Browsing by Subject "Amazonia"

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  • Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Reyes-García, Victoria (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017)
    Defaunation is one of the most critical challenges faced by contemporary hunter-gatherers worldwide. In the present chapter we explore how this global anthropogenic phenomenon is being explained by a hunter-gatherer society: the Tsimane’ of Bolivian Amazonia. First, we briefl y review the historical context of contemporary Tsimane’, with a special focus on defaunation trends in their territory. We then draw on ethnographic accounts to understand how this society explains the drivers of defaunation and integrates them in their understanding of the world, and specifically in their mythology. The Tsimane’ perceive widespread defaunation in their territory, which they tend to largely interpret as a result of both natural and supernatural forces, with intertwined arguments. The Tsimane’ think that supernatural deities control animals and, consequently, they largely associate wildlife scarcity with punishments by the spirits in response to disrespectful conducts. As such, defaunation is interpreted as a consequence of (a) direct harm to wildlife populations by the inappropriate hunting and fi shing behaviour; and (b) the discontentment of the animal deities for not respecting certain established cultural norms. In the Tsimane’ view, the latter is also aggravated by their recent relative inability to communicate with the spirits, due to the disappearance of shamans. Considering that the way people interpret environmental change can determine their behaviour towards proposed conservation actions, understanding the symbolic dimensions of defaunation is of direct relevance to any initiative aiming for sustainable wildlife management in areas inhabited by hunter-gatherers.
  • Ribas, Camila C.; Aleixo, Alexandre (2019)
    Amazonia has been a focus of interest since the early days of biogeography as an intrinsically complex and extremely diverse region. This region comprises an intricate mosaic that includes diverse types of forest formations, flooded environments and open vegetation. Increased knowledge about the distribution of species in Amazonia has led to the recognition of complex biogeographic patterns. The confrontation of these biogeographic patterns with information on the geological and climatic history of the region has generated several hypotheses dedicated to explain the origin of the biological diversity. Genomic information, coupled with knowledge of Earth's history, especially the evolution of the Amazonian landscape. presents fascinating possibilities for understanding the mechanisms that govern the origin and maintenance of diversity patterns in one of the most diverse regions of the world. For this we will increasingly need more intense and coordinated interactions between researchers studying biotic diversification and the evolution of landscapes. From the interaction between these two fields of knowledge that are in full development, an increasingly detailed understanding of the historical mechanisms related to the origin of the species will surely arise.
  • Saunaluoma, Sanna; Pärssinen, Martti; Schaan, Denise (2018)
    Amazonian earthworks, which are an important testimony to ancient anthropogenic landscape modifications, have a significant variety of structures and sizes, and are found in different geographical and ecological locations that indicate separate time periods, distinct cultural affiliations, and diverse purposes. We introduce data from diverse archaeological earthwork sites, geoglyphs, mound sites, and walled enclosures situated in the interfluves of the Purus River in the Brazilian state of Acre and propose a type definition for these sites. The abundant anthropogenic landscape features and their associated material culture indicate considerable human-induced environmental alterations and diverse earthworking traditions that are characteristic of the region of eastern Acre from at least ca. 2000 b.p. onwards.
  • Moura, Carina Carneiro de Melo; Fernandes, Alexandre M.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pereira de Araujo, Helder Farias; Mariano, Erich de Freitas; Wink, Michael (2020)
    We focus on reconstructing a spatiotemporal scenario of diversification of a widespread South American species, the Pectoral Sparrow Arremon taciturnus (Aves: Passerellidae). This species is widely distributed in both the humid and the dry forests of South America and therefore provides an interesting model for understanding the connection between different biomes of South America. We examined nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b (cyt-b) and NADH subunit 2 (ND2) from 107 specimens, and one nuclear marker (intron 7 of the beta-fibrinogen gene) from a subset of samples collected across the distribution ranges of A. t. taciturnus and A. t. nigrirostris. Six major lineages were recovered in the phylogenies that displayed high levels of variance of allele frequencies and corresponded to distinct geographical locations. The estimation of divergence times provided evidence that diversification of the six lineages of the Pectoral Sparrow occurred throughout the Late Pleistocene across major cis-Andean biomes and Amazonian interfluves. Our dataset for A. taciturnus provides further evidence that rivers in Amazonia constitute barriers promoting allopatric speciation, with occasional sharing of alleles among lineages, particularly those with adjacent distributions.
  • Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Howard, Patricia L.; Reyes-García, Victoria (2016)
    Local medical systems are key elements of social-ecological systems as they provide culturally appropriate and locally accessible health care options, especially for populations with scarce access to biomedicine. The adaptive capacity of local medical systems generally rests on two pillars: species diversity and a robust local knowledge system, both threatened by local and global environmental change. We first present a conceptual framework to guide the assessment of knowledge diversity and redundancy in local medicinal knowledge systems through a gender lens. Then, we apply this conceptual framework to our research on the local medicinal plant knowledge of the Tsimane’ Amerindians. Our results suggest that Tsimane’ medicinal plant knowledge is gendered and that the frequency of reported ailments and the redundancy of knowledge used to treat them are positively associated. We discuss the implications of knowledge diversity and redundancy for local knowledge systems’ adaptive capacity, resilience, and health sovereignty.
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina (2017)
    Amazonian alkuperäiskansojen tapa käsittää mieli ja ruumis sekä ympäristö ja ihminen toisistaan erottamattomina kokonaisuuksina haastavat ajattelutapaa, jossa nämä asiat on perinteisesti ajateltu toisistaan erillisiksi ja rajoitetuiksi. Erilaiset tavat käsittää koettu todellisuus voivat tuottaa arvokasta tietoa siitä, kuinka ympäristön eri entiteetit ovat osa ihmisen historiaa, kokemusmaailmaa ja jatkuvaa oppimista.
  • Oikarinen, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In recent decades there has been a revival of customs and traditions among several indigenous Amazonian peoples, one feature of which is the strengthening of many shamanic practices repressed and partially abandoned under colonial rule. For the Yawanawa people of Acre, Brazil, annual cultural festivals have become a prominent symbol of cultural revitalization. Festivals enable an international audience to experience a live tradition in the form of song, dance, games, art and crafts as well as shamanic rituals and substances. In the context of shamanic ritual, the terms medicine and healing are some of the prominent discourses through which shamanic networks connect and alliances are created between visitors and the Yawanawa. The present study looks at the understandings of health and wellbeing of non-indigenous persons participating in contemporary shamanic networks in Amazonia. The aim of the study is to describe how knowledge of Yawanawa shamanic practices affects understandings of health, sickness and healing. My research questions are: 1) What are the meanings assigned to health and illness in Amazonian sociophilosophies and those of the Yawanawa people? 2) How do Western people practicing Amazonian shamanism perceive health and illness, and how do their understandings relate to those present in Yawanawa shamanism? 3) What constitute the main elements of healing in Yawanawa shamanism? My primary research data consists of six thematic interviews with non-indigenous people practicing and studying Yawanawa shamanism. I will employ two theoretical approaches to frame the analysis. The study locates in medical anthropology which examines concepts around health, illness and healing and their cultural and social diversity. I will refer to the framework of subjective theories of health by Schmid (2010, 2011) to view individual health-related understandings as subjective meaning-making frameworks that resemble but are not reduced to scientific medical theories. Indigenous relational philosophies of health comprise the second theoretical framework, through which the Yawanawa medical system and shamanism will be understood as consisting of the creation and management of harmonious relationships with both human and nonhuman actors. Literature review represents Amazonian shamanism as an interconnected world with a visible and invisible side. Health for indigenous peoples is based on a relational cosmovision where principles of right relationship and reciprocity are recreated at social, ecological and cosmological levels. Wellbeing is a co-created, shared resource as well as the result of successful negotiation with nonhuman beings with potentially conflicting interests. For the Yawanawa, health is defined through the balanced relations of bodies and souls that constitute a human person, as well as creating a distinct Yawanawa identity through embodied means. Traditional Yawanawa shamanism equally relies on the transformation of the body and its different capacities through removal and adding of substances. More recently, the changes occurring in Amazonian shamanic practices have been characterized by increased interconnectedness and exchange on a global level with an increase in shamanic tourism and neo-shamanic movements alongside the practice of indigenous shamanism. Non-local neo-shamanic activities, such as the ritual consumption of ayahuasca for self-healing, have been criticized as reflecting a western, individualistic worldview that does not recognize the relational, intersubjective dimensions of shamanism. Similarly, the elements of Amazonian shamanism undergo a translation that includes the medicalization and commercialization of ayahuasca as well as a tendency to psychologize shamanic experiences with nonhumans. Analysis