Browsing by Subject "BACK-PAIN"

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  • Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause and cause-specific disability retirement. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to May 2019. A total of 27 (25 prospective cohort and 2 nested case-control) studies consisting of 2 199 632 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We used a random effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. There were a large number of participants and the majority of studies were rated at low or moderate risk of bias. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and disability retirement. Underweight (hazard ratio (HR)/risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41), overweight (HR/RR=1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and obese individuals (HR/RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.71) were more commonly granted all-cause disability retirement than normal-weight individuals. Moreover, overweight increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.39) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.41), and obesity increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.94), mental disorders (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.24). The association between excess body mass and all-cause disability retirement did not differ between men and women and was independent of selection bias, performance bias, confounding and adjustment for publication bias. Obesity markedly increases the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders. Since the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, disease burden associated with excess body mass and disability retirement consequently are projected to increase. Reviewregistrationnumber: CRD42018103110.
  • Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija (2016)
    Background Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional items of BDI with the diagnosis of depression, pain intensity, and disability. Methods One hundred consecutive chronic pain patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV. Two subscales of BDI (negative view of self and somatic-physical function) were created according to the factor model presented by Morley. Results In the regression analysis, the somatic-physical function factor associated with MDD, while the negative view of self factor did not. Patients with MDD had higher scores in several of the BDI items when analysed separately. Insomnia and weight loss were not dependent on the depression diagnosis. Limitations The relatively small sample size and the selected patient sample limit the generalisability of the results. Conclusions Somatic symptoms of depression are also common in chronic pain and should not be excluded when diagnosing depression in pain patients. Regardless of the assessment method, diagnosing depression in chronic pain remains a challenge and requires careful interpretation of symptoms.
  • Russo, Fabrizio; De Salvatore, Sergio; Ambrosio, Luca; Vadalà, Gianluca; Fontana, Luca; Papalia, Rocco; Rantanen, Jorma; Iavicoli, Sergio; Denaro, Vincenzo (2021)
    Low back pain (LBP) is currently the leading cause of disability worldwide and the mostcommon reason for workers’ compensation (WC) claims. Studies have demonstrated that receivingWC is associated with a negative prognosis following treatment for a vast range of health conditions.However, the impact of WC on outcomes after spine surgery is still controversial. The aim of thismeta-analysis was to systematically review the literature and analyze the impact of compensationstatus on outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. A systematic search was performed on Medline,Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases. The review included studies of patientsundergoing lumbar spine surgery in which compensation status was reported. Methodologicalquality was assessed through ROBINS-I and quality of evidence was estimated using the GRADErating. A total of 26 studies with a total of 2668 patients were included in the analysis. WC patientshad higher post-operative pain and disability, as well as lower satisfaction after surgery whencompared to those without WC. Furthermore, WC patients demonstrated to have a delayed return towork. According to our results, compensation status is associated with poor outcomes after lumbarspine surgery. Contextualizing post-operative outcomes in clinical and work-related domains helpsunderstand the multifactorial nature of the phenomenon.
  • Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2015 DALY & HALE (2016)
    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Findings Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs off set by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high-burden NCDs (including osteoarthritis, drug use disorders, depression, diabetes, congenital birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2.9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2.9-3.0) for men and 3.5 years (3.4-3.7) for women, while HALE at age 65 years improved by 0.85 years (0.78-0.92) and 1.2 years (1.1-1.3), respectively. Rising SDI was associated with consistently higher HALE and a somewhat smaller proportion of life spent with functional health loss; however, rising SDI was related to increases in total disability. Many countries and territories in central America and eastern sub-Saharan Africa had increasingly lower rates of disease burden than expected given their SDI. At the same time, a subset of geographies recorded a growing gap between observed and expected levels of DALYs, a trend driven mainly by rising burden due to war, interpersonal violence, and various NCDs. Interpretation Health is improving globally, but this means more populations are spending more time with functional health loss, an absolute expansion of morbidity. The proportion of life spent in ill health decreases somewhat with increasing SDI, a relative compression of morbidity, which supports continued efforts to elevate personal income, improve education, and limit fertility. Our analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework on which to benchmark geography-specific health performance and SDG progress. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform financial and research investments, prevention efforts, health policies, and health system improvement initiatives for all countries along the development continuum. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Grabala, Pawel; Helenius, Ilkka; Shah, Suken A.; Larson, A. Noelle; Buchowski, Jacob M.; Latalski, Michal; Grabala, Michal; Guszczyn, Tomasz (2020)
