Browsing by Subject "Alcohol consumption"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Lainiola, Mira; Linden, Anni-Maija (2017)
    Neuroinflammation may play an important role in the development of alcohol addiction. Recent pre-clinical reports suggest that enhanced innate immune system signaling increases consumption of alcohol. Our aim was to study whether consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness reaction increase long-term alcohol intake. Adult male C57BL/6j mice, housed in individually ventilated cages, were injected with LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.) and allowed to recover from an acute sickness reaction for 1 week before analysis of their alcohol intake in two different drinking models. Effects of LPS challenge were tested in a continuous two-bottle free choice test with increasing concentrations of alcohol and in a drinking in the dark (DID) binge model. In addition, the effect of repeatedly administered LPS during abstinence periods between binge drinking was analyzed in the DID model. In addition, the DID model was used to study the effects of the microglia inhibitor minocycline (50 mg/kg/day, 4 days) and purinergic P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (75 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on alcohol intake. In contrast to previous findings, pretreatment with a 1-mg/kg dose of LPS did not significantly increase ethanol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. As a novel finding, we report that increasing the LPS dose to 1.5 mg/kg reduced consumption of 18 and 21% (v/v) ethanol. In the DID model, pretreatment with LPS (0.2-1.5 mg/kg) did not significantly alter 15% or 20% ethanol consumption. Neither did repeated LPS injections affect binge alcohol drinking. Minocycline reduced alcohol, but also water, intake regardless of LPS pretreatment. No data on effects of P2X7 antagonists on alcohol consumption have been previously published; therefore, we report here that subchronic Brilliant Blue G had no effect on alcohol intake in the DID model. As a conclusion, further studies are needed to validate this LPS model of the interaction between immune system activation and alcohol consumption. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • McMinn, Megan A.; Gray, Linsay; Harkanen, Tommi; Tolonen, Hanna; Pitkanen, Joonas; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Leyland, Alastair H.; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    Background: In the context of declining levels of participation, understanding differences between participants and non-participants in health surveys is increasingly important for reliable measurement of health-related behaviors and their social differentials. This study compared participants and non-participants of the Finnish Health 2000 survey, and participants and a representative sample of the target population, in terms of alcohol-related harms (hospitalizations and deaths) and all-cause mortality. Methods: We individually linked 6,127 survey participants and 1,040 non-participants, aged 30-79, and a register-based population sample (n = 496,079) to 12 years of subsequent administrative hospital discharge and mortality data. We estimated age-standardized rates and rate ratios for each outcome for non-participants and the population sample relative to participants with and without sampling weights by sex and educational attainment. Results: Harms and mortality were higher in non-participants, relative to participants for both men (rate ratios = 1.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2, 1.9] for harms; 1.6 [1.3, 2.0] for mortality) and women (2.7 [1.6, 4.4] harms; 1.7 [1.4, 2.0] mortality). Non-participation bias in harms estimates in women increased with education and in all-cause mortality overall. Age-adjusted comparisons between the population sample and sampling weighted participants were inconclusive for differences by sex; however, there were some large differences by educational attainment level. Conclusions: Rates of harms and mortality in non-participants exceed those in participants. Weighted participants' rates reflected those in the population well by age and sex, but insufficiently by educational attainment. Despite relatively high participation levels (85%), social differentiating factors and levels of harm and mortality were underestimated in the participants.
  • Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David; Pentti, Jaana; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Ervasti, Jenni; Goldberg, Marcel; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskinen, Aki; Lallukka, Tea; Lindbohm, Joni V.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Shipley, Martin J.; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Sorensen, Jeppe K.; Stenholm, Sari; Suominen, Sakari; Vaananen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika (2022)
    Background Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of several chronic diseases. In this multicohort study, we estimated the number of life-years without major chronic diseases according to different characteristics of alcohol use. Methods In primary analysis, we pooled individual-level data from up to 129,942 adults across 12 cohort studies with baseline data collection on alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and history between 1986 and 2005 (the IPD-Work Consortium). Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorised according to UK guidelines - non-drinking (never or former drinkers); moderate consumption (1-14 units); heavy consumption (>14 units per week). We further subdivided moderate and heavy drinkers by binge drinking pattern (alcohol-induced loss of consciousness). In addition, we assessed problem drinking using linked data on hospitalisations due to alcohol abuse or poisoning. Follow-up for chronic diseases for all participants included incident type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and respiratory disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) as ascertained via linkage to national morbidity and mortality registries, repeated medical examinations, and/or self-report. We estimated years lived without any of these diseases between 40 and 75 years of age according to sex and characteristics of alcohol use. We repeated the main analyses using data from 427,621 participants in the UK Biobank cohort study. Findings During 1.73 million person-years at risk, 22,676 participants in IPD-Work cohorts developed at least one chronic condition. From age 40 to 75 years, never-drinkers [men: 29.3 (95%CI 27.9-30.8) years, women 29.8 (29.2 - 30.4) years)] and moderate drinkers with no binge drinking habit [men 28.7 (28.4-29.0) years, women 29.6 (29.4-29.7) years] had the longest disease-free life span. A much shorter disease-free life span was apparent in participants who experienced alcohol poisoning [men 23.4 (20.9-26.0) years, women 24.0 (21.4-26.5) years] and those with self-reported heavy overall consumption and binge drinking [men: 26.0 (25.3-26.8), women 27.5 (26.4 - 28.5) years]. The pattern of results for alcohol poisoning and self-reported alcohol consumption was similar in UK Biobank. In IPD-Work and UK Biobank, differences in disease-free years between self-reported moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers were 1.5 years or less. Interpretation Individuals with alcohol poisonings or heavy self-reported overall consumption combined with a binge drinking habit have a marked 3- to 6-year loss in healthy longevity. Differences in disease-free life between categories of self-reported weekly alcohol consumption were smaller. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Pachito, Daniela V.; Pega, Frank; Bakusic, Jelena; Boonen, Emma; Clays, Els; Descatha, Alexis; Delvaux, Ellen; De Bacquer, Dirk; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Kroeger, Hannes; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Latorraca, Carolina O. C.; Li, Jian; Cabrera Martimbianco, Ana L.; Riera, Rachel; Rugulies, Reiner; Sembajwe, Grace; Siegrist, Johannes; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sumanen, Markku; Suominen, Sakari; Ujita, Yuka; Vandersmissen, Godelieve; Godderis, Lode (2021)
