Browsing by Subject "Araneae"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Cardoso, Pedro; Ribera, Carles; Pavlek, Martina; Isaia, Marco (2018)
    We provide the first overview on spiders living in subterranean habitats in Europe, including the first European subterranean spider checklist. In Europe, there are 486 spider species known to dwell in caves and other subterranean habitats, distributed across 22 families. Despite a few species being able to colonize caves across the whole continent, approximately 90% of the species show a restricted distribution, occurring exclusively in one or two countries. From a biogeographic perspective, southern Europe emerges as the main hot spot of subterranean spider diversity, showing the highest richness of endemic species. Compared to other temperate regions of the world, some families appear to be well represented and other poorly represented (or lacking) in European subterranean habitats. Overall, it appears that the taxonomical knowledge on subterranean spiders in Europe is sufficient, but not evenly distributed. As this checklist represents a useful baseline for advances in this field, we point out specific areas of interest for future research.
  • Arteaga, Alba; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Gabriel, Rosalina; Ros-Prieto, Alejandra; Casimiro, Pedro; Sanchez, Ana Fuentes; Albergaria, Isabel S.; Borges, Paulo A. V. (2020)
    The aim of our study was to characterise and compare the richness and composition of endemic, native (non-endemic) and introduced arthropod assemblages of two Azorean Historic Gardens with contrasting plant species composition. We hypothesised that Faial Botanic Garden would hold higher arthropod diversity and abundance of native and endemic arthropod species due to its larger native plant community. Species were collected using several arthropod standardised techniques between April 2017 and June 2018. We used the alpha diversity metrics (Hill series) and the partitioning of total beta diversity (beta(total)) into its replacement (beta(repl)) and richness (beta(rich)) components, to analyse the adult and total arthropod community. The orders Araneae, Coleoptera and Hemiptera were also studied separately. Our results show that the number of exotic arthropod species exceeds the number of native and/or the endemic species in both gardens, but the arthropod community of Faial Botanic Garden exhibited a higher density of endemic and native species. Despite some minor exceptions, the geographic origins of plant communities largely influenced the arthropod species sampled in each garden. This study improves our knowledge about urban arthropod diversity in the Azores and shows how well-designed urban garden management and planning contribute to the conservation of native and endemic Azorean species.
  • Alaruikka, D.; Kotze, D.J.; Matveinen, K.; Niemelä, J. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
    To investigate the effects of urbanization on carabid beetles (Carabidae) and ground dwelling spiders (Araneae) a study was completed along a 20 kmurban–rural forest gradient in the Helsinki–Espoo area of southern Finland. To study changes in assemblage structure, abundance and species richness, these taxa were collected in the year 2000 using pitfall traps, which had been placed in four forest sites within each of the urban, suburban and rural zones.We expected to find changes in the abundances and species richnesses in the two taxa across the urban–rural gradient, but did not find any. Our second and third hypotheses, stating that generalist species and small-bodied species should gain dominance along the gradient from rural to urban sites, were partly supported as carabid specialists were more characteristic of suburban and rural environments whereas generalists were more likely to be collected from rural areas compared to suburban or urban sites. Furthermore, medium to large-sized carabid individuals were more likely to be collected in the rural sites compared to urban forests. We found no evidence for significant changes in spider abundance or species richness across the urban–rural gradient in relation to body size or habitat specialization. We suggest that urbanization does not have significant effects on the total abundances and species richnesses in these two taxa. However, individual species responded differently to urbanization, and there were significant differences in the specialization and body sizes of carabids across the gradient.
  • Shirey, Vaughn; Seppälä, Sini; Branco, Vasco Veiga; Cardoso, Pedro (2019)
    Conservation assessments of hyperdiverse groups of organisms are often challenging and limited by the availability of occurrence data needed to calculate assessment metrics such as extent of occurrence (EOO). Spiders represent one such diverse group and have historically been assessed using primary literature with retrospective georeferencing. Here we demonstrate the differences in estimations of EOO and hypothetical IUCN Red List classifications for two extensive spider datasets comprising 479 species in total. The EOO were estimated and compared using literature-based assessments, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)-based assessments and combined data assessments. We found that although few changes to hypothetical IUCN Red List classifications occurred with the addition of GBIF data, some species (3.3%) which could previously not be classified could now be assessed with the addition of GBIF data. In addition, the hypothetical classification changed for others (1.5%). On the other hand, GBIF data alone did not provide enough data for 88.7% of species. These results demonstrate the potential of GBIF data to serve as an additional source of information for conservation assessments, complementing literature data, but not particularly useful on its own as it stands right now for spiders.
