Browsing by Subject "Amber"

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  • Rikkinen, Jouko; Meinke, Kristin; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Gröhn, Carsten; Kobbert, Max; Wunderlich, Jörg; Schmidt, Alexander (2018)
    Calicioid lichens and fungi are a polyphyletic grouping of tiny ascomycetes that accumulate a persistent spore mass (mazaedium) on top of their usually well-stalked ascomata ('mazaediate fungi'). In addition to extant forms, six fossils of the group were previously known from European Paleogene amber. Here we report nine new fossils and analyze the preserved features of all fossils to assess their applicability for dating molecular phylogenies. Many fossils are extremely well preserved, allowing detailed comparisons with modern taxa. SEM investigation reveals that even fine details of ascospore wall ultrastructure correspond to those seen in extant specimens. All fossils can confidently be assigned to modern genera: three to Calicium (Caliciaceae, Lecanoromycetes), five to Chaenotheca (Coniocybaceae, Coniocybomycetes), six to Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales), and one to Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales). Several Calicium and Chaenotheca fossils are assignable to specific lineages within their genera, while the Chaenothecopsis fossils demonstrate the extent of intraspecific variation within one such lineage. Some features in the morphology of Chaenotheca succina nov. sp. seem to be ancestral as they have not been reported from modern species of the genus. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Beimforde, Christina; Feldberg, Kathrin; Nylinder, Stephan; Rikkinen, Jouko; Tuovila, Hanna; Doerfelt, Heinrich; Gube, Matthias; Jackson, Daniel J.; Reitner, Joachim; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2014)
  • Heikkilä, Maria; Brown, John W.; Baixeras, Joaquin; Mey, Wolfram; Kozlov, Mikhail V. (2018)
    We re-evaluate eleven fossils that have previously been assigned to the family Tortricidae, describe one additional fossil, and assess whether observable morphological features warrant confident assignment of these specimens to this family. We provide an overview of the age and origin of the fossils and comment on their contribution towards understanding the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera. Our results show that only one specimen, Antiquatortia histuroides Brown & Baixeras gen. and sp. nov., shows a character considered synapomorphic for the family. Six other fossils (Electresia zalesskii Kusnezov, 1941; Tortricidrosis inclusa Skalski, 1973; Tortricites skalskii Kozlov, 1988; Tortricibaltia diakonoffi Skalski, 1992; Polyvena horatis Poinar and Brown, 1993 and a trace fossil purported to be larval feeding damage of Retinia resinella (Linnaeus, 1758)) exhibit a combination of homoplastic characters typical of tortricid moths or characteristic feeding damage. An unnamed species doubtfully assigned to Olethreutinae by Skalski (1992), Spatalistiforma submerga Skalski, 1992, Tortricites florissantanus (Cockerell, 1907), Tortricites destructus (Cockerell, 1916) and Tortricites sadilenkoi Kozlov, 1988 do not show enough character evidence to be convincingly placed in Tortricidae. Therefore, we transfer the three latter species from the collective group Tortricites Kozlov, 1988, defined as an assemblage of fossil leafrollers that cannot be placed with certainty in known genera, to Paleolepidopterites Kozlov, new collective group, defined as a group of fossil lepidopterans whose assignment to a certain family is currently impossible.