Browsing by Subject "Animal Science (Animal Nutrition)"

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  • Holms, Sara (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to examine how different enrichment objects affect the behaviour of finishing pigs towards enrichment objects and other pigs and also the occurrence of tail- and ear-biting within the pens. Another aim of this study was to examine the stress level of finishing pigs by two different methods. This experiment was carried out in two piggeries; in Huittinen and Pöytyä. The pens were divided into different treatments depending on which enrichment object was in the pen. There was a straw rack in every pen and in Huittinen there was also a simple metal chain in every pen. In the control pens of both piggeries there were no other objects besides these. The enrichment objects in Huittinen were wooden pieces of young birch in different lengths, polythene pipe, simple metal chain and branching metal chain. In Pöytyä the enrichment objects were wooden pieces of young birch and polythene pipe. Data collected in both piggeries were tail and ear lesions and tear staining under the eyes. Only in Huittinen the pigs were videotaped to observe behaviours during contact with each enrichment object and oral manipulation of other pigs. Only in Pöytyä the pigs were measured the latency to approach an unfamiliar human to assess fear of humans. Statistical analysis was accomplished by SPSS-software. In Huittinen the prevalence of tail- and ear-biting and also tear staining was lower in pens with wooden enrichment objects. The use of enrichment objects was the most active in pens with wood and with polythene pipe. There were no differences between the enrichment objects on the oral manipulation of other pigs. In Pöytyä the prevalence of ear-biting was also lower in pens with wooden enrichment objects. However, in tail-biting there was only a tendency for an improvement. Also in tear staining there was only a tendency for an improvement on the left eye in pens with polythene pipe compared to the control pens and there were no differences on the right eye between the enrichment objects. Pigs in pens with wooden enrichment objects were less fearful than those with other enrichment objects and approached the unfamiliar human faster. According to this study wood had the greatest impact as enrichment object for finishing pigs. Polythene pipe as enrichment object was used as frequently as wooden enrichment objects but its efficacy in lowering the prevalence of tail- and ear-biting and also stress level was less. Metal chain was used by the pigs least and there was no difference in the activity of use when a simple metal chain was compared to a branching metal chain. There was less tail- and ear-biting and also lower stress level in pens with wooden enrichment objects compared to other pens.
  • Puhakka, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Tämän maisterin tutkielman tarkoituksena oli testata eri maitohappobakteerien ja niiden annostustason vaikutusta säilörehun käymislaatuun ja aerobiseen stabiilisuuteen. Biologisilla säilöntäaineilla eli ympeillä säilöttyjen rehujen laatua verrattiin kontrolleina toimiviin painorehuun ja muurahaishapolla tehtyyn rehuun. Koerehut tehtiin Helsingin yliopiston Maataloustieteiden laitoksella 7.6.2010. Timotei (Phleum pratense) - nurminata (Festuca pratensis) kasvusto korjattiin tähkimisen alkuvaiheessa D-arvon ollessa 711 g/kg ka. Nurmikasvuston kuiva-ainepitoisuus oli 170 g/kg heti niiton jälkeen määritettäessä ja neljän tunnin esikuivauksen jälkeen 208 g/kg. Rehuraaka-aine jaettiin kuuteen erään, joihin lisättiin säilöntäaine. Säilöntäainekäsittelyt olivat: 1) ei säilöntäainetta (painorehu), 2) muurahaishappo (100 %:na 4 l/t), 3) Lactobacillus plantarum ja Pediococcus acidilactici 1x10? pmy/g sekä pektinaasi-, ksylanaasi- ja sellulaasientsyymi, 4) L. plantarum 1x10? pmy/g, 5) L. plantarum 1x10? pmy/g ja 6) L. plantarum ja L. buchneri 2x10? pmy/g. Rehut säilöttiin laboratoriosiiloissa kolmena rinnakkaisena. Laboratoriosiilojen lisäksi rehua säilöttiin jokaisesta säilöntäainekäsittelystä kuuteen rinnakkaiseen minisiiloon säilönnän alkuajan fermentaation ja rehujen pH:n muutoksen seuraamiseksi. Minisiiloista seurattiin kaasuntuotantoa 21 päivän ajan. Raaka-aineen koostumus ja rehujen säilönnällinen laatu sekä aerobinen stabiilisuus määritettiin. Säilörehujen kuiva-ainepitoisuus oli suhteellisen pieni (n. 210 g/kg), jotta voitiin testata biologisten säilöntäaineiden tehoa märässä rehussa. Kosteassa rehussa biologisten säilöntäaineiden toiminnan onnistuminen on haastavaa. Koska raaka-aineen sokeripitoisuus oli kuitenkin erittäin suuri (196 g/kg ka), onnistui ymppirehujen säilöntä hyvin. Kaikkien