneen toimintaa mittaavista anturitiedoista tai pienestä mutta tärkeästä asiasta eli työkoneen työtuntilaskuriin perustuvasta huoltomuistutuksista. Työkoneen ja traktorin autonomisuuden lisäämisellä on mahdollista tehdä jopa täysin ilman ihmistä toimiva traktori. Väylän avulla työkone voi ohjata traktoria mm. muuttamaan työnopeutta tai työsyvyyttä ja kun väylälle lisätään vielä GPS-ajouraopastin niin traktori osaa myös ohjata itseään pellon sisällä gps-paikkatiedon perusteella. Työn analysoinnissa väylän isoimmat hyödyt ovat tietojen siirtäminen suoraan tietokoneelle viljelykirjanpitoon, jolloin viljelijän ei tarvitse pitää paperisia muistiinpanoja työsuorituksista sekä analysoitavien tietojen määrän runsas kasvu. Viljelijä pystyy runsaan tietomäärän avulla kotonaan etsimään pellolta ongelmakohtia ja selvittämään johtuuko pellon vajavainen kasvu pellon huonosta kasvukunnosta vai viljelytoimenpiteistä. Tietokoneella pystyy myös valmistelemaan työtä tekemällä esimerkiksi paikkakohtaisen lannoituskartan esimerkiksi satokartan avulla tai määrittämällä ajourat pellolle niin, että pelto saadaan työstettyä mahdollisimman nopeasti ja tehokkaasti ilman päällekkäisajoa. Tietoja voi siirtää tietokoneelle ja sieltä takaisin väylälle joko reaaliaikaisesti mobiilidatan tai langattoman internetin avulla tai määräajoin laittamalla muistitikun väylälle ja siirtämällä tiedot sen avulla tietokoneelle. Väylän standardisointi on vielä kesken, mutta joka tapauksessa se mahdollistaa monipuolisen teknologian käytön ja hyödyt viljelyssä.
  • Keijälä, Niila-Sakari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Nowadays there is a lot of discussion about climate change and climate change affects everyone. In agriculture when studying the carbon cycle, it is essential to know and understand what is happening underground. Organic carbon bound to the soil is about 1500 Gt when measured from a depth of 1 m. According to the datasets in topsoil, at a depth of 0–30 cm, the amount of organic carbon is about 50 % of the total amount of organic carbon. For surface and subsoil examination the minirhizotron system provides an inexpensive and simple way to examine the roots of plants without destroying the plants examined. The objective of this study is to build and test a minirhizotron camera and scanner as well as to become familiar with image processing and its automation. The construction of the camera was started from an old minirhizotron camera which could be used as parts for a new one. The parts which could not be used from the old camera were designed with 3D modeling software and manufactured with 3D printer. For image acquisition an electronic microscope was bought. For the scanner system a normal USB powered flatbed scanner was purchased and a protective case was built for it. Imaging with a minirhizotron camera transparent tubes must be installed to the ground and they are usually installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle of 30 ° to 45 °. The way that a scanner is installed is usually determined by what the purpose of the imaging is. The obtained image material showed that the self-built minirhizotron system is a suitable tool for root research and its relatively inexpensive price allows a wide distribution of the system, even among ordinary farmers. A prerequisite for the success of the images is close contact between the ground and the tubes or scanner. It allows the images to be accurately thresholded and gives reliable results when analyzing the images. Highlighting the roots by hand is very time consuming which is the reason that development of automatic analyzing is needed. Successful thresholding is also a prerequisite for the automation and it should be noted in the future. Viability of machine vision and machine learning in root studies should be studied.
  • Äijälä, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of the thesis was to make customer satisfaction research about change of the logistical structure in aftermarket of Agritek Oy. Customer satisfaction survey was made for retailers of Agritek Oy. Year 2012 Agritek Oy started piloting straight deliveries from factory to retailers. Shortly the new model deliveries started to be normal routine of some retailers. Thesis was made to find out how these straight deliveries impact retailers day to day business. The research was divided in several periods. In first and second periods retailers answered to customer satisfaction surveys. Both of these first and second period surveys was made as open-ended and closed-ended question surveys. Delivery times were researched in third period. Delivery time data was collected during one and a half years. Satisfaction surveys indicated that there is a need for development in tracking of delivery, delivery times, order process and order deadline. Delivery time research indicated that there is a need for development of delivery times for several retailers. For several retailers the delivery time is minimum three days. In spare part business this kind of delivery time is too long. The most important targets of development are availability of traceability information, modification of ordering process and shortening of delivery times. Agritek Oy has opportunity to significantly increase customer satisfaction by improving company’s operational model. There is a need of assistance from CNH if company wants to improve delivery times. CNH has opportunity to improve the delivery times to retailers by remodeling the freight contracts. Cooperation between CNH and Agritek Oy is needed for increasing the reliability of delivery and customer satisfaction level of aftermarket.
