Browsing by Subject "Amphetamine"

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  • Kopra, Jaakko; Villarta-Aguilera, Marian; Savolainen, Mari; Weingerl, Samo; Myohänen, Timo T.; Rannanpää, Saara; Salvatore, Michael E.; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Piepponen, T. Petteri (2018)
    Addictive drugs enhance dopamine release in the striatum, which can lead to compulsive drug-seeking after repeated exposure. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an important regulator of midbrain dopamine neurons, and may play a mechanistic role in addiction-related behaviors. To elucidate the components of GDNF-signaling that contribute to addiction-related behaviors of place preference and its extinction, we utilized two genetically modified GDNF mouse models in an amphetamine induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and evaluated how the behavioral findings correlate with dopamine signaling in the dorsal and ventral striatum. We utilized two knock-in mouse strains to delineate contributions of GDNF and Ret signaling using MEN2B mice (constitutively active GDNF receptor Ret), and GDNF hypermorphic mice (enhanced endogenous GDNF expression). The duration of amphetamine-induced CPP was greatly enhanced in MEN2B mice, but not in the GDNF hypermorphic mice. The enhanced duration of CPP was correlated with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine content in the ventral striatum. Together, our results suggest that downstream components of GDNF signaling, in this case Ret, may mediate persistent drug-seeking behavior through increased TH expression and dopamine levels in the mesolimbic dopamine neurons. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lunetta, Philippe; Kriikku, Pirkko; Tikka, Julius; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2020)
    We describe the sudden death of a middle-aged man while having a sauna under the influence of alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP) (PM blood concentration: 0.8 mg/L), amphetamine (0.34 mg/L), and other drugs (buprenorphine, benzodiazepines), and engaging in solitary sexual activities. The drugs' effects on the cardio-circulatory system and on body thermoregulation combined with the high temperatures are likely to have been central mechanisms leading to death. The high levels of adrenaline triggered by sexual arousal and the respiratory depression caused by buprenorphine, in association with benzodiazepines, may have also contributed to his death. This previously unreported type of accidental autoerotic death illustrates the risk of using amphetamine-like sympathomimetic drugs (e.g. cathinone derivates) in hot environments such as a sauna, and during sexual activities therein.
  • Peltonen, Teemu; Levola, Jonna; Niemelä, Solja (2019)
    Psykoottisen henkilön päihteiden käyttö tulee selvittää kattavasti. Psykoosioireet voivat liittyä päihtymys- tai vieroitustiloihin, päihdepsykoosiin tai päihteistä riippumattomaan, itsenäiseen psykoottiseen häiriöön. Itsenäinen psykoottinen häiriö on erotettava päihdepsykoosista. DSM- ja ICD-tautiluokitusten päihdepsykoosin määritelmät eroavat toisistaan. Akuutti psykoosi hoidetaan yleisten hoitolinjojen mukaisesti etiologiasta riippumatta. Päihdepsykoosin sairastaneita on seurattava. Merkittävällä osalla täyttyvät myöhemmin itsenäisen psykoosisairauden diagnostiset kriteerit.