koerehujen pH oli alle 4:n. Painorehu ei täyttänyt hyvän rehun kriteerejä ammoniumtypen osalta. Muurahaishapporehu oli laadultaan tyydyttävää etikkahapon pitoisuuden osalta. Rehussa tapahtui epätyypillistä etanolikäymistä hiivojen toimesta, jonka johdosta rehussa muodostui suuri määrä kaasua säilönnän aikana. Muurahaishapporehu ei kuitenkaan lämmennyt aerobisen stabiilisuuden mittauksen aikana, johtuen todennäköisesti suuresta etikkahapon määrästä ja toisaalta pienestä sokerin määrästä. Maitohappobakteerisäilöntäaineilla saatiin käymislaadultaan parempaa säilörehua verrattuna painorehuun, lukuun ottamatta maitohappobakteeri-entsyymirehua. Entsyymilisäyksestä ei todennäköisesti ollut hyötyä rehun säilöntälaadun kannalta. Raaka-aineen suuren sokeripitoisuuden johdosta säilörehussa oli koko säilönnän ajan tarpeeksi sokeria maitohappobakteerien käytettäväksi ja sokeri toimi siten substraattina haitallisille mikrobeille tuottaen suuren etikkahappopitoisuuden. Maitohappobakteeri-entsyymiseoksella tehty rehu oli etikkahappopitoisuuden perusteella heikkolaatuista. Lactobacillus plantarumin molemmilla annostustasoilla (1x10? ja 1x10? pmy/g rehua) saatiin laadultaan hyvää rehua. Suuri sokeripitoisuus molemmissa rehuissa johtui todennäköisesti raaka-aineen tavallista suuremmasta sokerin määrästä. Molempien rehujen maitohappo-etikkahappo-suhde oli melko korkea, viitaten homofermentatiiviseen maitohappokäymiseen. Lactobacillus buchneri –lisäyksellä rehu oli säilönnälliseltä laadultaan hyvää. Heterofermentatiivisen ympin lisäys nosti tyypillisesti rehun pH:ta sekä pienensi maitohappoetikkahappo-suhdelukua verrattuna homofermentatiiviseen ymppiin. L. buchneri –lisäys paransi hieman säilörehun aerobista stabiilisuutta verrattuna homofermentatiivisella maitohappobakteerilla säilöttyyn rehuun, mutta tulos ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä.
  • Vienola, Kirsi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Tutkimus liittyi moniosaiseen, Maa- ja metsätalousministeriön ja Helsingin yliopiston eläinlääketieteellisen tiedekunnan rahoittamaan projektiin Hyvinvoinnin lisääminen sianlihantuotannossa (INWEPP). Tarkoituksena oli selvittää häkki-, karsina- ja pesäporsimisympäristöjen vaikutukset ja yhteydet alkuimetyskaudella emakon vapaiden rasvahappojen (NEFA) vapautumiseen sekä oksitosiini-, prolaktiini- ja kortisolieritykseen ja porsastuotokseen. Yorkshiren ja maatiaisen 11 risteytysensikkoa ja 22 risteytysemakkoa jaettiin kolmeen erilaiseen porsimisympäristöön noin seitsemän päivää ennen odotettua porsimista. Jokaisessa ryhmässä oli lähes yhtä monta ominaisuuksiltaan samanlaista ensikkoa ja useammin kuin kerran porsinutta emakkoa. Porsimisympäristöinä olivat häkki (2,1m x 0,8m) ja karsina (2,8m x 2,1m) vähäisillä kuivikkeilla sekä karsina runsailla kuivike- ja pesäntekomateriaaleilla (pesä). Kaikki emakot laitettiin heti porsimisen jälkeen häkkeihin. Verinäytteiden ottoa varten ensikoille ja emakoille laitettiin katetri ja verinäytteet otettiin kolmena peräkkäisenä päivänä ennen odotettua porsimispäivää ja neljänä päivänä porsimisen jälkeen. Näytteistä määritettiin NEFA, oksitosiini, kortisoli ja prolaktiini. Porsaiden kuolleisuudessa ei ollut eroja ympäristöjen välillä. Huomioitaessa myös kuolleena syntyneet porsaat, kuolleisuus oli 14,2 % häkkiympäristössä, 24,6 % karsinaympäristössä ja 12,6 % pesäympäristössä. Vapaissa porsimisympäristöissä oli parhaat porsaiden kasvutulokset, erityisesti karsinaympäristössä. Pesäympäristössä oli suurin pahnuepaino porsaiden syntymähetkellä. Häkki- ja karsinaympäristöissä emakoilla oli ensikoita suuremmat pahnueet seitsemän päivän kuluttua porsimisesta. Pahnuepainojen ja pahnuekokojen erot olivat suuntaa-antavia. Porsimisen jälkeen kortisolin tai oksitosiinin pitoisuuksissa ei ollut eroja sen suhteen oliko emakko porsinut yhden vai useamman kerran tai missä ympäristössä porsiminen tapahtui. Prolaktiinipitoisuus oli emakoilla ensikoita korkeampi, mutta pitoisuudet eivät eronneet porsimisympäristöjen välillä. Karsina- ja pesäympäristöissä ensikot mobilisoivat emakoita enemmän kudosrasvoja. Pesäympäristössä porsineilla ensikoilla oli korkeampi plasman NEFA-pitoisuus verrattuna häkki- ja karsinaympäristöissä porsineisiin. Erot olivat suuntaa-antavia. Plasman NEFA-pitoisuuksien erot ympäristöjen välillä eivät selitä karsinaympäristössä porsineiden emakoiden ja ensikoiden hyvää porsaskasvua. Pesäntekomateriaalien tarjoaminen emakoille ja ensikoille saattaa vähentää kuolleena syntyneiden porsaiden määrää ja liikkumisen mahdollistaminen porsimisen päättymiseen asti voi edesauttaa porsaiden hyvää kasvua. Pesäntekomateriaalien tarjoaminen ei tässä tutkimuksessa vaikuttanut yksiselitteisesti emakoiden emo-ominaisuuksiin tai stressiin alkuimetyskaudella.