  • Seppälä, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Not much attention is paid on the conservation of invertebrates despite their importance to the ecosystems in general and their benefits and ecosystem services to us, humans. This study is part of a project aiming to start the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) for spiders. The IUCN Red List Index (RLI) is used for measuring the overall extinction risk of groups of species and the sampled approach is a way to evaluate the trajectory towards extinction of megadiverse groups without the need to assess every species of the whole group of interest. A random sample of 200 spider species were selected from the global checklist and assessed according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Given the availability of data, I was able to calculate the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy for 80 species, of which 70 species had an EOO above 20000 km² and 75 species an AOO above 2000 km², the thresholds below which species can be considered threatened. The trends in EOO and AOO were assumed to be stable for most species (49 species) given the inexistence of monitoring data for any taxon. Evidence of decline was found for only 10 species, usually inferred from habitat loss. Habitat data was collected for 118 species. The most common habitat type was forest (73 species), followed by grasslands (24 species) and artificial habitats (22 species). For 44 species the habitat trend was inferred to be stable, only declining, according to available knowledge, for 14 species and increasing for one species. For the remaining 141 species the habitat trend could not be inferred and was thus assumed to be unknown. The most commonly mentioned threat types were agriculture (11 species), fires (7 species) and logging (6 species). For 39 species there were no known threats and for the rest of the 132 species the threats were unknown. Conservation actions in place were observed for 104 species, most commonly site and area protection (100 species) and resource and habitat protection (88 species). Conservation actions such as education and awareness (8 species), resource and habitat protection (7 species) and site and area management (6 species) were to take into consideration. All the 200 species were estimated to be in need of further basic research especially on threats (143 species and distribution (140 species), but also on life history and ecology (135 species). Due to several knowledge shortfalls, including the Wallacean (distribution of species), Prestonian (population trends) and Hutchinsonian (response to environmental change), no threat category could be reached for the vast majority of the species. The results show that an IUCN category could be reached for only 59 species, of which 55 were assessed as Least Concern and a threatened category was reached for only 4 species (t as Critically Endangered and one as Vulnerable). The baseline SRLI at this first point in time was 0.95 (in a 0-1 scale, where 0 means all species are extinct and 1 for all species are Least Concern). We hypothesize however that among the 141 Data Deficient species there should be a higher proportion of threatened species than among the 59 evaluated. This would be due to two reasons. First, the scarcity of information on many species might in part be due to their rarity. Second, widespread species were often the only for which an assessment could be reached, creating a bias in the dataset towards a large base SRLI value. The strategy currently imposed by IUCN is therefore clearly inadequate for taxa with scarce information, which represent the vast majority of species. I propose the future use of a different, non-random, approach to the selection of species in the SRLI and its adoption for other taxa which represent in fact most extant and threatened species.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Aharon, Shlomi; Seifan, Merav; Lubin, Yael; Gavish-Regev, Efrat (2019)
    Caves are excellent model systems to study the effects of abiotic factors on species distributions due to their selective conditions. Different ecological factors have been shown to affect species distribution depending on the scale of analysis, whether regional or local. The interplay between local and regional factors in explaining the spatial distribution of cave-dwelling organisms is poorly understood. Using the troglophilic subterranean spider Artema nephilit (Araneae: Pholcidae) as a model organism, we investigated whether similar environmental predictors drive the species distribution at these two spatial scales. At the local scale, we monitored the abundance of the spiders and measured relevant environmental features in 33 caves along the Jordan Rift Valley. We then extended the analysis to a regional scale, investigating the drivers of the distribution using species distribution models. We found that similar ecological factors determined the distribution at both local and regional scales for A. nephilit. At a local scale, the species was found to preferentially occupy the outermost, illuminated, and warmer sectors of caves. Similarly, mean annual temperature, annual temperature range, and solar radiation were the most important drivers of its regional distribution. By investigating these two spatial scales simultaneously, we showed that it was possible to achieve an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions that governs subterranean species distribution.
  • Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Rigal, François; Girardello, Marco; Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís Carlos; Amorim, Isabel R.; Arnedo, Miquel; Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José Carlos; Carvalho, Rui; Gabriel, Rosalina; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; López, Heriberto; Paulo, Octávio S.; Pereira, Fernando; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio J.; Rego, Carla; Romeiras, Maria; Ros-Prieto, Alejandra; Oromí, Pedro; Vieira, Ana; Emerson, Brent C.; Borges, Paulo A. V. (2021)
    Aim: Habitat diversity has been linked to the diversity and structure of island communities, however, little is known about patterns and processes within habitats. Here we aim to determine the contributions of habitat type and inferred dispersal frequency to the differences in taxonomic structure between assemblages in the same island habitat. Location: The Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands and Cabo Verde). Taxon: Spiders (Araneae). Methods: We established forest and dry habitat sites (each with five plots) on two islands per archipelago. We collected spiders using standardised sampling protocols. We tested the differences in beta diversity separately for each habitat and for each inferred category of ballooning (an aerial dispersal strategy) frequency across geographic scales through nested non-parametric permutational multivariate analyses of variance. We then tested whether ballooning and habitat influenced heterogeneity in species composition (dispersion in beta diversity) in the two habitat types. We analysed the effects of habitat and ballooning on species abundance distribution (SAD) and rarity by fitting Gambin models and evaluating the contribution of ballooning categories to SAD. Results: Communities of the same archipelago and habitat were taxonomically more similar, and beta diversity increased with geographic scale, being greater in dry habitats. There was greater species replacement among assemblages in dry habitats than in forests, with greater differences for rare ballooners. There were no differences in SAD between habitats although dry habitat sites seemed to harbour more species with low abundances (rare species) than forests. Main conclusions: Habitat type does not only condition the differences between spider assemblages of the same habitat but also the scale at which they occur. These differences may be determined by the heterogeneity in the physical structure of each habitat as well as how much this structure facilitates aerial dispersal (ballooning), and should be considered in theories/hypotheses on island community assembly as well as in conservation strategies.
  • Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Crespo, Luis Carlos; Domenech, Marc; Cardoso, Pedro; Moya-Larano, Jordi; Ribera, Carles; Arnedo, Miquel A. (2020)
    Understanding the causes behind species richness and endemicity is fundamental to explain biodiversity and assist conservation management, especially in biodiversity hotspots like the Mediterranean Basin. Here we investigate the patterns in Iberian forest spider communities and the processes behind their assembly, by testing hypotheses about the effects of climate and habitat on species richness, endemicity and structure of communities at different spatial scales, and about how microhabitat and dispersal affect the level of endemicity of species. We studied 16 spider communities in IberianQuercusforests from different climatic zones, applying a standardised sampling protocol. We examined the contribution of habitat, climate, and geography to the differences in the composition of spider communities across spatial scales using distance-based redundancy analysis models (dbRDA) and principal coordinates of neighbour matrices (PCNM). We assessed the effects of the same variables on the endemicity of communities (measured by a weighted index), and tested the correlation between the microhabitat and the ballooning frequency (obtained from bibliography), and the endemicity of species through generalised linear models. Spider communities formed two groups-one southern and one northern-based on similarity in species composition. Precipitation and temperature were inversely related with the number of species while geography and forest type explained the compositional similarities between communities at different spatial scales. Endemicity of communities increased with temperature and decreased with precipitation, whereas species endemicity decreased with ballooning frequency. Our findings illustrate how niche-related processes may drive spider diversity while dispersal determines species distribution and identity and, ultimately, community composition. From a conservation viewpoint, when maximising species richness is incompatible with prioritising endemicity, the criteria to follow may depend on the geographic scale at which decisions are made.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the second in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 45 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Gnaphosidae and Nemesiidae, which encompassed Gnaphosidae, ldiopidae, Linyphiidae, Liocranidae, Lycosidae, Micropholcommatidae, Mysmenidae and Nemesiidae.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group-the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the third in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognized species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level, and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 58 species belonging to the famillies alphabetically arranged between Oecobiidae and Salticidae, which encompassed Oecobiidae, Oonopidae, Orsolobidae, Oxyopidae, Palpimanidae, Philodromidae, Pholcidae, Pisauridae, Prodidomidae and Salticidae.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, S.S.; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T; Gomez, Luz A; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the final in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The selected species were classified taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 50 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Scytodidae and Zoropsidae, which encompassed Scytodidae, Selenopidae, Sicariidae, Sparassidae, Tetrablemmidae, Tetragnathidae, Theraphosidae, Theridiidae, Theridiosomatidae, Thomisidae, Trochanteriidae, Zodariidae and Zoropsidae.
