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  • Rai, Neha; Neugart, Susanne; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fang; Siipola, Sari M.; Lindfors, Anders V.; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Albert, Andreas; Brosche, Mikael; Lehto, Tarja; Morales, Luis O.; Aphalo, Pedro J. (2019)
    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) photoreceptors perceive UV-A/blue (315-500 nm) and UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation in plants, respectively. While the roles of CRYs and UVR8 have been studied in separate controlled-environment experiments, little is known about the interaction between these photoreceptors. Here, Arabidopsis wild-type Ler, CRYs and UVR8 photoreceptor mutants (uvr8-2, cry1cry2 and cry1cry2uvr8-2), and a flavonoid biosynthesis-defective mutant (tt4) were grown in a sun simulator. Plants were exposed to filtered radiation for 17 d or for 6 h, to study the effects of blue, UV-A, and UV-B radiation. Both CRYs and UVR8 independently enabled growth and survival of plants under solar levels of UV, while their joint absence was lethal under UV-B. CRYs mediated gene expression under blue light. UVR8 mediated gene expression under UV-B radiation, and in the absence of CRYs, also under UV-A. This negative regulation of UVR8-mediated gene expression by CRYs was also observed for UV-B. The accumulation of flavonoids was also consistent with this interaction between CRYs and UVR8. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an antagonistic interaction between CRYs and UVR8 and a role of UVR8 in UV-A perception.
  • Rai, Neha; Morales, Luis Orlando; Aphalo, Pedro Jose (2021)
    About 95% of the ultraviolet (UV) photons reaching the Earth's surface are UV-A (315-400 nm) photons. Plant responses to UV-A radiation have been less frequently studied than those to UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation. Most previous studies on UV-A radiation have used an unrealistic balance between UV-A, UV-B, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Consequently, results from these studies are difficult to interpret from an ecological perspective, leaving an important gap in our understanding of the perception of solar UV radiation by plants. Previously, it was assumed UV-A/blue photoreceptors, cryptochromes and phototropins mediated photomorphogenic responses to UV-A radiation and "UV-B photoreceptor" UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) to UV-B radiation. However, our understanding of how UV-A radiation is perceived by plants has recently improved. Experiments using a realistic balance between UV-B, UV-A, and PAR have demonstrated that UVR8 can play a major role in the perception of both UV-B and short-wavelength UV-A (UV-A(sw), 315 to similar to 350 nm) radiation. These experiments also showed that UVR8 and cryptochromes jointly regulate gene expression through interactions that alter the relative sensitivity to UV-B, UV-A, and blue wavelengths. Negative feedback loops on the action of these photoreceptors can arise from gene expression, signaling crosstalk, and absorption of UV photons by phenolic metabolites. These interactions explain why exposure to blue light modulates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B and UV-A(sw) radiation. Future studies will need to distinguish between short and long wavelengths of UV-A radiation and to consider UVR8's role as a UV-B/UV-A(sw) photoreceptor in sunlight.