Browsing by Subject "Animal Science"

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  • Lahtinen, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of the study was to determine the possibilities of utilizing the by-product streams of fish processing industry in the production of fish oil and silage. In this thesis the effect of different antioxidants on the preservation of salmon scraps was studied and the utilisation of the dregs from which the oil was extracted as feed was considered. The scarps preserved in this study were from farmed salmon and consisted of internal organs and roe. The study had two experiments. The first one lasted for 65 days and in it formic acid was added to the scraps for a final acid content of 3 %. The scraps with only the formic acid acted as the control and the four different antioxidants studied were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), ethoxyquin mixture (Helmlox) and butylated hydroxytoluene (Ionol). The amount of Ionol was 100 ppm and for BHA, TBHQ and Helmlox there were two different amounts, 50 and 100 ppm. The second experiment lasted for 29 days and the formic acid content was 1 %. BHA and Helmlox antioxidants were used with an amount of 10 ppm. The oil and sediment parts from the experiments were analyzed separately. Based on the analyses the antioxidants or their amounts did not have an effect on the values extracted from the sediment. In the first experiment the analyses from the oil gave mostly highly significant (p<0,001) differences between the control and the antioxidants. There were also clear differences between the antioxidants but the different amounts did not have an effect on the AV-, PV- and TOTOX-values. In the second experiment the analyses from the oil gave only minor differences between the control and the antioxidants, the differences between different antioxidants being larger. The peroxide value of BHA was clearly larger than that of the control and Helmlox and therefore also the TOTOX-value was larger, which contradicts the results of the first experiment. In the second experiment also the measured amino acid contents diminished when the antioxidants were added which contradicts previous research. TBHQ worked best as an antioxidant, then BHA, Ionol and Helmlox in order. The usage of the dregs from the scraps as feed for pigs and chicken is limited by its high fish oil content. However for fur animals salmon scraps are suitable as feed products if the amino acid deficiencies are compensated with other feed products.
  • Siipola, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Conservation of the genetic diversity enables population adaption to climate and production system changes and prevents harmful consequences of inbreeding. The aim of this study was to investigate the state of genetic diversity in Finnish Ayrshire and Finncattle breeds (Western, Eastern and Northern Finncattle) based on pedigree information. The data were received from FABA co-op. Average inbreeding coefficient and relationships were estimated for animals born between 1970 and 2017. Effective population sizes were estimated separately for each birth-year group. In addition, genetic contribution of the most important ancestors of the population were investigated. The Software packages RelaX2 and R-program were used to estimate the population parameters. Average inbreeding coefficient had either stayed at the same level or decreased for all breeds except Western Finncattle. Average inbreeding coefficient of Western Finncattle has increased 2.2 %-units during the last 20 years. In addition, average relationships between breeding animals has remained stable in other breeds except Western Finncattle. Estimated effective population sizes were 163 (AY), 78 (PSK) 74 (LSK) and 57 (ISK) for animals born between 2015 and 2017. The most important ancestors to animals born between 2015 and 2017 of each breed were A Lier (AY), Opari (LSK), Asa (ISK) and Fager (PSK). Effective population sizes of different Finncattle breeds were larger than the minimum recommendation of 50 and average relationship coefficients between breeding animals have stabilized during the past few years. Despite this, the diversity of all Finncattle breeds needs to be strictly monitored. The genetic diversity of Finnish Ayrshire is at the sustainable level that is partly due to cooperation of the Nordic breeding organizations. In the future, genomic information will hopefully provide more effective tools to estimate and manage population genetic diversity.
  • Sampolahti, Sani (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In this study the economic values for the breeding goal traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle were determined by the bioeconomical model. Additionally, the economic value was determined for a new trait, feed efficiency, which was modelled as residual feed intake (RFI). Feed efficiency was added to breeding goals because of intrest in reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy cattle production. The effect of increasing feed costs on the economic weights was also studied. Economic values were determined by the program ECOWEIGHT. The bioeconomical model included 21 traits, which can be divided a few categories: milk production traits, growth and carcass traits and functional traits (calving difficulty, stillbirth, calf mortality in the rearing period, fertility traits, productive lifetime of cows, incidence of clinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS) and residual feed intake (RFI)). Economic values and standardized economic weights were defined for the traits. Profitability of the milk production was negative (?13,3%), when the subsidies were not included in the calculations. Adding RFI didn’t have any effect on the economic values of the other traits and it didn’t change the order of the traits in standardized economical weight. The marginal economic values for RFI of cows and heifers were ?55,8 and ?24,9 €/kg/d, respectively. The highest relative economic weights was found for 305-d milk (36%), protein (14%), fat (9%), mature weight (7%) and calving interval (5%). Relative economic weights for RFI of cows and heifers were 4,6% and 1,5%, respectively. An increase in the feeding costs (10, 30 and 50%) changed the order of the traits in standardized economical weights. The weights of milk production traits were decreased and the weights of growth traits, RFI and calving interval were increased. RFI of cows was the fifth important trait when feeding costs increased 30%. According to the results of this study would be beneficial, especially if the relative im-portance of feed efficiency will increase in the future due to increasing feed costs or in-creasing requirements to mitigate the environmental impact of milk production. However, more research will be needed before adding RFI to the breeding goals.