  • Anttila, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to investigate dairy cow performance on faba bean compared to rapeseed meal on silage based diets. Increasing use of grain legumes may improve selfsufficiency of feed protein. The study was conducted at the research farm of University of Helsinki. In the experiment, eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows were used. Four of them were fitted with rumen fistula. In the beginning of the experiment, cows were 100 (± 51) days in milk. Replicated 4x4 Latin square design was used: the other square consisted of cows with rumen fistulas and the other of intact cows. Treatments of the study were concentrate feeds as follows: control (no protein supplement), rapeseed meal, faba bean and mixture of rapeseed meal and faba bean. Concentrates were fed at a rate of 14 kg/d and silage was given ad libitum. Concentrate feeds including protein supplement were isonitrogenous crude protein content being approximately 200 g/kg DM. Protein supplementation increased silage intake (2,4 kg/d) and milk production (1,6 – 4,9 kg/d). Protein supplementation decreased milk fat content (41,2 vs. 45,3 g/kg DM) but increased milk protein content (35,5 vs. 34,3 g/kg). Feed nitrogen utilization to milk, AAT and ME utilizations and ECM yield to feed intake -ratio were decreased on protein supplementation. In this experiment however rapeseed meal did not give responses of same level as was expected according to results of earlier experiments. Diets including faba bean increased silage intake and milk production compared to rapeseed meal diet. Rapeseed meal diet decreased silage intake 2,7 kg and milk yield 2,5 kg compared with faba bean diet. Mixture of rapeseed and faba bean resulted in the highest milk production being 2 kg more than on average on rapeseed meal and faba bean diets. Utilization of ME and ECM yield to feed intake –ratio were increased with rapeseed meal diet. According to this study rapeseed meal as a protein supplement can be substituted by faba bean in dairy cow diets on silage based diets.
  • Virtanen, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to examine how immunocastration effects on pigs growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass traits and how high amounts of ileal digestible amino acids can pigs utilize. Another aim of this study was to examine if immunocastrating causes pain or stress to pigs in short period of time. This experiment was carried out in research piggery of MTT Hyvinkää. Pigs were splitted in six test groups by their gender (immunocastrated and surgically castrated males) and the level of standardized ileal digestible amino acids (low level, recommended level and high level). Growth and feed efficiency were measured by weighting pigs in the beginning of first growing phase, during growing weeks 6 and 9 and at the end of the trial. Carcass traits and meat quality were measured immediately after slaughter by Autofom-equipment. Pigs were videotaped for three days during each injection and their behavior was recorded. Statistical analysis of growth features and carcass traits were accomplished by SAS 9.3 GLM-procedure and behavioral changes by SPSS-software. The level of ileal digestible amino acids improved average daily gain (ADG) on both genders. Surgically castrated males achieved their best ADG during growing weeks 6-8 while immunocas trated males achieved their best results between growing week 9 and slaughter and at that time their results were best of all test groups. Increase of ileal digestible amino acids improved feed efficiency in all test groups. Stress indicating behavioral changes like standing, being alone and changes in activity, was noticed especially during first injection at the same day the injection was given. Second injection increased behavioral changes more the day after injection. Based on these results it seems that immunocastrating causes stress to pigs but it lasts only for a short time.
