Browsing by Subject "Alces alces"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-16 of 16
  • Heikkilä, Risto (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1990)
  • Heikkilä, Risto; Mikkonen, Timo (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1992)
  • Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Varv, Kairi; Frojdman, Isabella; Jääskeläinen, Anu; Rundgren, Kaj; Versteirt, Veerle; Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Medlock, Jolyon M.; Golovljova, Irina (2016)
    Background: The tick species Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus are of exceptional medical importance in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the Palaearctic region. In Russia and Finland the range of I. persulcatus has recently increased. In Finland the first records of I. persulcatus are from 2004. The apparent expansion of its range in Finland prompted us to investigate if I. persulcatus also occurs in Sweden. Methods: Dog owners and hunters in the coastal areas of northern Sweden provided information about localities where ticks could be present. In May-August 2015 we used the cloth-dragging method in 36 localities potentially harbouring ticks in the Bothnian Bay area, province Norrbotten (NB) of northern Sweden. Further to the south in the provinces Vasterbotten (VB) and Uppland (UP) eight localities were similarly investigated. Results: Ixodes persulcatus was detected in 9 of 36 field localities in the Bothnian Bay area. Nymphs, adult males and adult females (n = 46 ticks) of I. persulcatus were present mainly in Alnus incana - Sorbus aucuparia - Picea abies - Pinus sylvestris vegetation communities on islands in the Bothnian Bay. Some of these I. persulcatus populations seem to be the most northerly populations so far recorded of this species. Dog owners asserted that their dogs became tick-infested on these islands for the first time 7-8 years ago. Moose (Alces alces), hares (Lepus timidus), domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and ground-feeding birds are the most likely carriers dispersing I. persulcatus in this area. All ticks (n = 124) from the more southern provinces of VB and UP were identified as I. ricinus. Conclusions: The geographical range of the taiga tick has recently expanded into northern Sweden. Increased information about prophylactic, anti-tick measures should be directed to people living in or visiting the coastal areas and islands of the Baltic Bay.
  • Heikkilä, Risto; Löyttyniemi, Kari (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1992)
  • Pulliainen, Erkki; Loisa, Kalevi; Pohjalainen, Tauno (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1968)
  • Sainio, Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1955)
  • Lehtonen, Anne (University of Helsinki, 1997)
  • Lääperi, Ari (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1990)
    Moose (Alces alces) cause considerable damage to traffic, agriculture and forestry in Finland. This has resulted in pressure to reduce the moose stock. The proposal that moose damage might be reduced by providing alternative sites was investigated. In spring 1987, six feeding sites and six 1-ha control areas were selected in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantations in the Ruokolahti-Imatra area, Finland. Mineral licks and aspen (Populus tremula) and Scots pine tops were provided on the feeding sites. These sites were also treated with nitrogen fertilizer. Before 1987, moose had destroyed four plantations in the immediate surroundings of the experimental areas. During the period 1987-89 only one plantation was destroyed. This was attributed to the setting up of the feeding sites. It was also noted that the reduction in damage was partly due to a probable decrease in the moose population. The number of damaged plants near one of the feeding sites was significantly greater than the damage near its corresponding control area, because there was not enough food for the moose population at this feeding site. It is concluded that the establishment of winter feeding sites may be a practical method for reducing moose damage and keeping the moose stock at its present size. The main problem was the increased risk of damage near feeding sites if the food is not replaced quickly enough.
  • Laine, Jukka; Mannerkoski, Hannu (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Nikula, Ari; Nivala, Vesa; Matala, Juho; Heliövaara, Kari Tapani (2019)
    We modelled the effect of habitat composition and roads on the number and occurrence of moose (Alces alces L.) damage in Ostrobothnia and Lapland using a zero-inflated count model. Models were developed for 1 km(2), 25 km(2) and 100 km(2) landscapes consisting of equilateral rectangular grid cells. Count models predict the number of damage, i.e. the number of plantations and zero models the probability of a landscape being without damage for a given habitat composition. The number of moose damage in neighboring grid cells was a significant predictor in all models. The proportion of mature forest was the most frequent significant variable, and an increasing admixture of mature forests among plantations increased the number and occurrence of damage. The amount of all types of plantations was the second most common significant variable predicting increasing damage along with increasing amount of plantations. An increase in thinning forests as an admixture also increased damage in 1 km(2) landscapes in both areas, whereas an increase in pine-dominated thinning forests in Lapland reduced the number of damage in 25 km(2) landscapes. An increasing amount of inhabited areas in Ostrobothnia and the length of connecting roads in Lapland reduced the number of damage in 1 and 25 km(2) landscapes. Differences in model variables between areas suggest that models of moose damage risk should be adjusted according to characteristics that are specific to the study area.
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari; Hiltunen, Raimo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)
  • Heikkilä, Risto (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1991)
    Studies were made at Lapinjarvi, S. Finland, in May and September 1987 and May 1988 on the utilization of available food resources by moose (Alces alces) in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation containing an admixture of deciduous species. Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and aspen (Populus tremula) were preferred-food compared to pine and both silver birch (Betula pendula) and pubescent birch (B. pubescens). However, rowan and aspen were not capable of withstanding continuous browsing by moose owing to their diminished biomass. The browsing intensity (number of browsed twigs/tree) on pine and birch was about twice that on rowan and aspen. The number of browsed twigs per tree increased as the amount of available main branches increased. The number of bites per available branch, as well as the maximum diameter of the bites, decreased as the density of the plantation increased. Silver birch was preferred to pubescent birch; planted silver birch was preferred to naturally regenerated trees. Main stem breakage was especially common in winter 1988; the average height of pine and birch was >2 m. The tops of broken stems were commonly utilized as food. The increase in moose density and the relatively deep snow cover promoted the incidence of serious damage. The number of undamaged trees/ha was greater in dense than in sparse parts of the stand.
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari; Heikkilä, Risto; Repo, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1992)
  • Nikula, Ari (Finnish Society of Forest Science, 2017)
    Dissertationes Forestales
    The Moose is a valuable game animal in Fennoscandia but also the most severe pest in forest plantations. In this thesis, I examined factors that affect the habitat selection of moose and moose damage at multiple scales. At the plot level, browsing increased with an increasing number of artificially regenerated pines and deciduous trees taller than pines. The damage risk was the highest in plantations with heavy soil preparation. Moose summer home ranges had more fertile sites than the overall study area. Within summer ranges moose, selected non-pine-dominated habitats and mature forests and avoided human settlements. Winter ranges contained more pine-dominated plantations and other young successional stages, more pine dominated peatland forests and less human settlements and agricultural fields. Within winter ranges, moose used more non-pine-dominated plantations and mature forests and less human-inhabited areas than expected. At the home range level, there were no significant differences between sexes, but within home ranges males and females used different habitats during both seasons. The occurrence of damage in nearby landscape decreased the probability to find a landscape without damage and predicted an increase in the number of damaged plantations. Increased food-cover adjacencies of mature forests and plantations increased damage. An increasing proportion of inhabited areas and the length of connecting roads decreased the number of damage at the landscape sizes of 1 km2 and 5 km2. Moose-damaged stands were concentrated in SW and eastern Lapland in Peräpohja Schist Belt and Lapland s Greenstone Belt with nutrient-rich bedrock. There was less damage in landscapes with an abundant amount of pine-dominated thinning forests. Moose damage plantations were located more on fertile bedrock and soils than undamaged ones. Regenerating Scots pine on fine-grained soils derived from nutrient-rich rocks and naturally occupied by Norway spruce might increase damage risk.
  • Rousi, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)