  • Nyqvist, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract The long period of indoor feeding in Finland emphasizes the importance of good quality silage in dairy cow nutrition. Silage additives are used to ensure successful ensiling. Silage inoculants enhance silage lactic acid fermentation when lactic acid bacteria and sometimes enzymes and other fermentative bacteria are added to silage. Lactic acid content has been higher and pH lower in silages treated with inoculant than in silages without any additive. Aerobic stability of silage and total mixed ration (TMR) has been better with silage treated using inoculant compared to silage without additives. In some studies, the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter has been better with inoculant-treated silage. Silage dry matter intake has been improved with silage treated with inoculants in studies performed with dairy cows, growing beef cattle and sheep. Milk yield has increased in some studies with biological additive when compared to silage without additives. The aim of this study was to examine whether ensiling grass silage with biological additive influences feed intake or milk production of dairy cows in comparison to silage without inoculant. The study was conducted at the research farm of University of Helsinki. First cut timothy – meadow fescue sward was cut and wilted for 46 hours. The grass was harvested in round bales wrapped with 8 film layers either using silage inoculant (treatment B, with lactic acid bacteria and enzymes) or without additive (treatment A). A series of five bales of each silage were prepared one after another. The grass had dry matter of 183 g/kg before wilting and 328 g/kg after wilting. Water soluble carbohydrate concentration was 121 g/kg dry matter (DM). The silages were stored for 174 days before the beginning of the feeding trial. There were no differences in silage fermentation quality. Both silages had high concentration of lactic acid (100 g/kg DM). The dry matter contents were 296 and 294 g/kg and pH 4.25 and 4.31 for the inoculated silage and the silage without additive, respectively. Eight Finnish Ayrshire cows (95 days in milk, standard deviation 25.9) of second or later parity were used. The cows were kept in tie stalls during the trial. A double-reversal design was used with two treatments sequences (ABBA or BAAB) of 21 days each. The cows were fed with total mixed ration consisting of 65% (dry matter basis) of silage (inoculated or without additive), 20% of concentrate mixture, 13% rapeseed meal and 1.5% mineral supplement. Dry matter intake was 1,1 kg/d higher with the inoculated silage (p=0.01) than with untreated silage. Digestibility of dietary dry matter (p=0.02) and organic matter (p=0.02) was lower with inoculated than untreated silage. There was no difference in milk production between treatments (p=0.65). This study indicates that good fermentation quality of wilted (DM 300 g kg) grass silage can be achieved without additives. The increased dry matter intake or the lower digestibility of the diet containing inoculated silage cannot be explained by the silage composition or fermentation profile.
  • Ivanov, Dea (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tämän maisterintutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää eroja viiden kaupallisen broilerihybridin kävelykyvyssä ja aktiivisuudessa. Hypoteesina oli, että broilerihybridien väliset erot näkyvät kävelytestin ja muunnellun latency to lie- eli LTL-testin tuloksissa, videomateriaalissa ja tuotantotuloksissa. Kukkoja oli viittä kaupallista, yleisesti käytettyä broilerihybridiä, joista yksi oli hitaampikasvuinen, luomu- ja free range -tuotantoon käytetty hybridi. Sukupuolilajitellut 350 kukkoa (65-75 lintua/hybridi) jaettiin satunnaisesti 25 numeroituun karsinaan hybrideittäin (5 karsinaa/hybridi). Lintujen rehunkulutusta ja kasvua seurattiin koko kokeen ajan viikottain. Lintujen kävelykyky arvioitiin teuraspäivinä kävelytestillä ja muunnellulla LTL-testillä (koepäivät 15, 19, 22, 32, 36, 43 ja 49). Kaikille linnuille tehtiin ylimääräinen kävelytesti myös päivinä 27 ja 40. Lintujen käyttäytymistä videoitiin koepäivinä 12, 17, 25, 34 ja 41. Tarkkailtaviksi valittiin satunnaisesti kuusi värjättyä lintua per hybridi (yhteensä 30 lintua). Videoista analysoitiin jokaiselta päivältä kaksi 10 minuutin pituista jaksoa, joista kirjattiin ylös muutokset lintujen aktiivisuudessa (lintujen ryömintä- ja kävelysummat, seisoma- ja makuufrekvenssit ja kokonaismakuu- ja seisoma-aika). Lintujen tuotantotulosten ja kävelykyvyn väliset yhteydet testattiin Kendallin korrelaatiolla. Hybridillä oli erittäin merkitsevä vaikutus kävelykykyyn mitattuna kävelytestillä (p= 0,001). Hybridillä ei ollut merkitsevää vaikutusta lintujen muunnellun LTL-testin tuloksiin (p=0,394). Erittäin merkitsevä negatiivinen korrelaatio LTL-testitulokseen oli elopainolla (p=0,000) ja kävelytestin arvosanalla (p=0,000). Hybridillä oli erittäin merkitsevä vaikutus lintujen elopainoon (p=0,000). Hybridillä ei ollut merkitsevää vaikutusta lintujen videoista mitattuun aktiivisuuteen. Lintujen aktiivisuus korreloi negatiivisesti tarkkailupäivän ja kävelytestin arvosanan kanssa. Lintujen suurempi rintalihasten paino (p=0,001), elopaino (p=0,008) ja rintalihassaanto (p=0,008) huononsivat lintujen kävelytestin arvosanaa.
  • Salomaa, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded amounts of camelina oil on milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets based on a mixture of grass and red clover silages. The experiment was carried out at the University of Helsinki research farm in Viikki 30th January 2009 – 23th April 2009. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows participated in this experiment and four of them were rumen fistulated. Experimental design used was 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments consisted of concentrate supplements containing various levels of camelina oil (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% on air-dry basis). All concentrates contained camelina expeller (20% on air-dry basis). The cows were offered daily 12 kg of experimental concentrate and silage ad libitum. The experimental periods lasted for 21 days. The first 14 days were adaptation period and the last 7 days formed sampling period. Increase of camelina oil level in the diet linearly decreased forage and whole diet dry matter intake (P?0,002). Camelina oil level did not affect organic matter, NDF and nitrogen whole-tract digestibility (P>0,10). Milk yield and milk protein- and lactose content linearly decreased when camelina oil level increased (P<0,001). Camelina oil level did not affect milk fat yield (P>0,100). Milk fat content (P=0,014) linearly increased and protein content (P=0,032) and urea content (P<0,001) linearly decreased when camelina oil level increased. Camelina oil level did not affect milk lactose content (P>0,100). Increase of camelina oil level linearly worsened milk taste panel scores (P=0,018). Camelina oil level did not affect plasma metabolite concentrations except that of total free fatty acids that linearly increased with camelina oil supplementation (P<0,001). Effects of camelina oil supplementation on rumen pH and rumen fermentation pattern were numerically negligible. Increase of camelina oil level linearly decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk fat (P<0,001) and linearly increased those of monounsaturated (P<0,001) and polyunsaturated (P<0,002) fatty acids. Increase of camelina oil level linearly decreased the content of mammary de novo synthesised short- and medium-chain 6-14-carbon fatty acid in milk fat (P?0,028). Camelina oil level had no effect on alphalinolenic acid content in milk fat (P>0.100). Increase of camelina oil level linearly increased trans fatty acids and CLA content in milk fat (P?0,008). Camelina oil supplementation did not affect neither the milk fat content of the final product of ruminal biohydrogenation of 18-carbon unsaturates stearic acid nor that of oleic acid (P>0,10). This is possibly due to biohydrogenation not proceeding to the end, ceasing to the last step before stearic acid. Milk fat trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents linearly increased at remarkably high levels when camelina oil level in the diet increased (P?0,008). This is possibly due to incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Camelina oil supplement improved milk fat composition by decreasing saturated and increasing the trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in milk. However, giving camelina oil at high levels decreased silage and whole diet dry matter intake and affected milk production negatively.
