Browsing by Subject "Argentina"

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  • Bellomo, Octavio Augusto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis is an investigation of the explanatory capacity of dependency theory in the context of the Argentine Republic from the start of the 20th Century to the COVID-19 pandemic. Explicitly, the research question is: to what extent, if any, can dependency theory explain the evolution of Argentine economic history? The core of the thesis is based on discussion concerning dependency theory as put forth by various scholars, especially dos Santos, Prebisch, and Tansey and Hyman. Argentina is a case study wherein dependency theory can be evaluated, as the country has had struggles developing and industrializing, and has utilized policy prescriptions encouraged by dependency theorists, such as import-substitution industrialization. Dependency theory is explained and analyzed using four tenets central to the theory as outlined by Tansey and Hyman. The theory’s explanatory capacity is tested/evaluated first quantitatively through empirical research, regressions, and a search for statistically significant correlations, then qualitatively through an analysis of Argentine economic history in the 20th and 21st Centuries. Empirical data were also utilized to supplement the qualitative analysis. Empirical findings demonstrated little evidence to support some dependency theory claims, such as negative impacts from conspicuous consumption, and showing meager negative correlations between dependency and economic development. The qualitative analysis suggested that dependency theory has some explanatory power for the reality and struggles of the Argentine economy in the earlier half of the 20th Century, but struggles to explain Argentina's reality in a more modern context. Overall, the Argentine experience does not reflect what dependency theory would expect. The growing importance of international capital, capital markets, and financialization has left dependency theory seemingly outdated. A narrow focus on the core-periphery dichotomy seems to hold the theory back from providing a functional explanation of the Argentine economy today. This thesis has also allowed for insight into the historical and contemporary flaws of the Argentine economy and its weak industrialization, including economic mismanagement, political strife, and a damaging pursuance of import-substitution industrialization.
  • de Moraes, Pedro L. R.; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2021)
    Cyperus megapotamicus (A. Spreng.) Kunth is a nomenclatural synonym of Rhynchospora megapotamica (A. Spreng.) H. Pfeiff. but was originally misapplied to a species of Cyperus. Contrary to the rules, both species names are in current use in different genera. We here clarify the perpetuated taxonomic and nomenclatural confusion regarding the identity of C. megapotamicus sensu Kunth and related names and conclude that Cyperus jaeggii Boeckeler is the correct name to be adopted. We provide an amended circumscription of this species, with Cyperus mauryi Kuntze and Pycreus nematodes Schrad. ex C. B. Clarke as its newly proposed heterotypic synonyms. Additionally, lectotypes are designated for the names Scirpus megapotamicus A. Spreng., Rhynchospora maculata Maury, Rhynchospora luzuliformis var. elongata Kuntze, Rhynchospora luzuliformis var. subcapitata Kuntze, Cyperus jaeggii, Cyperus mauryi and Pycreus nematodes.
  • Camean Ariza, Josemaría (2001)
    The aim of the present research is to analyse one of the main integration processes going on in the world today, namely the Common Market of the Southern Cone (Mercosur). On March 1991, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asuncion in which they agreed to establish a common market by December 1994. Today, ten years later, Mercosur can be defined as a customs union. The main characteristic of Mercosur integration has been its state-centric nature and its intergovernmental structure. Negotiations and decision-making in Mercosur have taken place mainly among the national executive powers. Within the intergovernmental structure the presidents of the member-states have been the main actors. Decision-making organs are composed of members and representatives of the governments. Other institutions such us the national parliaments, the judiciaries and other organised economic and social sectors are represented in the Mercosur advisory organs, which have played an almost insignificant role in the process. The research deals with two main questions. Why did Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay decided to create Mercosur? And secondly, why have they adopted a strongly intergovernmental structure? The analysis of Mercosur, and the mentioned questions, happen in this research within the theoretical framework of new regionalism. The new regionalist multi-dimensional and state-centric view of integration is of essential importance to understand the target. Mercosur integration is explained as the result of the convergence of the restored democratic regimes and the development of the countries' international relations. The executive-centred decision-making structure is explained as a reflection of the executive-centred domestic political systems and culture, common to the whole region. The current Mercosur structure may not be responding to the demands of the integration. Legal and economic controversies have derived from certain deficit of integration. This situation may call for a reconsideration of the process within the present circumstances. This is the aim of the research, to rethink Mercosur.
  • Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas (2008)
    Albert O. Hirschman argued in 1945 that asymmetrical interdependence is an important source of power for the less-dependent country. Since then, many scholars have supported this argument. However, students of asymmetrical interdependence have given little attention to the administrative aspects of trade or to the significance of trade regimes. Most have assumed that governments can manipulate trade relations if they wish in order to use them as tools of policy. In this thesis it will be argued that the ability of a government to do this is crucially dependent on institutional factors, particularly regarding its ability to control foreign trade. A government that has inadequate regulatory tools to direct the flow of trade cannot benefit from asymmetrical dependence. This kind of dependence is therefore not as important a source of economic power to the government of a larger country as most scholars seem to think. During the period looked at in this study, Argentina, Denmark and Finland were all strongly dependent on the UK for trade. Based on the theories of asymmetrical interdependence, one could conclude that the British government must have been capable of putting effective pressure on these smaller countries. In the 1930s this was certainly the case, but after the war the British influence declined dramatically. In the cases of Finland and Argentina, this initially reflected a British need to buy primary products from these countries. However, in the long run, the main factor that reduced the British government’s bargaining power was the liberalisation of foreign trade that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. After liberalisation, most foreign goods entered the UK without government involvement; it was difficult for the authorities to cut or limit this trade simply because they wanted to put pressure on those countries that were reluctant to buy enough British goods. Furthermore, as the other governments similarly relinquished control of their foreign trade, their ability to implement policies beneficial to the British declined. This study is mostly based on the previously classified internal records of the British government, as well as on published works.
  • Ullom, Andrew William (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis explores representations of Brazil in Argentine print media coverage of the 2014 World Cup. In Argentina, and generally throughout Latin America as a whole, the game of football transcends the boundary of sport and has a significant effect on a societal level. Therefore, what is said within the context of sport can be then analyzed as potentially having significance on a more expansive, profound level. This thesis analyzes statements and portrayals of Brazil made within the context of a sporting competition-the 2014 World Cup- and examines if and how these statements cast Brazil as an inferior Other to Argentina. Theoretically, this thesis uses Edward Said’s Orientalism as a starting point with which to explore how an opposing group can be represented in such a way as to dominate it. Negatively stereotyping and essentializing an opposing group, as outlined by Said in Orientalism is applied to the Latin American context with the help of previous works by Latin American social scientists who have previously decontextualized Said’s work from the Orient and applied it specifically to the case of Argentina and Brazil. With his concept of ‘’banal nationalism’’, Michael Billig describes a type of nationalism which is almost constant and nearly undetectable. This proved highly relevant in relation to Argentine coverage of the World Cup, and also provides a theoretical basis for this thesis. Fieldwork was carried out in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2014, where ethnographic fieldnotes and print media articles were collected, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Qualitative content analysis and the application of coding frames to the collected print articles allow for the content of hundreds of articles to be reduced to pertinent reoccurring themes, which are then analyzed in relation to the research questions of this thesis. Within the data several reoccurring trends are found which contribute to the identity of a dominant or superior Argentina and a weak Brazil. Dominant and militaristic language, referred to as ‘’colonizing discourse’’ within this thesis, is employed to describe the interaction Argentine fans have with Brazilians and Brazilian space during the 2014 World Cup. The trend of speaking for the other by defining their mental state and applying negative emotional characteristics to the entire populations of Brazilian cities or even the entire country itself is also found, and it is argued that the assignation of negative emotions or a damaged psyche casts Brazil as weak, and thus, Argentina as strong.