of the interview data shows that the understandings of health of shamanic practitioners reflect a relational worldview that shares several elements with indigenous socio-philosophies of health. For the study participants, shamanism offers an alternative worldview and framework for understanding wellbeing compared to that of biomedicine characterized by scientific reductionism. A central effect of maintaining relational conceptions of health can be seen in an expanded view of the determinants of health. Individual wellbeing is defined holistically as the balance between the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of a person. At the same time consideration of elements and actors affecting health is spread horizontally to include relations between individual and their social and intergenerational ties, as well as ecological ties to the nonhuman world which includes other species as well as invisible beings of the spirit world. There is an individualistic orientation present whereby individual responsibility and autonomy are considered as important determinants of wellbeing. Interviewees also recognize some differences between their views and those of the Yawanawa regarding the agency of nonhuman beings. However, the study concludes that practicing and studying shamanism is not merely an egoistic pursuit for the study participants, but increased understanding of the principles of Amazonian shamanism and worldviews shows in an expanded awareness of relational ties in both shamanic cosmology as well as in interpersonal ties with the Yawanawa and Amazonian peoples. This is also reflected in the way the elements of healing in shamanism are understood as containing both subjective and intersubjective elements.
  • Santana, Antonita; Silva, Sofia Marques; Batista, Romina; Sampaio, Iracilda; Aleixo, Alexandre (2021)
    The true diversity and interspecific limits in the Neotropical endemic avian genusDendrocolaptes(Furnariidae) remain a highly controversial subject, with previous genus-wide assessments, based mostly on morphological characters, producing poorly resolved phylogenies. The lack of well-resolved, robust, and taxonomically densely sampled phylogenies forDendrocolaptesprevents reliable inferences on the genus' actual species diversity and evolutionary history. Here, we analyzed 2,741 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 43 specimens belonging to all species and the majority of subspecies described forDendrocolaptesto evaluate species limits and reconstruct its diversification through time. Our phylogenies recovered a monophyleticDendrocolaptes, with two main highly supported internal clades corresponding to theD. certhiaandD. picumnusspecies complexes. Also, our analyses supported the monophyly of mostDendrocolaptesspecies recognized today, exceptD. picumnus, which was consistently recovered as paraphyletic with respect toD. hoffmannsi. A coalescent-based test supported a total of 15 different lineages inDendrocolaptesand indicated that the number of currently accepted species within the genus may be greatly underestimated. Particularly relevant, when combined with previous analyses based on plumage characters, comparative high levels of genetic differentiation and coalescent analyses support the recognition ofD. picumnus transfasciatusas a full species that is already under threat. Ancestral area reconstructions suggest that diversification inDendrocolapteswas centered in lowland Amazonia, with several independent dispersal events leading to differentiation into different adjacent dry and high elevation forest types throughout the Neotropics, mainly during the Middle and Late Pleistocene.
  • Reis, Camila Alves; Dias, Cleyssian; Araripe, Juliana; Aleixo, Alexandre; Anciaes, Marina; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; do Rego, Pericles Sena (2020)
    We used molecular tools and a multilocus approach to investigate the phylogeography of Lepidothrix coronata across most of its ample range. We sequenced six DNA fragments to produce phylogenies, molecular dating estimates, analyses of the dynamics of the demographic history of the species and a biogeographic analysis to estimate the events and changes in the ancestral distribution of the species. The results indicated the presence of four well-established lineages, with high levels of divergence. These lineages are delineated by well-defined geographic barriers, with one lineage, restricted to the west of the Andes, being the first to diverge from the complex. The other three lineages are exclusive to the Amazonian distribution of the species, with two being found north of the Amazon River, and the third, south of the Amazon. Some of the relationships found between these lineages were distinct from those described in previous studies. Important disagreements were found between the mtDNA phylogeny and that of the multilocus analysis, in relation to the lineages located to the west of the Andes. We propose that past introgression events may have influenced shifts in the relationships between lineages, despite the fact that the groups were well defined in both the phylogenies. The biogeographic analysis indicates that the lineages arose through successive vicariance events, which had a primary role in the diversification of the group. Two or three genetically structured subclades were also found within each Amazonian lineage, although these subclades are not isolated by an obvious geographic barrier.