  • Hasan, Shah (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In modern pig production there has been a steady increase in the litter size during recent decades. Large litters represent a major challenge for the sow, increase the farrowing duration and compromise sow welfare by prolonging this stressful process. Moreover, the continuous increase in litter size is a major cause of pre-weaning piglet mortality by increasing the proportion of low birth weight piglets, which are less vital and have reduced colostrum intake. Approximately 30% of hyper-prolific sows produce insufficient colostrum for their piglets. Colostrum plays an essential role in the health, survival and growth of piglets by providing energy, immunoglobulins, growth factors and many other bioactive components. Both colostrum yield and its composition are highly variable among sows, yet mechanisms and factors that regulate colostrogenesis are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate sow colostrum IgG concentration on farm using a Brix refractometer, to thus improve the management of neonatal piglets immediately after initiation of farrowing. We established colostrum evaluation criteria, to be used at herd level, by comparing the Brix results with those from ELISA. We aimed to investigate sow physiology around farrowing, acute phase protein (APP) response and their association with colostrum yield (CY), colostrum composition and piglet colostrum intake (CI). The impact of sow CY, colostrum composition and quality on piglet performance were also investigated. We also aimed to determine the effects of yeast hydrolysate (YD) and resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) inclusion in sows’ gestation and lactation diets on CY, colostrum immunoglobulins, nutritional composition and subsequent litter performance. We also sought to determine the influence of these two feed additives on the taxonomic profile of the hindgut microbiota of sows. Additionally we aimed to determine whether changing the gut microbiota of sows influences the microbial colonization of piglets after birth. There was a correlation between Brix refractometer measurement of colostrum and the corresponding IgG concentration measurements of ELISA (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). A classification of colostrum quality was suggested; low levels of IgG (14.5 ± 1.8 mg/ml) were recorded for colostrum samples with Brix readings below 20%. Borderline colostrum IgG content (43.8 ± 2.3 mg/ml) had Brix readings of 20% to 24%, adequate colostrum IgG content (50.7 ± 2.1 mg/ml) had Brix readings of 25% to 29% and very good IgG colostrum content (78.6 ± 8.4 mg/ml) had Brix readings >30%. Sow CY was positively correlated with plasma haptoglobin (Hp) (P = 0.029), number of live-born piglets (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with farrowing duration (P = 0.01). Piglet CI was positively associated with piglet weight at birth (P < 0.001) and negatively associated with the number of live-born piglets in the litter (P < 0.001). Both piglet CI and birth weight were positively associated with piglet average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.001). Risk for piglet death, or a piglet being treated with an antibiotic before weaning, increase with a decrease in sow back fat thickness at farrowing (P = 0.04). Similarly, we found that piglets of litters with low BWB and low CI had a higher risk of death before weaning (P < 0.001). Piglets born from sows having lower levels of colostrum IgA and serum amyloid A (SAA) and high plasma progesterone at the end of farrowing had higher risk of neonatal diarrhea (P = 0.04; P = 0.05; P = 0.04). Piglets born from sows having higher back fat thickness at weaning had higher risk of developing weaning diarrhea (P = 0.02). There was a significant increase in CY in sows fed with YD during gestation (P = 0.04) and a higher level of fat in their colostrum (P = 0.01). In RAC fed sows there was a significant increase in colostrum IgG content. Piglets weaning weights of RAC fed sows were higher in two trial herds. Inclusion of YD and RAC in gestation and lactation diet increased the abundance of beneficial and fermentative fecal bacteria (Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Eubacterium, Romboutsia and Clostridium sensu stricto) significantly (P < 0.01) while, opportunistic pathogens, especially Proteobacteria, were suppressed. In addition, piglets from the sows fed YD had more beneficial microbial populations with higher diversity and fewer opportunistic pathogens at one week of age. However, feeding YD, higher CY, colostrum composition and piglet birth weight were all correlated with specific sow gut microbiota. In conclusion, Brix measurement of a sow’s fresh colostrum is an inexpensive, rapid and sufficiently accurate method of estimating IgG concentration, providing indication of differentiation between good and poor IgG content of colostrum. Although colostrum is vital for piglet survival, both CY and composition are highly variable among sows. Sow body condition and physiological status around farrowing affect CY and colostrum immunoglobulin contents. Piglet survival and risk of death before weaning also depend on CI. Therefore, to support CY and CI, measures should be taken to ease the process of farrowing, increase piglet vitality and improve colostrum availability for piglets. Functional feed ingredients such as YD and RAC may increase colostrum availability, improve colostrum IgG and its energy content for neonate piglets, and also promote beneficial maternal microbial sources for neonates.
