Browsing by Subject "Antibiotic"

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  • Ansaloni, L.; Pisano, M.; Coccolini, F.; Peitzmann, A. B.; Fingerhut, A.; Catena, F.; Agresta, F.; Allegri, A.; Bailey, I.; Balogh, Z. J.; Bendinelli, C.; Biffl, W.; Bonavina, L.; Borzellino, G.; Brunetti, F.; Burlew, C. C.; Camapanelli, G.; Campanile, F. C.; Ceresoli, M.; Chiara, O.; Civil, I.; Coimbra, R.; De Moya, M.; Di Saverio, S.; Fraga, G. P.; Gupta, S.; Kashuk, J.; Kelly, M. D.; Koka, V.; Jeekel, H.; Latifi, R.; Leppaniemi, A.; Maier, R. V.; Marzi, I.; Moore, F.; Piazzalunga, D.; Sakakushev, B.; Sartelli, M.; Scalea, T.; Stahel, P. F.; Taviloglu, K.; Tugnoli, G.; Uraneus, S.; Velmahos, G. C.; Wani, I.; Weber, D. G.; Viale, P.; Sugrue, M.; Ivatury, R.; Kluger, Y.; Gurusamy, K. S.; Moore, E. E. (2016)
    Acute calculus cholecystitis is a very common disease with several area of uncertainty. The World Society of Emergency Surgery developed extensive guidelines in order to cover grey areas. The diagnostic criteria, the antimicrobial therapy, the evaluation of associated common bile duct stones, the identification of "high risk" patients, the surgical timing, the type of surgery, and the alternatives to surgery are discussed. Moreover the algorithm is proposed: as soon as diagnosis is made and after the evaluation of choledocholitiasis risk, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be offered to all patients exception of those with high risk of morbidity or mortality. These Guidelines must be considered as an adjunctive tool for decision but they are not substitute of the clinical judgement for the individual patient.
  • Välkki, Kirsi J; Thomson, Katariina H; Grönthal, Thomas S C; Junnila, Jouni J T; Rantala, Merja H J; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M; Mölsä, Sari H (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30–60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012–2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3–2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI95% 0.4–5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI95% 1.4–57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI95% 1.0–2.7; mean difference + 0.4 °C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Välkki, Kirsi Johanna; Thomson, Katariina Hanne; Grönthal, Thomas Sven Christer; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Rantala, Merja Hilma Johanna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi Maria; Mölsä, Sari Helena (2020)
    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30-60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012-2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3-2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI(95%)0.4-5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus pseudintermediuscarriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI(95%)1.4-57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI(95%)1.0-2.7; mean difference + 0.4 degrees C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Hasan, Shah Md. Kamrul; Orro, Toomas; Valros, Anna; Junnikkala, Sami; Peltoniemi, Olli; Oliviero, Claudio (2019)
    The present study investigated sow colostrum yield (CY), colostrum composition and factors affecting them, and their relation to piglet survivability, growth and mortality. The study included 230 sows with 3,210 live-born piglets from five Finnish and one Dutch sow herd. Sow farrowing was supervised, and piglets were individually weighed at birth (BWB) and 24 h after birth of first piglet in order to calculate piglet CI and sow CY. Colostrum nutritional composition, immunoglobulin (Ig), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) contents were assessed. Sow plasma SAA, Hp and progesterone around farrowing were also assessed. Selected ear-tagged piglets were weighed at 3 to 4 weeks of age to calculate individual average daily gain. Sow CY was positively correlated with plasma Hp (P = 0.029) and number of live-born piglets (P < 0.01). An additional minute of farrowing duration lowered the CY by 2.2 g (P = 0.01). Piglet CI was positively associated with piglet weight at birth (P < 0.001) and negatively associated with the number of live-born piglets in the litter and percentage of protein in the colostrum (P < 0.001). Both piglet CI and birth weight were positively associated with piglet average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.001). Piglet survival from birth to weaning depends on CI. We established that the risk of piglet death or of a piglet being treated with antibiotic before weaning increases with a decrease in sow back fat thickness at farrowing (P = 0.04). Similarly, we found that piglets from litters with low BWB and low CI had a higher risk of death before weaning (P < 0.001). Piglets born from sows with lower levels of colostrum IgA and SAA and high plasma progesterone at the end of farrowing had a higher risk of neonatal diarrhea (P = 0.04; P = 0.05; P = 0.04). Piglets born from sows having higher back fat thickness at weaning had a higher risk of developing weaning diarrhea (P = 0.02). In conclusion, longer farrowing duration can be detrimental and can negatively influence sow CY. Sow body condition and physiological status around farrowing can also affect CY, and thereby increase piglet mortality and use of antibiotics in neonatal piglets. Neonatal piglets can benefit from higher colostrum immunoglobulins, SAA, and decreased level of plasma progesterone in sows at the end of farrowing.
  • Guillaume, O.; Perez-Tanoira, R.; Fortelny, R.; Redl, H.; Moriarty, T. F.; Richards, R. G.; Eglin, D.; Puchner, A. Petter (2018)
    The incidence of mesh-related infection after abdominal wall hernia repair is low, generally between 1 and 4%; however, worldwide, this corresponds to tens of thousands of difficult cases to treat annually. Adopting best practices in prevention is one of the keys to reduce the incidence of mesh-related infection. Once the infection is established, however, only a limited number of options are available that provides an efficient and successful treatment outcome. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous amount of research dedicated to the functionalization of prosthetic meshes with antimicrobial properties, with some receiving regulatory approval and are currently available for clinical use. In this context, it is important to review the clinical importance of mesh infection, its risk factors, prophylaxis and pathogenicity. In addition, we give an overview of the main functionalization approaches that have been applied on meshes to confer anti-bacterial protection, the respective benefits and limitations, and finally some relevant future directions. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.