  • doninck, Jasper Van; Jones, Mirkka M.; Zuquim, Gabriela; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Moulatlet, Gabriel M.; Sirén, Anders; Cárdenas, Glenda; Lehtonen, Samuli; Tuomisto, Hanna (2020)
    Species distribution models are required for the research and management of biodiversity in the hyperdiverse tropical forests, but reliable and ecologically relevant digital environmental data layers are not always available. We here assess the usefulness of multispectral canopy reflectance (Landsat) relative to climate data in modelling understory plant species distributions in tropical rainforests. We used a large dataset of quantitative fern and lycophyte species inventories across lowland Amazonia as the basis for species distribution modelling (SDM). As predictors, we used CHELSA climatic variables and canopy reflectance values from a recent basin-wide composite of Landsat TM/ETM+ images both separately and in combination. We also investigated how species accumulate over sites when environmental distances were expressed in terms of climatic or surface reflectance variables. When species accumulation curves were constructed such that differences in Landsat reflectance among the selected plots were maximised, species accumulated faster than when climatic differences were maximised or plots were selected in a random order. Sixty-nine species were sufficiently frequent for species distribution modelling. For most of them, adequate SDMs were obtained whether the models were based on CHELSA data only, Landsat data only or both combined. Model performance was not influenced by species’ prevalence or abundance. Adding Landsat-based environmental data layers overall improved the discriminatory capacity of SDMs compared to climate-only models, especially for soil specialist species. Our results show that canopy surface reflectance obtained by multispectral sensors can provide studies of tropical ecology, as exemplified by SDMs, much higher thematic (taxonomic) detail than is generally assumed. Furthermore, multispectral datasets complement the traditionally used climatic layers in analyses requiring information on environmental site conditions. We demonstrate the utility of freely available, global remote sensing data for biogeographical studies that can aid conservation planning and biodiversity management.
  • Väänänen, Meeri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tutkimus on teemahaastatteluihin perustuva tapaustutkimus yhteisöllisestä luonnonsuojelusta San Martínin alueella Perun Amazonilla. Tutkimus keskittyy Pucacacan kylän paikallisen luonnonsuojelujärjestön Asociación el Bosque del Futuro Ojos de Aguan eli ABOFOAn toimijoihin ja muihin paikallisyhteisön jäseniin. Tutkimuksessa pohditaan ABOFOAn toimijoiden ja paikallisyhteisön jäsenten luonnonsuojelukäsityksiä ja –motivaatioita. Sen tavoitteena on selvittää, miksi ABOFOAn toimijat ovat aloittaneet suojelun ja jatkavat suojelua edelleen, ja toisaalta miksi kyläyhteisön jäsenet eivät osallistu luonnonsuojeluun. Samalla tutkimuksessa pohditaan, poikkeavatko toimijoiden käsitykset luonnonsuojelusta keskenään ja onko luonnonsuojelukäsityksissä ja –motivaatioissa eroja sukupuolten välillä. Näitä kysymyksiä tarkastellaan kahdentoista teemahaastattelun pohjalta: haastatelluista kuusi on ABOFOAn aktiivisia toimijoita ja kuusi Pucacacan paikallisyhteisön jäsentä. Puolet haastatelluista on miehiä ja puolet naisia, jotta sukupuolten väliset erot tulevat paremmin esiin. Kukin haastattelu kestää n. 1-1,5 tuntia ja litteroitua aineistoa on yli 140 sivua. Lisäksi aineistona käytetään ABOFOAn ja aluehallinnon arkistoista saatuja materiaaleja, monipuolista lähdekirjallisuutta sekä kolmea taustatietohaastattelua. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena selkärankana on toimintateoria tai toiminnan teoria. Tutkimuksessa sovelletaan Pierre Bourdieun habitusta, eli käsitystä ihmisten toimijuudesta ja toimintamalleista. Tutkimuksen avainajatus on, että luonnonsuojeluajattelu ja –motivaatiot poikkeavat abofoalaisten ja kyläläisten välillä toisistaan, koska abofoalaiset ovat luoneet jo järjestön perustamisesta lähtien, eli vuodesta 2003 lähtien omaa habitustaan, joka on yhteentörmäyksessä kyläläisten habituksen kanssa. Koska järjestön jäsenet ovat luoneet oman toimintakenttänsä, tämä kenttä myös aktiivisesti sulkee muita kyläyhteisön jäseniä ulkopuolelle luoden näin vahvan dikotomian “meidän ja heidän” välille. Siten luonnonsuojeluun eivät osallistu muut kyläläiset, vaikka se oli tarkoitettu alunperin yhteisölliseksi projektiksi ja vaikka luonnonsuojelun hyödyt välittyvät