  • Närkki, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Leg weakness is one of the most common production diseases in pigs. Osteochondrosis is a joint disorder in which the endochondral ossification is disturbed. Leg weakness is mainly caused by osteochondrosis in pigs. Many factors like heredity and vitamin D status can affect the prevalence of osteochondrosis. This experiment was part of the international ProHealth project. The aim of this study was to investigate how two different vitamin D3 sources and feeding levels affect the prevalence of leg weakness in boars. Experiment design was 2 x 2 factorial. Commonly used vitamin D3 product (cholecalciferol) and Hy•D® product (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) were compared as vitamin D3 sources. Vitamin D3 feeding level 1 was in accordance of Finnish vitamin D3 recommendations and feeding level 2 was threefold with respect to the recommendations. Practical trial was carried out at Figen Oy’s research center in Längelmäki in 24.3. – 22.8.2016. Trial was conducted with 120 finishing boars. Average live weight of the boars at the end of the trial was 113 kg. Feed intake, daily weight gain, slaughter weight and bone strength were improved by greater feeding level of vitamin D3. Greater feeding level increased feed intake 6,13 kg of dry matter, slaughter weight 2,32 kg and bone strength 124,4 N during the trial. Daily weight gain increased 90,83 g/ d during the finishing period and 30,25 g/ d during the overall trial. Over 80 % of the pigs had excellent or good leg structure with only minor faults and their locomotion was fluent. There were no significant differences in leg structure or locomotion results between treatments. Pigs fed Hy•D® product with greater feeding level got double plasma 25-hydroxycholecalsiferol concentration when compared to pigs fed commonly used vitamin D3 product with greater feeding level. There were no significant treatment differences for 25-hydroxycholecalsiferol concentration in feeding level in accordance of the nutritional recommendations. There were no significant differences in plasma Ca, Pi or ALP concentrations between treatments either. Serious faults were observed more in distal humerus (elbow joint) compared to proximal humerus (shoulder joint) but there were no significant differences between treatments. In total of 11 pigs were removed from the treatments because of medical or tail biting reasons and in total of 50 pigs were medicated during the trial. Number of removed and medicated pigs divided evenly between treatments. According to this study the greater feeding level of vitamin D3 improved production. Feeding level of the vitamin D3 did not affect prevalence of the leg weakness or osteochondrosis. Source of the vitamin D3 did not affect production or prevalence of the leg weakness or osteochondrosis. Nutritional recommendations cover mainly the minimum need for nutrients and take no stand on optimizing production or health records. There is also some variation between research results. More research about the effects of vitamin D3 to prevalence of the leg weakness and the possibility to optimize production and health records with supplemental vitamin D3 is needed.
  • Mäntysaari, Nora (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli arvioida kuinka suuri osuus dobermannien välillä esiintyvästä eri käyttäytymisominaisuuksiin liittyvästä vaihtelusta on perinnöllistä sekä onko eri käyttäytymisominaisuuksien välillä perinnöllisiä yhteyksiä. Tutkimuksessa arvioitiin myös kyselytutkimuksen soveltuvuutta koirien käyttäytymisominaisuuksien periytymisen tutkimukseen. Tutkimuksessa käytetty aineisto kerättiin dobermannin omistajille suunnatun kyselytutkimuksen avulla. Aineisto sisälsi tiedot 153 dobermannista. Periytymisen analysointiin tarvittavat sukulaisuustiedot saatiin Suomen Kennelliitto ry:ltä rekisteröintidatana, joka sisälsi 14 404 dobermannin viralliset rekisterinumerot, isän ja emän rekisterinumerot, syntymäajan sekä tiedon koiran sukupuolesta. Fenotyyppiset käyttäytymismuuttujat analysoitiin useita kysymyksiä sisältävinä summamuuttujina. Periytymisasteet ja eri ominaisuuksien väliset geneettiset ja fenotyyppiset korrelaatiot arvioitiin AI-REML -menetelmällä käyttäen DMU-ohjelmaa. Tutkimus rajattiin kahdeksaan käyttäytymisominaisuuteen, joissa oli riittävän korkeat variaatiokertoimet periytymisen analysointia varten. Periytymisasteet olivat alhaisia ja keskivirheet olivat suuria. Tämän vuoksi periytymisasteista ei voida tehdä luotettavia johtopäätöksiä. Geneettisiä korrelaatioita yritettiin analysoida, mutta aineiston pienen koon vuoksi niiden estimointi ei ollut mahdollista. Fenotyyppisesti dobermannien aggressiivisuutta selittävät koiran sukupuoli sekä ympäristötekijöistä se, onko taloudessa yksi vai useampi koira. Dobermanneissa naaraat ilmentävät enemmän aggressiivisuutta kuin urokset. Useamman koiran taloudessa elävät ovat ainoita koiria aggressiivisempia, mitä voidaan selittää laumakäyttäytymisellä. Useissa roduissa urokset ovat naaraita aggressiivisempia. Tarvitaan lisätutkimusta, jotta voidaan selvittää, miksi dobermanneissa naaraat ovat uroksia aggressiivisempia. Tämä voisi liittyä emän suurempaan vaikutukseen käyttäytymismallien antajana koirien pentuaikana.
  • Saha, Sani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Immunodeficiency in neonatal piglet is one of the major causes of pre-weaning mortality. Colostrum supply cytokines to newborn piglets, which play an important role in formation of their immune mechanism. This study aims to identify the relationship between sow’s blood and colostrum cytokines, and effect of resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) in sow’s blood and colostrum cytokines concentration. RAC is a plant extract of coniferous tree, and it is composed of resin acids and fatty acids which exert immunomodulatory function. Two experiments were conducted in two different farms where RAC was supplemented in the diet of late gestation sows, starting from one week before of expected farrowing date till farrowing. Multiplex immunoassay was used to determine the interferon alpha (IFN-α), interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 12p40 (IL-12p40) cytokines concentration in blood and colostrum of sow collected within 2 hours of the birth of first piglets. There were significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between sow’s blood and colostrum cytokines concentration. RAC-fed sows had significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of IL-1 and showed positive tendency (p = 0.1) to increase TNF-α cytokine level in blood. Colostrum level of IFN- ɣ, IL-1 and IL-12p40 had also positive tendency (p = 0.1) to rise in RAC supplemented sow. On this basis, it is proposed that application of RAC in late gestation sow diet enhance the cytokine production in sow’s blood, and blood cytokines levels are positively correlated with colostrum cytokines.
