Browsing by Subject "B12-vitamiini"

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  • Lehtonen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble molecule with a complex structure. In the active form to humans B12 has to have 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole as a lower ligand. B12 is synthesised only by certain bacteria and natural sources in the human diet are restricted mainly to foods of animal origin. The exact structure of B12 and vitamin activity, the supply from different diets and absorption in the body were discussed in the literature part of this thesis. Also B12 determination methods and B12 levels in foods of animal origin were discussed. Usually vitamin B12 contents in foods have been obtained with a microbiological method (MBA). Currently it has been of concern that MBA may overestimate results because test organism in the MBA method reacts also to compounds similar to B12. The aim of the experimental part of this thesis was to investigate content of vitamin B12 in foods of animal origin. Further, two determination methods, MBA and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), were compared with each other. The aim was also to examine the effect of different extraction methods on the yield of vitamin B12. The samples chosen to this study were beef, pork meat, chicken meat, beef and pork liver, rainbow trout, Baltic herring, egg, skim milk, yogurt and Edam and Emmental cheese. Also two insects, cricket and mealworm, were chosen to this study. The extraction tests showed that it was not possible to use one extraction method to all samples. Extraction with pepsin improved the yield of vitamin B12 in rainbow trout, egg yolk, beef and milk whereas pancreatin improved the yield in cheeses and Baltic herring. As expected B12 content was the highest in livers of beef and pork. Also beef, Baltic herring and cheeses had high concentrations of B12. Chicken meat contained the lowest concentration of B12. Comparison between the MBA and the UHPLC method proved that with MBA the vitamin B12 concentrations were much higher than with UHPLC. B12 concentrations with UHPLC were 7–64% lower in meat and fish samples. Milk products and egg yolk had 20–67% lower B12 concentrations with UHPLC and insects had 71–81% lower concentrations. MBA method is sensitive and has low reagent costs but in the future UHPLC method should be chosen for B12 analysis because it can separate the active B12 form from the inactive forms.
  • Peltonen, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-based foods such as meat, milk, fish and shellfish. Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin for humans, which have many necessary tasks in human body. People who lack animal foods like vegetarians and vegans might be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Microorganisms are the only original sources of vitamin B12 in nature. Especially Propionibacterium freudenreichii synthesizes active form of vitamin B12 for humans. P. freudenreichii is GRAS -graded bacteria and it is safe to use in food matrices. Recently, it has been used for natural fortification of vitamin B12 in plant-based products by fermentation. However, the bioaccessibility of vitamin B12 of those products in human body is not very well known. In the beginning of the study, stability of different B12 vitamers were studied in different light and pH conditions. Vitamin B12 forms are very light-sensitive, especially its physiological forms methyl- and adenosylcobalamin. The aim of this research was to study bioaccessibility of vitamin B12 from P. freudenreichii cells and selected food products using a static in vitro assay. After the in vitro model, vitamin B12 content was analysed with UHPLC system. In addition of bacterial cell samples, bioaccessibility was studied also in some food samples, like bread, pasta and spray-dried powder, fortified with P. freudenreichii cells. In vitamin B12 stability studies, red light seemed to improve the stability of B12 forms. In yellow light methyl- and adenosylcobalamin degraded after 15 minutes. In red light they were detectable after hours of exposure. Methylcobalamin seems to be the most sensitive form of vitamin B12 vitamers. The study revealed that the bioaccessibility of B12 was very small (1,5 %) in P. freudenreichii cells but over 50% in whole bacterial broth. Heat treatment for the samples improved the bioaccessibility to some extent. In B12 fortified food samples, the bioaccessibility of B12 was very good (>70 %). The number of heat treatments and food structure could be one reason why bioaccessibilities in food samples are better than in cell samples. According to this research, in situ fortified food products could be a promising source of vitamin B12 in future.