ainakin välillisesti koko kylälle. Habituksissa voi havaita selkeitä eroja abofoalaisten ja kyläläisten välillä. Abofoalaisten luonnonsuojelumotivaatiot nousivat luonnonsuojelun alussa erityisesti maanomistuksesta ja siitä, miten luonnonsuojelun ajateltiin tuovan hyötyjä omille maille tulevaisuudessa. Tästä ajatuksesta alkoi oman habituksen luominen, joka ajan kanssa sulki muita kyläläisiä ulkopuolelle ja teki ABOFOAsta sulkeutuneen järjestön. Vasta ajan kuluessa rakkaus metsää kohtaan tuli yhdeksi tekijäksi, kun aiemmin luonto oli nähty enemmänkin välineellisenä hyötynä. Naisten ja miesten tapauksessa sukupuolirakenteisiin perustuvia eroja löytyi erityisesti luonnonsuojelumotivaatioissa, sillä naisten motivaatiot välittyivät poikkeuksetta perhesiteiden, eli patriarkaatin kautta.
  • Sun, Linghui; Baker, Jessica; Gloor, Emanuel; Spracklen, Dominick; Boesch, Hartmut; Somkuti, Peter; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Buermann, Wolfgang (2019)
    We analyzed seasonal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) for five Amazon sub-basins and their response to the 2015/16 El Nino episode using a recently developed water-budget approach. ET varied typically between similar to 7 and 10 cm/month with exception of the Xingu basin for which it varied between 10 and 15 cm/month. Outstanding features of ET seasonality are (i) generally weak seasonality, (ii) two ET peaks for the two very wet catchments Solimoes and Negro, with one occurring during the wet season and one during the drier season, and (iii) a steady increase of ET during the second half of the dry season for the three drier catchments (Madeira, Tapajos, Xingu). Peak ET occurs during the first half of the wet season consistent with leaf flush occurring before the onset of the wet season. With regards to inter-annual variation, we found firstly that for the Solimoes and Madeira catchments the period with large positive wet season anomalies (2012-2015) is associated with negative ET anomalies, and negative SIF (solar induced fluorescence) anomalies. Furthermore, we found negative ET of several cm/months and SIF (up to 50%) anomalies for most of the Amazon basin during the 2015/16 El Nino event suggesting down-regulation of productivity as a main factor of positive carbon flux anomalies during anomalously hot and dry conditions. These results are of interest in view of predicted warmer and more erratic future climate conditions.
  • Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria; Lattu, Matti Petteri; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (2015)
    Accessibility and transportation possibilities are key factors influencing societal conditions and land use patterns in rural areas. Thus, information on the spatial patterns of accessibility and transportation can be of paramount importance in understanding regional differences in development, human livelihood and land use patterns. Analysing spatio-temporal transportation patterns is particularly challenging in areas where everyday transportation is based on unscheduled public transportation and a naturally controlled seasonal transportation network, such as rivers. Here, our aim is to provide information on the seasonal dynamics of riverine transportation and its effects on accessibility patterns in Peruvian Amazonia. We analysed riverine transportation speeds using a low-cost GPS-based riverboat observation system. Spatio-temporal accessibility patterns were generalised from the GPS-observations that were classified according to seasons into the high water season, intermediate season and low water season. We show that navigation along the rivers has a clear seasonal and directional (upstream/downstream) variation, which varies with different types of rivers based on channel morphology. In addition, we conducted interviews with local people to study their perceptions of the seasonal changes in navigation and the accuracy of transportation schedules. As the travel distances in Peruvian Amazonia are generally long, seasonal and directional differences have clear impacts on the overall accessibility patterns in the area and on the livelihoods of riverine inhabitants. Furthermore, the lack of clearly scheduled transportation causes considerable uncertainty about transportation options for local communities. The baseline information of the seasonal and directional variation of riverine transportation and travel speeds provided by our work is usable in further accessibility and livelihood analyses for Peruvian Amazonia, but it may also be useful in other areas relying on riverine transportation.
  • Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Lopez-Baucells, Adria; Velazco, Paul M.; Gyawali, Arun; Rocha, Ricardo; Terraube, Julien; Cabeza, Mar (2021)
    Indigenous Peoples have shaped and managed vast tracts of the Amazon rainforest for millennia. However, evaluations of how much biodiversity is governed under Indigenous stewardship are scarce. Here, we integrate geospatial data of officially recognized ITs across the Amazon biogeographic boundaries with the distribution range of >200 Amazonian bat species, to: (i) assess the potential contribution of ITs for the conservation of this species -rich mammalian group across the Amazon; (ii) investigate which ITs host the greatest number of bat species; and (iii) analyse how threatened and Data Deficient bat species are distributed within the ITs of the nine Amazonian countries. Twenty-two bat species were found to have >25% of their global distribution range within Amazonian ITs, including many forest-dependent species with restricted distribution ranges and a highly threatened or Data Deficient conservation status. Some particularly diverse ITs were found to harbour over half of the known Amazonian bat species, particularly in transboundary areas in the North-western Amazon. At the national level, the highest number of species with over 25% of their national Amazonian distribution within ITs was found in Peru (145), followed by Brazil (136), Colombia and Ecuador (both with 134). This study reveals the potential role of Indigenous Peoples in Amazonian bat conservation and emphasizes the contribution of their stewardship for maintaining the ecosystems in which some of the most rare and unique bat species are found. (C) 2020 Associacao Brasileira de Ciencia Ecologica e Conservacao. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina; Saunaluoma, Sanna (2017)
    Producing geometric designs and images on materials, such as pottery, basketry, and bead artwork, as well as the human body, is elemental and widespread among Amazonian Indigenous peoples. In this article, we examine the different geometric forms identified in the precolonial geoglyph architecture of southwestern Amazonia in the context of geometric design making and relational ontologies. Our aim is to explore earthwork iconography through the lens of Amerindian visual arts and movement. Combining ethnographic and archaeological data from the Upper Purus, Brazil, the article shows how ancient history and socio-cosmology are deeply "written" onto the landscape in the form of geometric earthworks carved out of the soil, which materialize interactions between nonhuman and human actors. We underline skills in visualization, imaginative practices, and movement as ways to promote well-balanced engagements with animated life forms. Here, iconography inserted in the landscape is both a form of writing and also emerges as an agent, affecting people through visual and corporal practices.
  • Savolainen, Unna (2008)
    This study is based on and contributes to the multidisciplinary debate of the extractive reserves as a method of sustainable development of the Brazilian Amazonia. It is a case study of a rubber tappers’ cooperative that aims to improve the livelihoods of the residents of an extractive reserve through the promotion of wild rubber production in the northern state of Pará. By looking at the difficulties the cooperative was facing the challenges for the sustainability of the extractive reserves and wild rubber production in general are explored. The objective is to know what are the possibilities of wild rubber extraction as a livelihood strategy. The research topic is explored from a historical perspective, taking into account the political and market dynamics that have affected the social logics of the groups in question. The theoretical framework is multidisciplinary, mainly drawing from the tradition of peasant economics. The research is based on the fieldwork conducted in the extractive reserve of Tapajós-Arapiuns and the city of Santarém, consisting of participant observation, interviews, and acquiring documents about the cooperative and the extractive reserve. On the basis of my study I argue that the model of the extractive reserve should take into consideration the varying realities of the different parts of Amazonia. Wild rubber production has income-generating potential as the global market prices are rising, although wild rubber suffers from a disadvantaged market position typical to extractive economies. In order for a cooperative to be able to strengthen the livelihoods of the members, it has to be able to function as a business. Increasing production is a political process, challenged by the fact that the producer price is not considered sufficient by the rubber tappers. Rubber production has a special history in the region and is not attributed with such cultural or social values as manioc, another cash crop, also the staple of the diet.