  • Staffas, Johan (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Dagens såmaskiner och såtekniker har utvecklats mycket sedan 1950-70 talets släpbillssåmaskiner. Likaså har jordbearbetningsteknikerna också utvecklats. Med olika jordbearbetningstekniker ställs det olika krav på marken och såmaskinerna. Grunden till en lyckad skörd är att skapa en optimal såbädd. Både forskningen och praktiken har utvisat, att om gödsel och utsädet hamnar för nära varandra och förhållandena är missgynnsamma kan det leda till att beståndsetableringen lider. Målsättningen med examensarbetet var att undersöka vilka skillnader det finns mellan placerad och radmyllad gödsel. Man ville även granska hur metoderna påverkar uppkomsten, skördebildningen och skördemängden av vårvete. De två huvudfrågorna i avhandlingen var skördesäkerheten och riskerna med att mylla gödseln i såraden med vårvete som gröda. I litteraturdelen behandlades vad som ligger i grunden till en bra uppkomst och vad som krävs för att stråsäd ska börja växa, vilka olika tekniker det finns och hur dessa skiljer sig åt. Tidigare gjorda försök och forskningar granskades också. I examensarbetets praktiska del gjordes ett fältförsök på sommaren 2014. I det randomiserade blockförsöket undersöktes två olika såmaskiner, som placerar gödseln i marken på två olika sätt. Den ena maskinen placerar gödseln på konventionellt sätt d.v.s. ett par centimeter nedanför och på sidan om utsädet, medan den andra såmaskinen radmyllar gödseln i ett band i såraden. I fältförsöket såddes vete för att få på reda hur gödselns placering eventuellt kunde påverka beståndsetableringen och skördebildningen. Genom både automatiska mätningar och genom att mäta olika parametrar under växtperioden, från sådd till skörd, samlades data för vidare analys. Baserat på examensarbetet kan man dra slutsatsen att gödselplaceringen i förhållande till utsädet har betydelse vid torra förhållanden för uppkomsten och etableringen. Dock beror det mycket på vilken gröda det är frågan om samt vilka förhållanden som råder på åkern, hur stor gödselmängd som används och på jordarten. Fältförhållandena var bra under sommaren 2014, vilket gjorde att inga betydande skillnader observerades. Litteraturgranskingen visade att skillnaderna träder fram mera vid torra förhållanden.
  • Alasaarela, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Ruukkusalaattien tuotanto on kasvanut Suomessa jo vuosikymmeniä. Kasvihuoneet mahdollistavat tuoreiden lehtivihannesten kasvatuksen ympärivuotisesti, mutta pimeä vuodenaika tai valonsaannin heikentyminen yhdessä korkean nitraattilannoituksen kanssa aiheuttavat nitraatin kertymistä salaattiin. Nitraatti ei itsessään ole kovin myrkyllistä ihmiselle, mutta sen aineenvaihduntatuotteet elimistössä voivat olla haitallisia. Siksi ravinnon nitraattipitoisuuksia rajoitetaan EU asetuksella ja kasvisten nitraattipitoisuuksia valvoo Ruokavirasto. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää jääsalaatin (Lactuca sativa L.) nitraattipitoisuuteen vaikuttavia tekijöitä yksityisellä kasvihuonepuutarhalla, ja ehdottaa helposti sovellettavia keinoja nitraattipitoisuuden alentamiseksi. Tutkimuksessa mitattiin vuorokaudenajan, iän ja olosuhteiden vaikutusta jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen. Mittaukset tehtiin eri kellonaikoina korjatuilta salaateilta, neljän, viiden ja kuuden viikon ikäisiltä salaateilta, sekä viikoittaisilla seurantamittauksilla kolmen kuukauden ajan syksyllä 2017. Salaattien nitraattipitoisuus määriteltiin pikamittausmenetelmällä. Kasveille tulevaa PAR-valoa ja kiertoliuoksen nitraattityppipitoisuutta mitattiin jatkuvatoimisella mittalaitteella. Lisäksi kasvihuoneen automaattisesta ohjausjärjestelmästä saatiin tietoa muista kasvuolosuhteista. Sadonkorjuun kellonaika ei vaikuttanut jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen. Ikä vaikutti neljän ja viiden viikon ikäisten salaattien nitraattipitoisuuteen, mutta paremmissa valo-olosuhteissa iän vaikutus heikkeni kuuden viikon ikäisillä salaateilla. Nitraattityppilannoituksella ei ollut suoraa vaikutusta salaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen, mutta enemmän valoa saaneissa salaateissa oli vähemmän nitraattia. Kasvuston tasolta tehdystä jatkuvatoimisesta valon mittauksesta on hyötyä salaatin nitraattipitoisuuden hallinnassa. Riski nitraatin enimmäispitoisuusrajan ylitykseen on suuri syyskuussa luonnonvalon määrän vähentyessä. Tekovalojen käytön lisäämisellä voidaan alentaa salaatin nitraattipitoisuutta.