  • Aalto, Sanni (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Microalgae are promising raw materials for food- and biotechnology because they contain a lot of proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, pigments, vitamins and minerals. There are few studies on vitamin B in microalgae and some of them are based on partly inaccurate methods. Microalgae in general, analytical methods regarding their analysis and how they use vitamins were discussed in the literature part of this thesis. The structures, chemical properties and occurrence in foods as well as commonly used analytical methods of the vitamins in question were presented. The aim of the experimental part of this thesis was to analyse commercially marketed microalgae supplements (Chlorella sp. and Arthrospira sp. (spirulina)) and laboratory-grown microalga (Euglena gracilis) as potential sources of folate, niacin, vitamin B2 and B12. Contents of vitamin B12, B2 and niacin were analysed using UHPLC method separately validated for each vitamin. The total folate content was analysed microbiologically and folate vitamers by using UHPLC. The vitamin B12 was analysed microbiologically and the active forms of vitamin B12 were confirmed using LC-MS. Acid hydrolysis was used in analysing niacin content. The total folate content in chlorella supplements was of the same order when analysed microbiologically or with UHPLC. Instead, in spirulina supplements the microbiologically analysed total folate content was higher than the total folate content based on the sum of folate vitamers analysed with UHPLC. At most, the total folate content of E. gracilis -sample was 3-fold higher than in commercial microalgae supplements. Especially in spirulina supplements, the vitamin B12 contents were clearly higher when analysed microbiologically than they were when analysed with UHPLC. The difference was most likely due to pseudocobalamin that resembled vitamin B12. On average E. gracilis -samples had higher vitamin B2 content than the commercial supplements. E. gracilis -samples and chlorella supplements contained more niacin than spirulina supplements. According to this thesis, commercially marketed microalgae supplements contained different amounts of vitamin B. Chlorella sp. was proved to be a great source of folate, vitamin B12 and niacin and moderate source of B2. The majority of vitamin B12 in Arthrospira sp. (spirulina) was pseudocobalamin. Despite that, spirulina supplements proved to be a moderate source of vitamin B12. On average, E. gracilis had the highest vitamin B content and it would potentially be an excellent source of vitamin B – if it was accepted for food use.
  • Mattila, Tuulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    P. freudenreichii has long been used as a secondary starter culture in the production of emmental cheeses and similar Swiss-type cheeses and it is capable of producing human active form of vitamin B12. P. freudenreichii is a traditional bacterium of the dairy group, but it has also been isolated from plant products such as barley. The literature section of the dissertation dealt with propionic acid bacteria and especially P. freudenreichii as well as vitamin B12 and its analytics. The purpose of the experimental part of the dissertation was to investigate the salt and acid tolerance of P. freudenreichii isolates. In addition, the extent to which P. freudenreichii isolates grow on a plant-derived medium and ferment vitamin B12 therein was investigated. The liquid chromatographic UHPLC method validated for vitamin B12 was used to determine vitamin B12. The P. freudenreichii isolates studied in this study did not tolerate acidic conditions but grew better in a neutral or slightly alkaline environment. They also did not tolerate high NaCl concentrations and grew better in lower the salt concentrations. P. freudenreichii isolates grew well in the wheat bran matrix. The best-growing isolates were assayed for vitamin B12 production. The isolates studied produced significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plant-derived medium.