  • Lamminen, Marjukka (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the esilability of white lupin (Lupinus albus) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) bi-crop when ensiled as a whole-crop. There were two plant mixture ratios and two growth stages in the study. Silages made with different additives were compared with untreated silages, which were as a control. The experimental silages were made at the research farm of the University of Helsinki in Viikki on August 13th and 27th, 2012. At the first growth stage (K1) wheat was at the beginning of dough stage and the pods of white lupin were green and the seeds filled 50 % of space between septa. At the second growth stage (K2) wheat was at the end of dough stage and the seeds filled 75 % of space between septa. After mowing plant species were separated and two ratios were formed. The first ratio comprised 1/3 white lupin and 2/3 wheat and the second 2/3 white lupin and 1/3 wheat of fresh weight. The additive treatments were: 1) without additive (untreated), 2) formic acid (4 l/t as a 100% acid), 3) the mixture of sodium nitrite (0,75 kg/t) and hexamine (0,5 kg/t) and 4) Lactobacillus plantarum 1x106 cfu/g. Silages were ensiled in the laboratory scale silos in triplicate. Silos were opened after 100 days of ensiling. The chemical composition of raw material at harvest and the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silages were determined in the experiment. The dry matter content of plant mixtures was about 220 g/kg in the mixtures with higher proportions of lupin and about 300 g/kg in the mixtures with higher proportions of wheat. The preservation of silages were impeded by the low dry matter content and high buffering capacity of white lupin, the low sugar content of the mixtures and clostridial contamination. As the proportion of lupin increased the crude protein and sugar content of the mixture increased but the ensilability of the mixture declined. Preservation without additive produced low quality silages in all silage batches. High amounts of ammonia, butyric acid and other fermentation acids typical of bad silage fermentation were detected in the untreated silages. The fermentation quality was good in silages made with Lactobacillus plantarum at the first growth stage when the raw material was dryer and the sugar content of mixtures were higher. Based on the butyric acid and ammonia concentrations the use of Lactobacillus plantarum resulted in poor quality silages at the second growth stage. The dose of formic acid in this experiment wasn’t probably high enough in regard to the poor ensiling properties of raw material and clostridial contamination. High amounts of butyric acid were detected in all silages treated with formic acid. At the second growth stage the ammonia concentrations were also high. The most effective additive in the experiment was the mixture of sodium nitrite and hexamine resulting in good fermentation quality in all silage batches. No butyric acid was detected from the mixtures with higher proportions of wheat and amounts were extremely low also in the mixtures with higher proportions of lupin. Most of the silages were aerobically stable during 13 days of the period of measurement. Only a few silos (5 out of 48) were aerobically deteriorated and those silos were very unstable as the warming was noticed within 2 days. Most of the deteriorated silos (4) were treated with biological additive. Based on the present results the ensiling of white lupin-wheat whole-crop silage is difficult. The composition of raw material suggests that silage should be made from the mixture where the proportion of lupin is higher and cut at the earlier growth stage if the maximization of crude protein and sugar content is wanted. However, the ensilability of raw material is more difficult on the basis of dry matter content and buffering capacity. The yield is also lower than later in the growth stage. Silage additive should always be used when ensiling white lupin. The mixture of sodium nitrite and hexamine was the most effective additive in the study.
  • Kontkanen, Tiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The present experiment was conducted to study feed intake, growth and carcass characteristics of growing dairy bulls offered diets based on whole-crop barley silage with or without protein supplementation relative to a grass silage-based diet. A feeding experiment was conducted in the experimental barn of MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki starting in January 2012 and ending in February 2013. Four feeding treatments comprised in 28 Finnish Ayrshire and 8 Holstein bulls. The bulls were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. For feeding groups 1 – 3 TMR included whole-crop barley silage [600 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and rolled barley (400 g/kg DM). The bulls in group 1 (KV) were fed without protein supplementation. Group 2 (KVR) got rapeseed-based concentrate 620 g/animal/d. Group 3 (KVRU) got rapeseed plus urea –based concentrate 480 g/animal/d. Group 4 (N) were fed a TMR which included grass silage (600 g/kg DM) and rolled barley (400 g/kg DM) but no protein supplementation. In order that concentrate proportions were same in all treatments, groups 1 and 4 got in addition 500 g rolled barley/animal/d. Protein supplementation in KVR and KVRU treatments was balanced so that the total amount of the crude protein in the diet was equal in both treatments, and the protein balance in the rumen fulfilled the Finnish recommendation which is above -10 g/kg DM for growing cattle above 200 kg live weight. The whole-crop barley silage and grass silage used in the present experiment included 623 and 678 g digestible organic matter in kg DM, respectively. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS MIXED procedure. Differences between the dietary treatments were tested using three orthogonal contrasts: 1) N vs. others, 2) KV vs. KVR + KVRU, and 3) KVR vs. KVRU. The bulls were fed the experimental diets from 217 days of age to slaughter at 562 days of age. There were no significant differences in the total DM intake (kg DM/d) between treatments. Due to higher energy intake, the live weight gain g/d and carcass gain g/d of the bulls were faster in the N diet compared to the whole-crop diets (p<0,07 and p<0,03). Protein supplementation had no effects on growth performance among the whole-crop treatments even though in the KV diet PBV was below the Finnish recommendation. Treatments had no significant effect on the dressing proportion but the carcass conformation score and fat score of the N bulls were higher (p<0,06 and p<0,003) compared to the whole-crop bulls. There were no differences in the carcass traits among the whole-crop barley diets. The feed conversion rate (DM intake kg/live weight or carcass gain) of the bulls was better in the N diet than in the whole-crop diets, but protein supplementation had no effects on feed conversion rates. It can be concluded that replacing well digestible grass silage with whole-crop barley silage decreased the carcass gain of the bulls due to lower energy intake and poorer feed conversion rate. However, the fairly high carcass gain (618 g/d) of the wholecrop bulls indicates that grass silage could be totally replaced by whole-crop barley in the diet of dairy bulls. Protein supplementation had no effects on animal performance among the whole-crop treatments even though in the KV diet PBV was below the Finnish recommendation. This indicates that recommended PBV for growing cattle above 200 kg live weight could even be reduced without adverse effects on gain.