  • Fant, Petra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by replacing barley grain with oat grain on a grass silage-based diet. The effects of grain species on in vitro methane production, digestibility, pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production pattern were investigated and a regression analysis was performed to entangle possible methane mitigating mechanisms of oats. The study was conducted in the laboratory at the Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden in the autumn of 2016. An in vitro gas production system was applied, consisting of 16 diets with two replicates, four blanks and three runs, each with a three-day incubation time. The feed material consisted of eight varieties of barley, eight varieties of oats and timothy silage incubated at a grain/silage ratio of 1:1 on a dry matter basis. Rumen fluid was collected from two cannulated Nordic Red dairy cows after morning feeding. Gas sampling was performed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32 and 48 hours of incubation, meanwhile VFA-sampling, pH-measurements and sampling of incubation residues were performed at 48 hours. Methane production was estimated as predicted in vivo methane production and stoichiometrically predicted methane production. The in vitro digestibility was determined as true dry matter digestibility (TDMD). Content of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) was determined by applying a 12-day in situ incubation in two Ayrshire dairy cows. Oats had a higher content of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), iNDF and fat compared to barley, whereas barley had a higher content of starch. Replacing barley with oats decreased predicted in vivo methane production by 9% and stoichiometrically predicted methane production by 11%. Variety within grain was not found to have any significant effect on methane production. True DM digestibility and total VFA production were lower in oat-based diets compared to barley-based diets. No significant differences were observed between the diets considering VFA molar proportions. The pH was lower in barley-based diets compared to oat-based diets. True DM digestibility was the best predictor of methane production. Among grain composition parameters, iNDF content was the best predictor of methane production, followed by NDF. Crude fat content also predicted methane production relatively well. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that replacing barley grain with oat grain in the diet of dairy cows has a potential to lower methane production predicted in vitro. Furthermore, the methane mitigating effect observed in this experiment is at least partly due to the higher fat content and lower digestibility of oats compared to barley.
  • Selim, Shaimaa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to increase the understanding of the transcriptional adaptations of genes encoding proteins, which have key roles in lipid and glucose metabolism, insulin signalling and inflammation, in situations of overfeeding energy during the dry period in dairy cows and summer grazing season in mares. Emphasis was placed on the potential to decrease metabolic disorders and to improve animal nutritional management and health. In the experiment I, dairy cows were fed a grass silage based diet either on a controlled energy level (on average 99 MJ/d metabolizable energy (ME), n = 8) during the last six weeks of the dry period or high energy level (on average 141 MJ/d ME, n = 8) for the first three weeks and then gradually decreasing energy allowance during three weeks to 99 MJ/d ME by parturition. In experiment II, dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage (144 MJ/d ME, n = 8) or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw and rapeseed meal (TMR, 55%: 40%: 5%, 109 MJ/d ME, n = 8) during the 8-wk dry period. Liver and adipose tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected during the transition period in experiments I and II. In the experiment III, the impact of grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or semi-natural grassland pasture (NG) on fat deposition, insulin resistance status and adipose tissue gene expression of Finnhorse mares was studied. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), and sampling for the determination of neck and tailhead adipose tissue gene expressions were conducted in May and September. In experiments I and II, overfed cows had greater total dry matter and ME intakes and ME balance before parturition than control cows, but no differences were observed after calving. Increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in the overfed cows of the experiment II during the dry period. In the experiment I, there was greater plasma insulin and lower glucagon/insulin ratio in overfed cows than in control cows, while in the experiment II, there were no differences in blood parameters between overfed and TMR group during the transition period. Down-regulation of key genes linked to hepatic gluconeogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation in the overfed group of cows in the experiment I was found, suggesting impaired liver function compared to a controlled energy diet. In the experiment II, ad libitum feeding of grass silage throughout the dry period may have attenuated the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from propionate compared to a controlled TMR diet. However, there was no difference in the expression of genes related to hepatic glucose release during the transition period (II). In adipose tissue, there was some evidence that the level of energy overfeeding may have exacerbated the inflammatory status postpartum and temporarily decreased lipogenesis very near parturition relative to control energy diet (I). In the experiment II, prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage decreased lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity early postpartum compared to the TMR control group. In the experiment III, CG mares had higher median body condition score and body weight, and larger waist circumference than NG mares at the end of grazing. In September, greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate during IVGTT were observed in CG mares than in NG mares. In addition, a greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT was noticed in CG mares. There were no differences in the expression of genes related to insulin resistance, inflammation and lipogenesis between the two groups. Significant temporal differences in the expression profiles of genes related to insulin resistance and lipogenesis were observed during the grazing season. Grazing on CG had moderate effects on responses during IVGTT, but did not exacerbate insulin resistance. In conclusion, overfeeding energy with concomitant weight gain moderately altered the expression of genes related to insulin resistance, inflammation and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of dairy cows. Prepartal overfeeding energy affected the expression of genes related to hepatic gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows, but the extent of these effects differed depending on the dietary composition during the close-up period (e.g. feeding of cereal grain). In mares, the diets with variable energy content did not affect the expression of insulin resistance- or inflammation-related genes, although mares were different in their body condition scores.