  • Hiippala, Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The literature review dealed with the energy metabolism of Propionibacterium freudenreichii with a particular focus on carbon substrates and metabolic end-products. Also, carbon sources and other factors affecting the efficiency of vitamin B12 production by Propionibacterium were studied, including different food related matrices as a source of growth substrates. Cereal matrix as a possible growth substrate was discussed. The aim of the experimental part was to study the effect of different carbon sources on the B12 yield and metabolism of three P. freudenreichii strains of dairy or cereal origin. After preliminary screening, five carbon sources (lactate, glucose, lactose, fructose and inositol) and three strains were selected for the fermentation process, which consisted of anaerobic (72 h) and aerobic incubation (96 h) at 30 °C. The phosphate-buffered medium (0.1 M) contained only tryptone, yeast extract, CoCl2 and a carbon source (pH 6.8). Optical densities and pH values were measured at two time points and cell masses after the fermentation. Vitamin B12 produced by the strains was extracted from the fermentation samples and analysed using UHPLC method. Also consumed riboflavin was determined from the culture broths with UHPLC. Carbon consumption and metabolic end-products were analysed with HPLC after both stages of fermentation. Differences in fermentation and growth patterns between the strains were observed depending on the carbon source. Strain 1 and 2 produced the highest amounts of cell mass (396 and 589 mg, fw) fermenting fructose. Moreover, the carbon consumption was slower with over half of fructose remaining in the medium after the anaerobic phase. In addition, the pH value did not drop as quickly as in the other sugar media. When B12 yield was measured per gram cells, lactate was the most profitable carbon source for strains 1, 2 and 3 (100, 115 and 58 ?g/g cells, respectively). Yet, strains 1 and 2 synthesised the most vitamin B12 catabolising fructose when the yield was calculated per mL medium (958 and 731 ng/mL). In fructose medium both strains also produced less inhibitory metabolite, propionate. Strain 3 grew poorly during the fermentation, which affected the metabolite production. As a conclusion, fructose, besides lactate and glucose, appeared as a suitable carbon substrate for the B12 production by P. freudenreichii but the effect of fructose on its metabolism should be further investigated.
  • Hovilehto, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The literature review of this thesis concentrated on vitamin B12 (Clb), its forms, vitamin B12 anologues, and the biosynthetic route of Clb. In addition, the roles of ribolfavin (RF) and niacin (NAM) in this biosynthetic route were discussed. Cereals were also evaluated as a matrix for vitamin B12 synthesis based on their RF and NAM concentrations. The aims of the experimental part were to prepare a malt extract medium, to study the effects of RF and NAM, and to compare three Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains. The medium (pH 6.40) consisted of 10% of malt extract (ME) and 0.1 M potassium phos-phate buffer. Sterile filtered precursor solutions (e.g. CoCl2) were added to the autoclaved broth. The final composition of the broth was decided based on a preliminary test, where lactate (L; 8 g/L) and/or tryptone (T; 5 g/L) supplements were compared. Thus, the impact of RF and NAM to Clb yield was studied in ME+L+T medium. In these tests five conditions were used: ME+L+T, ME+L+T with DMBI (5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole), and either 1) RF levels of 1, 3, and 38 ?M (27 mM of NAM) or 2) NAM levels of 0.1, 0.6, and 27 mM (3 ?M of RF). The RF concentrations were also tested with strain 3 in ME+T broth. Strains were incubated anaerobically at 30 °C for 3 days and microaerobically for 4 days. Optical densities, cell masses, and pH values were measured. Intracellular Clb was extracted as cy-ano-Clb and quantified using an UHPLC/UV method. From medium RF and niacin were analyzed with an UHPLC/FL method, and sugars and acids with an HPLC/RI/UV method. In ME+L+T strain 1 produced 1.0 ± 0.2 ?g/mL of vitamin B12, strain 2 synthesized 1.2 ± 0.2 ?g/mL, and strain 3 yielded 0.82 ± 0.2 ?g/mL of Clb. DMBI increased Clb synthesis most in strains 1 and 3, while with strain 2 the 27 mM NAM level together with RF resulted in the highest yields. Alone low NAM concentrations did not affect Clb yields, but RF increased Clb production by strains 2 and 3 (p < 0.05). On the other hand, high RF concentration may have inhibited its intake. Thus, RF levels in cereals should be well suited for Clb synthesis. However, strains 1 and 2 had higher Clb yields and they salvaged RF more than strain 3. Furthermore, the results indicated that with these two strains NAM may stimulate Clb synthesis or growth. However, these results should be confirmed. Moreover, further studies are needed especially on the role of NAM and nicotinic acid, the salvage routes of niacin and RF, and other nutritional requirement of the strains in cereal matrices.