  • Munevar, Ana; Cardoso, Pedro; Pinanez Espejo, Yolanda M. G.; Andres Zurita, Gustavo (2020)
    Background The semideciduous Atlantic Forest is one of the most diverse ecosystems in the world with a great diversity of spiders. Most spider-related studies in this ecosystem focused on species richness and composition; however, little is known about their trait diversity (including morphological, ecological and/or physiological traits). Two main datasets were compiled to generate a complete record of spider traits for this ecosystem. New information Here, we present two datasets about 259 species of spiders from the semideciduous Atlantic Forest of Argentina. The trait data set compiled information of morphological and ecological traits such as body size, femur length, ocular distance, foraging strategy, prey range, circadian activity and stratum preference; traits were assessed by species considering sexual dimorphism. The second dataset included information about phenology (season when spiders were collected), number of individuals assessed by species and presence/absence of spiders in the different sample sites. This dataset has high potential to help researchers in recording the state of a component of biodiversity (functional) and contributes with the study of ecosystem services and species conservation.
  • Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cardoso, Pedro; Fonseca Crespo, Luis Carlos; Gabriel, Rosalina; Pereira, Fernando; Carvalho, Rui; Rego, Carla; Nunes, Rui; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Amorim, Isabel R.; Rigal, Francois; Borges, Paulo A. V. (2019)
    Background The data presented here come from samples collected as part of two recent research projects (NETBIOME - ISLANDBIODIV and FCT - MACDIV) which aimed at understanding the drivers of community assembly in Macaronesian islands. We applied the sampling protocol COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment, Cardoso 2009) in sixteen 50 m x 50 m native forest plots in the Azorean Islands of Pico (6 plots) and Terceira (10 plots) to assess spider diversity. Through this publication, we contribute to the knowledge of the arachnofauna of the Azores and, more specifically, to that of the islands of Pico and Terceira. New information The collected samples yielded 8,789 specimens, of which 45% were adults (3,970) belonging to 13 families, 36 species and three morphospecies that have yet to be described. Species of the family Linyphiidae dominated the samples, with 17 species and two morphospecies that have yet to be described (48% of the taxa). Out of the identified (morpho) species, 16 were introduced, 13 Azorean endemic (three of which were undescribed) and seven native (five of them Macaronesian endemics). We report the first record of the introduced species Haplodrassus signifer and Agyneta decora in Pico Island.
  • Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Boieiro, Mario; Cardoso, Pedro; Carvalho, Rui; Fonseca Crespo, Luis Carlos; Gabriel, Rosalina; Macias Hernandez, Nuria; Paulo, Octavio S.; Pereira, Fernando; Rego, Carla; Ros-Prieto, Alejandra; Silva, Isamberto; Vieira, Ana; Rigal, Francois; Borges, Paulo A. V. (2020)
    Background Here we present the data obtained from the samples collected as part of a large research project (MACDIV) which aims at understanding the drivers of spider (Araneae) community assembly in Macaronesian islands. To obtain the data, we applied the sampling protocol COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment), in twelve 50 m x 50 m native forest plots and five dry habitat plots on the island of Madeiraand in 5 dry habitat plots on the island of Porto Santo. Through this publication, we contribute to the knowledge of the arachnofauna of the Madeiran archipelago. New information From the samples that we collected, we obtained a total of 14,902 specimens, of which 49% were adults (7,263). We identified these specimens to 87 species and 18 morphospecies (undescribed), belonging to 26 families. Species of the family Linyphiidae dominated the samples, with 24 (morpho)species. Out of the 105 recorded (morpho)species, 34 were endemic, 26 native non-endemic, 22 introduced and 23 species of unknown origin. We report seven new records of possibly recently introduced species in the Madeiran archipelago. We also present 21 new records for Madeira island and 32 for Porto Santo (33 for the whole archipelago).