  • Qin, Nanbing (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    High-producing dairy cows suffer from metabolic stress, particularly during the periparturient period. The high nutrient demand of milk production leaves the animals susceptible to various metabolic diseases after calving. Improving the health and welfare of high-producing dairy cows has been a long-term goal of dairy research and it is critical for the sustainability of the dairy industry. Previous research has suggested that the nutrition strategies during the dry period and early lactation have significant impacts on dairy cow metabolism after calving. Therefore, careful dietary management in the weeks leading up to and immediately after calving is important for dairy cow health and welfare. In this thesis, the cows received two types of dietary management: a prepartal high-energy feeding regimen and a milk fat depression (MFD) feeding regimen in two experiments, respectively. The high-energy feeding provided 130% of the recommended intake of a pregnant dairy cow during the last six weeks before parturition. The MFD diet was achieved by applying either a diet with a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplement (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA; 10–15 g/d for each) or a high-starch diet (202 g/kg of dry matter) with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplement (40 g/kg of dry matter; mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil in a 2:1 ratio). The primary objective of this thesis was to investigate the effects of the dietary management on the energy metabolism and insulin resistance of dairy cows. Moreover, the study was aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms underlying maternal insulin resistance and the physiological adaptation of dairy cows during the periparturient period based on analyses of lipidome and transcriptome. The prepartal high-energy feeding of dairy cows affected the lipidomic profiles in the liver and adipose tissue during the periparturient period. The diet effect was particularly evident in sphingolipid concentrations. The high-energy diet increased the hepatic total sphingomyelin concentration at both 1 wk prepartum and 1 wk postpartum. In the adipose tissue, the total ceramide concentration was elevated by the prepartal high-energy feeding at 1 wk prepartum. Of these sphingolipids, the highest sensitivity to prepartal energy levels was displayed in the adipose tissue by several ceramide subspecies and in the liver by sphingomyelin subspecies that contained a long-chain or very long chain fatty acids. In addition, the high-energy feeding elevated the concentrations of various phospholipid and lysophospholipid classes in the liver and altered the time-related patterns in the concentrations of various phospholipid classes in the adipose tissue. Analysis of the hepatic gene expression revealed that prepartal high-energy feeding promoted hepatic lipogenesis at 1 wk prepartum by upregulating the transcription of the thyroid hormone responsive gene and the liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor activation pathway. The hepatic inflammatory status was potentially reduced by the prepartal high-energy feeding at 1 wk prepartum, as suggested by the downregulation of the acute phase signalling pathway and the decreased transcription of the pro-inflammatory genes interleukin 1 and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1. Both the MFD-inducing diets improved the energy balance and decreased plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate during early lactation. The CLA-supplemented diet reduced the plasma levels of ceruloplasmin and bilirubin at wk 3 of lactation, suggesting an attenuated inflammation status. However, the high-starch and PUFA-supplemented diet had the opposite effect by increasing the levels of ceruloplasmin and bilirubin at wk 15 of lactation. Both the CLA-supplemented diet and the high-starch and PUFA-supplemented diet downregulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue at wk 3 of lactation by reducing the transcription of hormone-sensitive lipase and fatty acid binding protein 4. The decreased lipolysis resulted in increased lipid deposition in the adipose tissue during early lactation, reflected by the increased transcription of perilipin 2. Lipogenesis in the adipose tissue was potentially increased by the high-starch and PUFA-supplemented diet at wk 15 of lactation. In contrast, the CLA-supplemented diet had no effect on lipogenesis at both wk 3 and 15 of lactation. The CLA supplement likely affected lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through the regulation of insulin sensitivity, as the diet affected gene expression related to the insulin signalling pathway, the inflammatory response and ceramide metabolism. In contrast, the high-starch and PUFA-supplemented diet had little or no effect on these insulin-related pathways and therefore it may have regulated lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through other pathways. In conclusion, increasing prepartal energy intake (130% of the energy requirement for a pregnant dairy cow) did not impair the normal liver function and insulin sensitivity of dairy cows near calving. Moreover, this diet attenuated the hepatic inflammatory status during the final stage of pregnancy. Both the CLA-supplemented diet and the high-starch and PUFA-supplemented diet potentially reduced the cows’ metabolic stress by decreasing the necessity to mobilize body reserves. However, these two MFD-inducing diets may have had different effects on the inflammatory status of dairy cows. The CLA supplement may attenuate systemic inflammation during early lactation, while the high-starch and PUFA-supplemented diet may have exacerbated inflammation during the later lactation stages.
  • Gao, Jianguo (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are key factors lead to equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. Diet may play an important role in eliciting obesity by affecting insulin dynamics. Insulin-pathway signaling and mTORC1 genes may contribute to incred IR. The first objective of this study was to find and validate internal control genes for quantitative PCR method for adipose tissues in Finnhorse mares. The second aim was to quantitate the expression of mTORC1 and insulin-pathway associated genes after pasture season in two different treatment groups of Finnhorse mares and compare gene expression differences between treatment groups. In addition, gene expression differences were compared between two different adipose tissues. Twenty-two mares were equally divided into eleven equal pairs, the two mares of each group were randomly grazed either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or on semi-natural grassland (NG) from the end of May to the beginning of September. Eight pairs of Finnhorse mares were selected for gene expression profiling. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples were collected from two groups of Finnhorse mares after pasture season. Gene expression of neck and tailhead SAT were determined with quantitative Real-Time PCR method (qPCR). The selected internal control genes were actin beta (ACTB), glucuronidase beta (GUSB) and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39 (MRPL39). Candidate genes were mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2), TBC1 domain family member 7 (TBC1D7), leptin (LEP), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2). There were no distinct gene expression differences between NG and CG groups in both neck and tailhead SAT. However, RBP4 had significantly (P=0.035) higher and GLUT4 had a trend (P=0.064) to higher mRNA expression in CG group in neck SAT. TSC1 had a trend (P=0.071) of higher expression in CG group in tailhead SAT. Gene expression differences were observed between tailhead and neck SAT. SREBF1 and GLUT4 had significantly (P=0.007 and P=0.026, respectively) higher expression levels in tailhead SAT compared to neck SAT. RBP4 had a trend (P=0.066) to higher expression in neck SAT compared to tailhead SAT. Minor differences in gene expression between NG and CG groups indicate that pasture-associated fat depositionmaynotconsiderably affect expressionof insulin-pathway and mTORC1 genes associated to obesity and IR in studied subcutaneous adipose tissues. These results also provide additional evidence to our hypothesis that fattening resulting on unrestricted grazing on cultivated high-yielding pasture does not increase the risk of metabolic diseases in Finnhorse mares when they have normal body condition at the beginning of the grazing season.
  • Norrback, Josefin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Gastrointestinal parasites (GIP) and resistance against anthelmintics are and will be one of the biggest challenges for the sheep husbandry. Research within this area is very important today and it is important to figure out new methods to identify individuals with high burden of parasites and to treat just these individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of GIP on activity patterns and weight gain in first season grazing lambs. A sub-study accompanied with the aim was to see if the manually made behavioural observations supported data from the sensors. The study took place at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) during the summer of 2019. The study was divided into two experimental periods. In the first experimental period 30 ewes and their 60 twins were used. Of those, 58 lambs continued to the second experimental period. Two groups were dewormed with ivermectin (high group) and two groups were untreated (low group). All lambs were fitted with sensors, and the data was downloaded once a week, at the same time with the weighting of animals. Individual faecal samples were collected four times. The pasture where the lambs grazed was a first-year pasture. Sward height was measured, and herbage samples were collected three times during the experiment. Herbage samples were analysed for nutritional and mineral content. The manual behavioural observations were made two days a week during five weeks. The high group had higher weight (28.9 kg) in the beginning of the experiment, compared with the low group (28.1 kg). On the contrary, the high group had lower weight (42.7 kg), compared with the low group (44.8 kg) at the end of the experiment. According to data from the sensors there were differences in lying time and motion index (MI) during the 7-10 first days after weaning. The low group laid down more, compared with the high group. The low group had higher MI compared with the high group. During the whole experiment there were no differences in lying time, lying bouts or MI. The manual behavioural observations showed that “standing still” had significantly more registrations for the high group compared to the low group. It is possible to see differences in behaviour with sensors at an early stage of parasitic infection, even with low levels of parasites. This means, that there is a potential to use automatic behaviour observations as a diagnostics tool during infection of GIP.
