Browsing by Subject "Asbestos"

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  • Maki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Knuuttila, Aija; Scheinin, Ilari; Ellonen, Pekka; Lagstrom, Sonja; Ronty, Mikko; Kettunen, Eeva; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Knuutila, Sakari (2016)
    Background Asbestos is a carcinogen linked to malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer. Some gene aberrations related to asbestos exposure are recognized, but many associated mutations remain obscure. We performed exome sequencing to determine the association of previously known mutations (driver gene mutations) with asbestos and to identify novel mutations related to asbestos exposure in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and MM. MethodsExome sequencing was performed on DNA from 47 tumor tissues of MM (21) and LAC (26) patients, 27 of whom had been asbestos-exposed (18 MM, 9 LAC). In addition, 9 normal lung/blood samples of LAC were sequenced. Novel mutations identified from exome data were validated by amplicon-based deep sequencing. Driver gene mutations in BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, HRAS, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, STK11, and ephrin receptor genes (EPHA1-8, 10 and EPHB1-4, 6) were studied for both LAC and MM, and in BAP1, CUL1, CDKN2A, and NF2 for MM. ResultsIn asbestos-exposed MM patients, previously non-described NF2 frameshift mutation (one) and BAP1 mutations (four) were detected. Exome data mining revealed some genes potentially associated with asbestos exposure, such as MRPL1 and SDK1. BAP1 and COPG1 mutations were seen exclusively in MM. Pathogenic KRAS mutations were common in LAC patients (42 %), both in non-exposed (n = 5) and exposed patients (n = 6). Pathogenic BRAF mutations were found in two LACs. ConclusionBAP1 mutations occurred in asbestos-exposed MM. MRPL1, SDK1, SEMA5B, and INPP4A could possibly serve as candidate genes for alterations associated with asbestos exposure. KRAS mutations in LAC were not associated with asbestos exposure.
  • Salo, Silja A. S.; Ilonen, Ilkka; Laaksonen, Sanna; Myllarniemi, Marjukka; Salo, Jarmo A.; Rantanen, Tuomo (2017)
    Background: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cells in the peritoneum with poor prognosis. Earlier reports from other countries indicate an incidence of 0.2-3 new cases per million per year. No previous studies have examined the national epidemiology of MPeM in Nordic countries. This study aimed to clarify the epidemiology of MPeM in Finland over a 12-year period. Methods: The data consisted of cancer notifications, laboratory notifications, and death certificate information in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) and Statistics Finland (SF) of all MPeM patients from 2000 to 2012 in Finland. We also collected data on occupational disease compensations from the Workers' Compensation Center (WCC) of Finland. Any missing information was collected from the respective patient's file of every patient obtained from health institutions that had treated the patients. Results: Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012, 90 new MPeM cases (56 males, 34 females) occurred in Finland. Median annual incidence was four new cases, which corresponded to 0.74 new cases per million per year. MPeM was deemed an occupational disease in 21 patients (23.3%). 71 patients (78.9%) of whom had a known cause of death, with a median survival of 4 months. The number of deaths linked to other disease than mesothelioma was 28/74 (37.8%). Conclusions: Our study indicates that MPeM in Finland is rare and fatal, which is in accordance with previous reports from other countries. MPeM is also a fatal disease, since most of the patients died due to MPeM.
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Kettunen, Eeva; Ilonen, Ilkka; Vehmas, Tapio; Salo, Jarmo; Räsänen, Jari; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Wolff, Henrik (2020)
    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) of the pleura is a rare and aggressive disease, where the long-term survival (LTS) rate is low. The epithelioid subtype is the most prevalent form of DMM with the best prognosis. In order to study prognostic histopathologic factors associated with extended survival in epithelioid DMM, we examined 43 tumors from patients with survival over five years (long-term survivals [LTS]) and compared the findings with 84 tumors from a reference group with average survival (RG). We analyzed the tumors considering previously published histopathological prognostic features and attempted to identify additional morphological features predictive of extended survival. Most of the LTS tumors presented with nuclear grade I (n = 34,90%) and a tubulopapillary growth pattern (n = 30,70%). One LTS tumor had necrosis. In contrast, nuclear grade II (n = 49,61%) and solid growth pattern (n = 59,70%) were more frequent in RG, and necrosis was present in 16 (19%) tumors. We also evaluated the association of asbestos lung tissue fiber burden quantified from autopsy samples with histopathological features and found that elevated asbestos fiber was associated with higher nuclear grade (p <0.001) and the presence of necrosis (p = 0.021). In univariate survival analysis, we identified the following three novel morphological features associated with survival: exophytic polypoid growth pattern, tumor density, and single mesothelium layered tubular structures. After adjustments, low nuclear grade (p <0.001) and presence of exophytic polypoid growth (p = 0.024) were associated with prolonged survival. These results may aid in estimating DMM prognosis.
  • Rostila, Annina M.; Anttila, Sisko L.; Lalowski, Maciej M.; Vuopala, Katri S.; Toljamo, Tuula I.; Lindström, Irmeli; Baumann, Marc H.; Puustinen, Anne (2020)
    Lung cancer is a deadly disease, typically caused by known risk factors, such as tobacco smoke and asbestos exposure. By triggering cellular oxidative stress and altering the antioxidant pathways eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS), tobacco smoke and asbestos predispose to cancer. Despite easily recognizable high-risk individuals, lung cancer screening and its early detection are hampered by poor diagnostic tools including the absence of proper biomarkers. This study aimed to recognize potential lung cancer biomarkers using induced sputum noninvasively collected from the lungs of individuals in risk of contracting lung cancer. Study groups composed of current and former smokers, who either were significantly asbestos exposed, had lung cancer, or were unexposed and asymptomatic. Screening of potential biomarkers was performed with 52, and five differentially abundant proteins, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), thioredoxin (TXN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), and protein S100 A8 (S100A8), were chosen to undergo validation, for their previously known connection with oxidative stress or cancer. Results from the validation in 123 sputa showed that PRDX2, TXN, and GAPDH were differentially abundant in sputa from individuals with lung cancer. TXN had a negative correlation with asbestos exposure, yet a positive correlation with smoking and lung cancer. Thus, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and lung carcinogenesis may disturb the cellular redox state in different ways. A strong correlation was found among PRDX2, TXN, GAPDH, and S100A8, suggesting that these proteins may present a diagnostic biomarker panel to aid recognizing individuals at high risk of contracting lung cancer.