  • Puranen, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base which disrupts the seed coat by partial hydrolysis of hemicellulose and lignin in the rumen. NaOH can substitute for mechanical processing of cereal grains. Using total mixed ration including NaOH –treated grains, is an opportunity to avoid the metabolic problems caused by high dietary starch content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of NaOH –treated wheat grains in ad libitum total mixed ration diet on feed intake and production of dairy cows. Commonly used oats-barley diet was a control. This study was conducted at the experimental farm of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden from September to November 2010. There were 17 multiparous and 6 primiparous cows in the study (Swedish red breed). The cows were kept in a warm loose house barn and intake of total mixed ration was measured by using scale cups. Experimental treatments were ground barley and ground oats in the ratio of 1:1, ground wheat in the ratio of 1:0, ground wheat and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:1 and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:0. All the diets were formulated to have a dry matter content of 370 g/kg and crude protein content of 180 g/kg dry matter. Apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Utilization of nitrogen was evaluated using calculated nitrogen balance. The experiment was conducted according to the 4x4 Latin square designs and the statistical differences between the treatments were detected by contrasts. Intakes of dry matter (PQ=0.02) and organic matter (PQ=0.02) increased in pursuance of their improved digestibility as half of the dried wheat was supplemented for NaOH –treated wheat. There was no significant difference between treatments in milk yield or energy corrected milk yield. Milk fat yield (PQ=0.04) and concentration of milk fat increased clearly (PQ=0.004) as half of the dry wheat was substituted for NaOH –treated wheat. By substituting all dry wheat for NaOH -treated wheat, milk protein concentration decreased (PL<0.001). The same occurred for milk urea concentration (PL=0.002). The NaOH –treatment did not result in any economic improvement in this study because concentration of milk protein decreased and intake increased, while milk production remained the same. The best production response was achieved by the mix diet of dried wheat and NaOH –treated wheat.
  • Niemelä, Kirsi (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical energy balance models for early and middle lactation period of dairy cows. The traits for predicting were information of diet, feed, milk production, milk composition, body weight and body condition score. This study was a part of development work of KarjaKompassi-project. The data used in this study was based on 12 feeding experiments performed in Finland. The complete data from the studies included 2647 weekly records from multiparous dairy cows and 1070 weekly records from primiparous dairy cows. The data was collected from calving to 8-28 weeks of lactation. Three-fourths of the totals of 344 dairy cows were Finnish Ayshire cows and the rest of the cows were Friesian Cattle. The cows were fed by the Finnish feeding standards. The data was handled by the Mixed-procedure of the SAS-programme. The outliers were removed with Tukey´s method. The relationship between energy balance and predictor traits was studied with correlation analysis. The regression analysis was used to predicting energy balance. To quantify the relationship of lactation day to energy balance, 5 functions were fitted. The random factor was a cow in the experiment. The model fit was assessed by residual mean square error, coefficient of determination and Bayesian information criterion. The best models were validated in the independent data. Ali-Schaeffer achieved the highest fit functions. It was used by the basal model. The error in every model grew after the 12th lactation week, because the number of records decreased and energy balance turned positive. The proportion of concentrate in the diets and concentrate dry matter intake index were the best predictors of energy balance from traits of diet. Milk yield, ECM, milk fat and milk fat-protein ratio were good predictors during lactation period. The RMSE was lower when ECM was standardized. The body weight and body condition score didn’t improve the predictive value of the basal model. The models can be used to predict energy balance in the herd level, but they are not applicable for predicting individual cow energy balance.