  • von Konow, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The feeding behavior of beef cattle is complex and varies depending on different factors such as the nutritive value of the feed, the individual and the environment. By optimizing and improving the feed efficiency, the economics of the production increases. Knowledge of feed intake and feeding behavior can be used to optimize the production and the health and well-being of the animals. The aim of this study was to determine how the cut of grass silage affects the feeding behaviour of bulls and thereby how to optimize the use of silage for animal growth. Simmental bulls got three different silage cuts. The first cut was taken on 25th June (ES1), the second cut on 11th August (ES2) and the third cut on 3rd October (ES3). The feeding was given as total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. Each TMR group had 15 bulls (TES1, TES2, TES3). Each TMR group had a diet based on grass silage (550 g/kg DM), the only difference being if the silage was of the first, second or third cut. That way the nutritive value differed among the TMR. Individual information about duration, when, and how much the bulls ate was recorded by the Growsafesystem. The average for the bulls in the feeding groups was calculated based on the individual data. This Master´s thesis researched feed intake, feeding frequency, time for head down, time for feed intake and feed intake rate during one month when the body weight of the bulls was on average 546 kg in the beginning and 607 kg at the end of the study. The dry matter for the three cuts was 201 g/kg for ES1, 298 g/kg for ES2 and 354 g/kg for ES3. D-value was 719, 685 and 739 g/kg DM, respectively. The bulls that ate ES3 had higher dry matter intake (12,1 kg DM/d) and eating rate (94,9 g DM/min) than the two other groups. The bulls that ate ES1 and ES2 had the same feed utilization, which was better than the feed utuilization of the bulls that were given ES3. Feeding frequency was about 15 times per day for all groups. The second cut had the lowest digestibility and the bulls eating the second cut had the longest feed intake time. The bulls that ate the third cut had the highest dry matter intake, but the lowest feed utilization. The study indicates that the D-value of the grass silage used in TMR has a clear impact on dry matter intake of the TMR and eating time and eating rate of the animal.
  • Mikkola, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Before parturition the wild boar uses plant material to build a nest, which provides the piglets shelter and keeps them warm. Despite domestication, this behaviour has remained as an important part of maternal behaviour in the domestic pig. Nest building behaviour has a big impact on modern pig production, because the possibilities to practise this behaviour affect the sow and the piglets in various ways. In this study, we investigated nest building behaviour in a group farrowing system. We also studied how nest building behaviour is associated to the sow’s physiology and performance. A total of 31 farrowings of 23 group-housed sows were investigated. The nest building behavior and the location of the sows were monitored continuosly starting 24 hours prior to farrowing. When the sow farrowed, blood and colostrum samples were collected to assess the concentrations of progesterone and immunoglobulins. Also the duration of farrowing, the yield of colostrum and the piglets’ growth, colostrum intake and mortality were observed. The sows had excellent conditions for nest building, because they could move freely in their own group farrowing department and had access to large amounts of straw to use as a nest building material. The total duration of nest building behaviour and the way it was distributed varied greatly between sows. Nest building behaviour started on average 23 h 7 min before farrowing and ceased approximately 18 min before farrowing. The mean total duration of nest building behaviour during 24 hours before farrowing was 4 h 29 min. Most of the nest building behaviour, 3 h 32 min, occurred 12–0 h before farrowing and the peak was seen 6–4 hours prior to farrowing. Younger sows started nest building behaviour earlier and spent less time in the pens than older sows. Starting nest building behaviour earlier correlated with a shorter duration of farrowing and, to a lesser extent, with a smaller number of stillborn piglets. Abundant nest building during 24–12 hours before farrowing tended to correlate with lower piglet mortality in the age of 1–3 days. Opposite to our assumptions, abundant nest building during 12–0 hours before farrowing correlated with poorer piglet growth. Nest building behaviour wasn’t related to colostrum yield and intake or the concentrations of progesterone and immunoglobulins. In conclusion, the total duration of nest building behaviour was greater in group farrowing system than in previously studied systems (farrowing crate, loose farrowing pen). Especially the early start of nest building had a positive effect on sows’ performance.