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing Joint Estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of experts. Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that exposure to long working hours may increase alcohol consumption and cause alcohol use disorder. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder that are attributable to exposure to long working hours, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates. Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of exposure to long working hours (three categories: 41-48, 49-54 and >55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption, risky drinking (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality) and alcohol use disorder (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality). Data sources: We developed and published a protocol, applying the Navigation Guide as an organizing systematic review framework where feasible. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including the WHO International Clinical Trials Register, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and CISDOC on 30 June 2018. Searches on PubMed were updated on 18 April 2020. We also searched electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand searched reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consulted additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We included working-age (15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We considered for inclusion randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other nonrandomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of exposure to long working hours (41-48, 49-54 and 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption (in g/week), risky drinking, and alcohol use disorder (prevalence, incidence or mortality). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from publications related to qualifying studies. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias, quality of evidence and strength of evidence, using Navigation Guide and GRADE tools and approaches adapted to this project. Results: Fourteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 104,599 participants (52,107 females) in six countries of three WHO regions (Americas, South-East Asia, and Europe). The exposure and outcome were assessed with self-reported measures in most studies. Across included studies, risk of bias was generally probably high, with risk judged high or probably high for detection bias and missing data for alcohol consumption and risky drinking. Compared to working 35-40 h/week, exposure to working 41-48 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 10.4 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.59-15.20; seven studies; 25,904 participants, I2 71%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working 49-54 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 17.69 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.16-26.22; seven studies, 19,158 participants, I2 82%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working >55 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 16.29 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.93-24.65; seven studies; 19,692 participants; I2 82%, low quality evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of exposure to working 41-48 h/week, compared with working 35-40 h/week on developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.08; 95% CI 0.86-1.36; 12 studies; I2 52%, low certainty evidence). Working 49-54 h/week did not increase the risk of developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.12; 95% CI 0.90-1.39; 12 studies; 3832 participants; I2 24%, moderate certainty evidence), nor working >55 h/week (relative risk 1.11; 95% CI 0.95-1.30; 12 studies; 4525 participants; I2 0%, moderate certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses indicated that age may influence the association between long working hours and both alcohol consumption and risky drinking. We did not identify studies for which we had access to results on alcohol use disorder. Conclusions: Overall, for alcohol consumption in g/week and for risky drinking, we judged this body of evidence to be of low certainty. Exposure to long working hours may have increased alcohol consumption, but we are uncertain about the effect on risky drinking. We found no eligible studies on the effect on alcohol use disorder. Producing estimates for the burden of alcohol use disorder attributable to exposure to long working hours appears to not be evidence-based at this time. Protocol identifier: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.025. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018084077
  • Wang, Mo; Svedberg, Pia; Narusyte, Jurgita; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina (2021)
    We investigated the associations between health behaviors and sustainable working life outcomes including allcause disability pension, disability pensions due to musculoskeletal and mental diagnoses and unemployment. The role of familial factors behind these associations was studied by analysing discordant twin pairs. Our data included Swedish twins born in 1925-1986 (51891 twin individuals). Baseline data based on two independent surveys in 1998-2003 and 2005-2006 for health behaviors were linked to national registers on disability pension and unemployment until 2016. Cox proportional hazards models for hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the whole sample adjusting for covariates. Analyses of health behavior discordant twin pairs (n = 5903 pairs) were conducted using conditional Cox models. In the whole cohort, the combination of healthy behaviors was associated with lower risk for all-cause disability pension, disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses or mental diagnoses, and for unemployment (HRs 0.56-0.86, 95% CIs 0.51-0.92) as did being physically active (HRs 0.69-0.87, 95% CI 0.65-0.92). The discordant pair analyses confirmed the lower risk among those having healthy behaviors (HR 0.70-0.86) or being physically active (HR 0.86-0.87) for all-cause disability pension, disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, and for unemployment. To conclude, controlling the effects of covariates or familial confounding (i.e. discordant twin pair analyses) shows that being physically active or having several healthy behaviors predict better working life outcomes. This points towards independent association between healthy behavior and longer working life.