  • Noponen, Kaisa-Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Tämän maisterin tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää miten eri säilöntäainekäsittelyt vaikuttavat ohrasta (Hordeum vulgare) valmistetun kokoviljasäilörehun käymislaatuun korjattaessa rehu eri kehitysvaiheissa. Lisäksi tutkittiin säilöntäajan pituuden vaikutusta käymislaatuun. Tutkimukseen kuului kaksi säilöntäkoetta, jotka suoritettiin heinä-elokuussa vuosina 2005 (koe 1) ja 2006 (koe 2) Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskuksessa (MTT) Jokioisilla. Ohrakasvusto kerättiin Punkalaitumelta. Rehut korjattiin viikon välein yhteensä kuusi kertaa. Ensimmäisellä korjuukerralla ohrakasvusto oli tähkälletulovaiheessa. Ensimmäisen kokeen viimeisessä kehitysvaiheessa ohrakasvusto oli taikinatuleentumisvaiheen ja keltatuleentumisvaiheen vaihteessa. Toisen kokeen viimeisessä kehitysvaiheessa ohrakasvusto oli keltatuleentumisvaiheessa. Säilöntäkäsittelyitä oli viisi, painorehu (ei säilöntäainetta), muurahaishappo 2, 4 ja 6 l/tn ja Lactobacillus plantarum maitohappobakteeri (ymppi). Koerehut tehtiin 120 ml:n lasisiin minisiiloihin. Säilöntäajat olivat 3, 12 ja 24 viikkoa. Raaka-aineiden koostumus ja rehujen säilönnällinen laatu määritettiin. Tutkimus suoritettiin MTT:n hankkeen ”Häviääkö hukkakauran siementen itävyys säilönnässä” yhteydessä. Ohrakasvuston koostumus muuttui kasvukauden edetessä. Käymislaatuun vaikuttavat erityisesti muutokset kuiva-ainepitoisuudessa, vesiliukoisten hiilihydraattien määrässä ja puskurikapasiteetissa. Kasvukauden edetessä kasvuston kuiva-ainepitoisuus lisääntyi ja vesiliukoisten hiilihydraattien pitoisuus sekä puskurikapasiteetti vähenivät. Käyminen oli voimakkaampaa kasvukauden alkupuolella, jolloin kasvuston kuivaainepitoisuus oli pieni ja vesiliukoisten hiilihydraattien pitoisuus oli suuri. Rehuihin muodostui runsaasti maitohappoa ja niiden pH oli matala. Kasvukauden lopussa kuiva-ainepitoisuus lisääntyi ja mikrobitoiminta oli vähäisempää. Rehuihin muodostui vähemmän maitohappoa ja pH jäi korkeammaksi kuin aikaisemmissa kehitysvaiheissa korjatuissa rehuissa. Painorehujen käymislaatu ei aina vastannut hyvälaatuisen rehun vaatimuksia erityisesti ammoniumtypen ja voihappopitoisuuden osalta. Säilöntäaineet vähensivät ammoniakin sekä haihtuvien rasvahappojen (VFA) muodostumista. Kaikki säilöntäainekäsitellyt rehut olivat käymislaadultaan pääasiassa hyviä. Maitohappobakteeriymppi tuotti hyvälaatuista säilörehua kaikissa kehitysvaiheissa. Käyminen oli homofermentatiivista, maitohappoa muodostui runsaasti ja rehujen pH-arvot olivat pieniä. Ymppirehuihin muodostui vain vähän VFA:ta ja proteolyysi oli vähäistä. Kaikki muurahaishappoannokset tuottivat hyvälaatuista säilörehua. Erityisesti neljää ja kuutta litraa käytettäessä maitohappokäyminen oli vähäistä. Myös kahden litran annos muurahaishappoa rehutonnille tuotti hyvälaatuista säilörehua, mutta fermentaatiohappojen pitoisuudet olivat suuremmat kuin muissa muurahaishapolla säilötyissä rehuissa. Toisessa kokeessa aikaisessa maitotuleentumisvaiheessa kaikkiin muurahaishapolla säilöttyihin rehuihin muodostui runsaasti käymishappoja, jolloin etikkahappopitoisuus oli liian korkea laatuvaatimusten mukaan. Laboratoriomittakaavassa suoritetun tutkimuksen perusteella ohrakasvusto voidaan korjata kokoviljasäilörehuksi tähkälletulovaiheesta keltatuleentumisvaiheeseen ja saada hyvälaatuista säilörehua. Maatilamittakaavassa rehun tiivistäminen voi olla vaativaa erityisesti tähkälletulo- ja keltatuleentumisvaiheissa, jolloin hapettomia olosuhteita on vaikeampi saavuttaa. Suositeltava korjuuajankohta ohrakasvustolle on taikinatuleentumisvaiheessa, kun ohrakasvuston D-arvo on suurin. Painorehussa käyminen ei aina riitä takaamaan hyvälaatuista rehua, ja sen vuoksi kokoviljasäilörehun valmistuksessa tulisi käyttää säilöntäaineita parantamaan käymislaatua. Eri säilöntäaineita käytettäessä säilörehun käymisen voimakkuus vaihtelee ja myös kehitysasteiden erot näkyvät käymislaadussa. Muurahaishapolla säilötyissä rehuissa käyminen on vähäistä, ja niiden jäännössokeripitoisuus on suuri, kun annostus on 4 tai 6 litraa rehutonnille. Myös muurahaishappoannos 2 l/tn riitti tuottamaan hyvälaatuista säilörehua, vaikka siinä käyminen oli voimakkaampaa. Aikaisessa maitotuleentumisvaiheessa korjattua kasvustoa säilöttäessä muurahaishappo ei aina riittänyt estämään melko voimakasta etikkahappokäymistä. Muissa kehitysvaiheissa muurahaishapolla säilötty rehu oli hyvälaatuista. Maitohappobakteeriymppi tuotti hyvälaatuista säilörehua kaikissa kehitysvaiheissa. Ymppirehuissa homofermentatiivinen maitohappokäyminen on voimakasta ja rehujen pH on matala.