  • Jämsä, Titta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää suomalaisen emolehmätuotannon tuottavuutta kuvaavia tunnuslukuja. Emolehmätuotantoa tarvitaan, koska lypsylehmien määrä pienenee ja näin ollen myös lihantuotantoon käytettävissä olevien maitorotuisten vasikoiden määrä. Emolehmien määrä on noussut Suomessa lähes 20 % kymmenen viime vuoden aikana. Emolehmän tärkein tuotos on elävä vasikka, joka saadaan vieroitettua menestyksekkäästi ja riittävän isossa vieroituspainossa suhteessa emon painoon. Naudanlihantuotannon hiilijalanjälkeen on viime vuosina kiinnitetty yhä enemmän huomiota ja emolehmiin perustuvan lihantuotannon tuottavuutta parantamalla voidaan pienentää myös kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä. Emolehmätuotannon tuottavuutta kuvaavia tunnuslukuja ovat hiehojen poikimaikä, poikimaväli, poikimaprosentti, vasikkakuolleisuus, elinikäistuotos ja poistoikä. Nämä analysoitiin Ruokaviraston nautarekisterin tietojärjestelmistä saatavasta datasta vuosilta 1995-2014. Aineiston tilastollinen analysointi toteutettiin SAS-ohjelmalla. Keskimääräisten tunnuslukujen lisäksi analysoitiin rotukohtaiset erot sekä emolehmätilojen parhaimman ja heikoimman neljänneksen väliset erot. Emolehmähiehot poikivat keskimäärin 27,5 kuukauden iässä. Poikimaväli oli keskimäärin 378 päivää. Angus-rodun hiehojen poikimaikä oli matalin ja lehmien poikimaväli lyhyin lähes koko analysointijakson ajan. Limousinen poikimaikä oli korkein ja poikimaväli pisin. Parhaan neljänneksen tiloilla hiehot poikivat keskimäärin 22 kuukauden iässä ja heikoimman neljänneksen tiloilla yli 42 kuukauden iässä. Poikimavälin keskiarvo parhaan neljänneksen tiloilla oli 364 päivää ja heikoimman neljänneksen tiloilla 400 päivää. Poikimaprosentti oli keskimäärin lähes 86 prosenttia. Anguksen poikimaprosentti oli korkein koko analysointijakson ajan. Parhaan neljänneksen karjoissa poikimaprosentti oli keskimäärin 96 % ja heikoimman neljänneksen karjoissa 73 %. Vasikkakuolleisuus oli keskimäärin 6,2 %. Sonnivasikoiden kuolleisuus oli lähes 2 %-yksikköä suurempi kuin lehmävasikoiden. Ensikoilla vasikkakuolleisuus oli suurempi kuin vanhemmilla lehmillä. Vasikkakuolleisuus oli suurin charolais-rodulla. Emolehmän elinikäistuotos oli keskimäärin 4,4 tuotettua vasikkaa. Elinikäistuotos oli paras anguksella ja limousinella ja heikoin simmentalilla. Poistoiän keskiarvo oli 6,8 vuotta. Korkein poistoikä oli limousinella ja matalin simmentalilla. Tilakohtaiset vaihtelut tuotantotuloksissa olivat suuria. Tuotannon tulisi olla riittävän tehokasta, jotta se olisi ympäristöllisesti kestävää ja emolehmätuotannon hiilijalanjälkeä saataisiin entisestään pienennettyä.
  • Kuusisto, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the ensilability of field pea and faba bean bi-crop with spring wheat when ensiled as whole-crop with different additives. In this study we attempted to clarify use of pea – wheat and faba bean – wheat bi-crop in organic farming. Forages was sown at 4th to 7th of June in Luonnonvarakeskus (Luke) Ruukki and forages were ensiled in laboratory silos at 26th of August 2013. Silages were ensiled without additive (PR), with formic acid (MH) and with two different heterofermentative inoculants (B1 and B2) as additive. Each treatment were made three replicants. Silos were opened after 106 ensiling days at 9th of December in Luke Jokioinen. Chemical and microbiological compositions were determined from samples of herbage. From silage samples were analysed fermentation quality, microbiological composition and aerobic stability. All samples were wet. Faba bean – wheat bi-crop was a little wetter than field pea – wheat bi-crop. Field pea – wheat forage contained more crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, starch and had stronger buffering capacity than faba bean – wheat. Faba bean – wheat bi-crop contained more neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) and had also lower digestibility. Both of crops were easy to ensile and growth stage were different between crops. All samples included lot of micro-organism especially yeast, moulds and epiphytic lactic acid bacteria. Field pea – wheat silage contained more fermentation products than faba bean – wheat silage. MH- treated silages had better fermentation quality than other silages although there were higher pH values in MH silages. MH silages contained less lactic and acetic acids and ammonium nitro-gen. Inoculant treated silages mostly did not differ from PR treatment in fermentation parameters. That is probably due to high epiphytic lactic acid bacteria account in herbage. Silages contained only a little butyric acid. Microbiological quality of silages predisposed them to aerobic deteriora-tion because there were considerable high amounts of yeasts and moulds. Field pea –wheat silages were more aerobically stable than faba bean - wheat. This is probably due to higher concentration of fermentation acids in field pea-wheat silages. MH treatment was the most aerobically stable of field pea – wheat silages. B2 treatment was the most stable of field pea – wheat silages. Mixed ration of these silages were more prone to aerobically deterioration than silages.
  • Salakka, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of the experiment was to study how different additives effect on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of maize silage. Three additives and two maturity stages were used in the labo-ratory scale experiment. Maize silage preserved with different additives was compared to control with no additives. The maize (Pioneer, P7326) used in the study was cultivated at the research farm of the Univer-sity of Helsinki in Viikki on growing season 2018. First silages were made on 21st of August 2018 and after 50 days the second silages were made on 10th of October 2018 92 and 142 days after sowing. The treatments were 1) control 2) formic acid 3) mixture of formic acid, sodium formate, propionic acid and sorbic acid 4) mixture of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Chemical com-positon and buffering capacity of the pre-ensiling maize were determined. Fermentation quality of the silages was also determined. In addition aerobic stability of silages was determined by monitoring the temperature change of silages for 12 days with data loggers. Composition of the maize varied by the maturity stage. Dry matter content in the first maturity stage was 211 g/kg and in the second it was 327 g/kg. Content of water soluble carbohydrates (su-gars) was higher in the first maturity stage. Starch content increased in the second maturity stage considerably. Feed preservation succeeded mainly well and pH of silages in both maturity stages were below four. Sugar content of silages treated with formic acid and mixture of acids was very high in the first maturity stage. Lactic acid content of the control and Na-benzoate and K-sorbate silages was higher than other treatments. Na-benzoate and K-sorbate silage in late maturity stage had noticeably higher acetic acid content. In the silages, there were mainly low content of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and butyric acid was not observed. The silages contained lactic acid as well as acetic acid and only low amount of propionic acid. Silages were aerobically stable except silages of two formic acid silos in the first maturity stage and control silos in the second maturity stage. Temperature started to rise in formic acid silages after 10 days and in control silages after five days from exposure to air. Other silages were aerobically stable during the testing period. The maturity stage affected maize composition and thus ensiling characteristics. Composition differences of maize in different maturity stages cause different challenges in terms of preservation. Different preservation treatments affected the intensity of lactic acid fermentation and silage sugar content and the differences were higher in the first maturity stage. Intensity differences of fermenta-tion and differences in acetic acid content may affect aerobic stability. The use of additives tended to improve aerobic stability of the silages at the late stage of maturity.