Browsing by Subject "Assimilation"

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  • Lizotte, Christopher (2020)
    Laicite, France's idiosyncratic form of secularism, is a complex concept that is dense with historical genealogy, practical contradictions and - crucially - political geographies. In particular, contemporary Laicite is characterized by a state-sponsored model of universal citizenship that regards French Muslims' identity claims with mistrust. This tension, always latent, was brought to the fore by a series of attacks perpetrated self-styled jihadists in January 2015, centered on the offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo notorious for its provocations against Islam. The attacks and their aftermath also highlighted a key space where conflicts over Laicite often play out: the French public school, the ecole republicaine. This institution was conceived in its modern form as a mechanism to assimilate through laique pedagogy. Today it is a highly visible space where the optics of race and gender contribute to a narrative of Muslim communautarisme, a willful and defiant communalism that rejects the republican community of citizens. Following a handful of incidents in which students refused to participate in a moment of silence for the victims of the January 2015 attacks, the Ministry of Education undertook an initiative involving disciplinary and pedagogical supports for Laicite in the schools, called the Great Mobilisation for the Republic's Values. Like other past interventions in this area, it operationalizes an assimilating vision of Laicite to bring recalcitrant peripheries into compliance with republican norms. At the same time, though, it reveals the agency of the peripheries to negotiate the terms of Laicite according to local knowledge and needs. On the basis of interviews with educators serving in schools where elements of the Grand Mobilisation were carried out, I show how they push back against the overarching narratives that characterize the initiative and in so doing construct localized and nuanced understandings of the laique social pact.
  • Heinonen, Jussi S.; Luttinen, Arto V.; Spera, Frank J.; Vuori, Saku K.; Bohrson, Wendy A. (2021)
    Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of similar to 350 m (East-Muren) and >= 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the similar to 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) epsilon(Nd) values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from - 15.3 to - 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from - 9.0 to - 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution of the dikes and their contact aureoles. The modeling indicates that both gabbroic dikes acquired the distinctly negative epsilon(Nd) values recorded by their central parts by varying degrees of assimilation of Archean crust at depth. This first phase of deep contamination was followed by a second event at or close to the emplacement level and is related to the interaction of the magmas with the wallrock basalts. These basalts belong to a distinct Karoo LIP magma type having initial epsilon(Nd) from - 2.1 to + 2.5, which provides a stark contrast to the epsilon(Nd) composition of the dike parental magmas (- 15.3 for East-Muren, - 9.0 for West-Muren) previously contaminated by Archean crust. For East-Muren, the distal hornfelses represent partially melted wallrock basalts and the proximal contact zones represent hybrids of such residues with differentiated melts from the intrusion; the magmas that were contaminated by the partial melts of the wallrock basalts were likely transported away from the currently exposed parts of the conduit before the magma-wallrock contact was sealed and further assimilation prevented. In contrast, for West-Muren, the assimilation of the wallrock basalt partial melts is recorded by the gradually increasing epsilon(Nd) of the presently exposed gabbroic rocks towards the roof contact with the basalts. Our study shows that primitive LIP magmas release enough sensible and latent heat to partially melt and potentially assimilate wallrocks in multiple stages. This type of multi-stage assimilation is difficult to detect in general, especially if the associated wallrocks show broad compositional similarity with the intruding magmas. Notably, trace element and isotopic heterogeneity in LIP magmas can be homogenized by such processes (basaltic cannibalism). If similar processes work at larger scales, they may affect the geochemical evolution of the crust and influence the generation of, for example, massif-type anorthosites and "ghost plagioclase" geochemical signature.