  • Ketonen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Variation of the protein and amino acid content of barley, wheat and oats were studied. Diets based on grain samples of different protein content were optimized for pigs and poultry.The study went on to optimize diets for pigs and poultry with grains of different protein contents. The amino acid and raw protein analysis was undertaken on 38 grain samples. Correlations were calculated between different variables in grain samples and linear regression analysis was conducted between the protein and amino acid composition. The best estimate for amino acid concentrations of cereals was the protein content. The relative content of amino acids decreases as protein content increases and especially so in barley and wheat. Most reliable regression equations between amino acid and protein content were made for barley and wheat samples. For oat reliable regression equations could not be made. Oats also differed by other features from barley and wheat as it correlated with different variables compared to barley and wheat. Amount of needed protein concentrate levels decreased when barley and wheat protein and amino acid contents were considered in optimization. Protein concentrate levels did not decrease when used oat sample with highest protein content.
  • Juutinen, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Tilakohtaiset tekijät voivat vaikuttaa niin, että säilörehu korjataan nykyisiä korjuuaikasuosituksia myöhemmin. Tämän maisterintutkielman tavoitteena oli tutkia, paljonko väkirehua tarvitaan kompensoimaan säilörehun erittäin heikkoa sulavuutta. Lisäksi selvitettiin voiko säilörehun huonoa sulavuutta kompensoida väkirehun raakavalkuaispitoisuutta lisäämällä, eli onko väkirehun valkuaispitoisuudella ja säilörehun D-arvolla (sulavan orgaanisen aineen pitoisuus kuiva-aineessa) yhdysvaikutusta. Yhtenä näkökulmana oli myös pohtia säilörehun sadonmuodostusta. Kokeessa oli 36 lehmää ja 6 ensikkoa. Väkirehuna oli teollista täysrehua 9 kg ja 12 kg päivässä. Väkirehujen raakavalkuaispitoisuudet olivat 142 (RV14), 183 (RV18) ja 210 (RV21) g/kg ka. Säilörehuina olivat ensimmäisen sadon nurmisäilörehut, joiden D-arvot olivat 692 (D69) ja 654 (D65) g/kg ka. D-arvo heikkeni korjuuaikojen välillä nyt tehdyssä kokeessa 2,6 g/kg ka päivässä. Säilörehun kuiva-ainesato ei juuri lisääntynyt korjuuaikaa myöhästytettäessä. Säilörehun D-arvon pienentyessä 10 g/kg ka säilörehun syönti väheni 0,42 kg ka. Väkirehun määrän lisääminen vähensi säilörehun syöntiä säilörehun sulavuudesta riippumatta 0,49 kg/kg väkirehun kuiva-ainetta. Väkirehun raakavalkuaispitoisuuden lisääntyminen lisäsi säilörehun syöntiä 0,12 kg ka per10 g/kg ka väkirehun raakavalkuaispitoisuudessa. Energiakorjattu maitotuotos (ekm) pieneni 0,59 kg säilörehun D-arvon pienentyessä 10 g/kg ka. Säilörehun sulavuuden heikentyessä maidon rasva- ja valkuaispitoisuudet eivät muuttuneet, mutta valkuais-, rasva- ja laktoosituotokset pienenivät. Energiakorjattu maitotuotos lisääntyi 0,76 kg per lisätty väkirehun kuiva-ainekilo. D65-säilörehun huonompi sulavuus D69-säilörehuun verrattuna kompensoitiin lisäämällä 3,7 kg ka väkirehua. D-arvo ei vaikuttanut väkirehun maitotuotosvasteeseen. Väkirehun valkuaispitoisuuden lisääntyessä 10 g/kg ka ekm-tuotos lisääntyi 0,26 kg, mutta säilörehun sulavuus ei vaikuttanut vasteeseen. Typen hyväksikäyttö parani väkirehun valkuaispitoisuutta ja väkirehun määrää vähennettäessä ja säilörehun sulavuuden heikentyessä. Muuntokelpoisen energian hyväksikäyttö sitä vastoin tehostui, kun väkirehun määrä väheni ja säilörehun sulavuus heikkeni. Tutkimuksen mukaan väkirehun määrän lisääminen kompensoi D-arvon pienenemistä, kun säilörehun sulavuus pieneni D69:sta D65:een karjan ekm:n vuosituotoksen ollessa noin 9000 kg. Säilörehun D-arvon pienenemistä ei tässä tapauksessa voitu korvata väkirehun valkuaispitoisuutta lisäämällä. Tämän kokeen erittäin myöhään korjatun ensimmäisen niiton sulavuus jäi huomattavan korkeaksi verrattuna nurmen kasvua ennustavaan malliin eikä sato kehittynyt lineaarisesti.
  • Pirttinen, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this study was to assess animal welfare on-farm and investigate the associations of assessed welfare and environment to the behavior of growing and finishing pigs. Welfare Quality® protocol for growing and finishing pigs was used for evaluation of welfare, environment and behaviour. Welfare assessments were done on 53 finishing pig farms and 30 finisher units on integrated farms between December 2010 and June 2011. Welfare Quality® index is divided in four principles: “good feeding”, “good housing”, “good health” and “appropriate behavior”. Principles are divided in 12 criteria, that are further more divided in 30 measurable parameters. Index includes both animal and environment-based measures. All criteria were scored on the scale 0-100. Criteria scores are the base for principle scores. Principles were scored from 0 to 100 weighed by the weakest criteria. Connections between exploratory criteria score and principle score of behavior to environment were studied with correlation and regression analyses. On average finishing pig farms were larger than the finisher units on integrated farms. Both production manners represent comprehensive Finnish pig production. There were no interactions between social behavior and environment. There was significant differ between production manners on the criteria score of social behavior (p=0,036). Criteria score on finisher units of integrated farms were lower (median 83,3) than on finisher pig farms (median 92,1). There was positive correlation between positive and negative social behavior (0,222; p=0,044). There was significant differ between QBA criteria score and the amount of enrichment material (p=0,001). Farms, that gave only enrichment material had lower QBA score (median 73,90) than farms, that used also litter material (median 86,95). Social behaviour, QBA and principle score of housing explain 32,7 % of the dispersion of explora-tory behavior. There was connection between principle score of behavior and environment. Area, weight of the pigs, severe lameness and severe dirtiness explained 36,5 % of the dispersion of principle scores of behavior. Even though weight, lameness and dirtiness are not directly environment parametres, they were taken to the model because they correlated strongly with the principle scores of behavior. Weight of the pigs was assumed to affect to behavior, and lameness and dirtiness are animal-based measures that reflect the environment. There were connections between on-farm assessed welfare and environment to pig behaviour. Animal-based measures give more substantive picture how the animal is coping in its environment than environment-based measures. Reliable on-farm welfare assessment tool is the only way to maintain and improve animal welfare on a manner, that satisfies producers, consumers and researchers.
  • Kallio, Mirka (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Increased greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2 and N2O) have warmed the Earth's climate over the last decades. Feeding, feed additives and livestock breeding have been offered as solutions for reducing methane emission from livestock. Ruminant’s ability to use high-fiber feeds is based on microbial fermentation in rumen resulting methane production. Objective of the study was to find out if dwarf birch leaves reduce methane production in vitro and predicted in vivo production. Dwarf birch (Betula nana) leaves contain tannins and essential oils that can reduce methane production. Hypothesis was that dwarf birch reduces methane production. Silver birch (Betula pendula) leaves were used as comparison. Silver birch’s tannin concentration is only a fraction of the dwarf birch’s tannin concentration. Birch leaves increased the in vitro methane production moderately. As the incubation level increased the molar proportion of propionic acid increased linearly. Birch leaf treatment decreased the molar proportion of acetic acid. Acetate:propionate ratio decreased with birch leaf treatment and with increased incubation level. Birch leaf treatment and higher incubation level decreased sample pH. Birch leaf treatment or higher incubation level did not affect to the predicted in vivo methane production, but increased the total gas production. Thus, birch leaf treatment decreased predicted in vivo methane’s proportion of total gas significantly. Based on regression analysis, VFA production was elevated with higher incubation level of Silver birch leaves, indicating increased fermentation. Changes in methane production and VFA proportions were likely caused by birch leaf tannins and essential oils. Acidity of birch leaves and the reduction in buffer capacity of rumen fluid affected to samples pH. Tannins, essential oils and decrease in pH could reduce the feed digestibility or activity of the methanogenic archaea. Because of that part of the hydrogen was released into the air without being converted to methane.