    OBJECTIVE: A retrospective multicenter comparative study was carried out to evaluate whether pregnancy leads to the loss of deformity correction (LOC) in female patients surgically treated for idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: A total of 128 female patients who underwent segmental spinal instrumentation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed. Of these patients, 62 became pregnant (surgery-pregnancy group [SPG]), whereas 66 did not (surgery-nonpregnancy [SNP] group). Radiographic parameters were analyzed before surgery, after surgery, before pregnancy, up to 1 year after delivery, and at final follow-up (FFU). Health-related quality of life was analyzed using the Scoliosis Research Society outcome questionnaire (SRS-22r). RESULTS: The mean age at the time of surgery was 16 years in both groups. The mean preoperative major curves were 65 degrees (standard deviation [SD], 12 degrees) versus 67 degrees (SD, 11 degrees), 18 degrees (SD, 9 degrees) versus 17 degrees (SD, 9 degrees) immediately after surgery, and 20 degrees (SD, 8 degrees) versus 20 degrees (SD, 8 degrees) at FFU in the SPG and SNP groups, respectively (P > 0.10 for all comparisons). The mean loss of correction was 3.5 degrees (SD, 3 degrees) in the SPG and 4.5 (SD, 3 degrees) for SNP groups, respectively (P = 0.379). The mean preoperative thoracic kyphosis (T5-T12) was 26.5 degrees (SD, 11.9 degrees) for SPG and 24.7 degrees (SD, 14.5 degrees) for SNP, after surgery 19.2 degrees (SD, 9.5 degrees) for SPG, 18.8 (SD, 8.9 degrees) for SNP and at FFU, 20.3 degrees (SD, 9 degrees) for SPG and 21.3 degrees (SD, 8.5 degrees) for SNP. CONCLUSIONS: Women who have undergone pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion who have had >= 1 pregnancies do not have curve progression or deterioration in the longer-term outcomes compared with patients who have not become pregnant.
  • Kausto, Johanna; Rosenstrom, Tom Henrik; Ervasti, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Rahkonen, Ossi; Harkko, Jaakko; Väänänen, Ari; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea (2021)
    Objective An intervention was carried out at the occupational healthcare services (OHS) of the City of Helsinki beginning in 2016. We investigated the association between the intervention and employee sick leaves using interrupted time series analysis. Design Register-based cohort study with a quasi-experimental study design. Setting Employees of the City of Helsinki. Participants We analysed individual-level register-based data on all employees who were employed by the city for any length of time between 2013 and 2018 (a total 86 970 employees and 3 014 075 sick leave days). Sick leave days and periods that were OHS-based constituted the intervention time series and the rest of the sick leave days and periods contributed to the comparison time series. Intervention Recommendations provided to physicians on managing pain and prescribing sick leave for low back, shoulder and elbow pain. Outcome measures Number of sick leave days per month and sick leave periods per year. Results For all sick leave days prescribed at OHS, there was no immediate change in sick leave days, whereas a gradual change showing decreasing number of OHS-based sick leave days was detected. On average, the intervention was estimated to have saved 2.5 sick leave days per year per employee. For other sick leave days, there was an immediate increase in the level of sick leave days after the intervention and a subsequent gradual trend showing decreasing number of sick leave days. Conclusions The intervention may have reduced employee sick leaves and therefore it is possible that it had led to direct cost savings. However, further evidence for causal inferences is needed.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Head, Jenny; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Kouvonen, Anne; Väänänen, Ari; Suominen, Sakari; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimäki, Mika (2018)
    Background Lifestyle factors influence the risk of morbidity and mortality, but the extent to which they are associated with employees' absence from work due to illness is unclear. We examined the relative contributions of smoking, alcohol consumption, high body-mass index, and low physical activity to diagnosis-specific sickness absence. Methods We did a multicohort study with individual-level data of participants of four cohorts from the UK, France, and Finland. Participants' responses to a lifestyle survey were linked to records of sickness absence episodes, typically lasting longer than 9 days; for each diagnostic category, the outcome was the total number of sickness absence days per year. We estimated the associations between lifestyle factors and sickness absence by calculating rate ratios for the number of sickness absence days per year and combining cohort-specific estimates with meta-analysis. The criteria for assessing the evidence included the strength of association, consistency across cohorts, robustness to adjustments and multiple testing, and impact assessment by use of population attributable fractions (PAF), with both internal lifestyle factor prevalence estimates and those obtained from European populations (PAF external). Findings For 74 296 participants, during 446 478 person-years at risk, the most common diagnoses for sickness absence were musculoskeletal diseases (70.9 days per 10 person-years), depressive disorders (26.5 days per 10 person-years), and external causes (such as injuries and poisonings; 12.8 days per 10 person-years). Being overweight (rate ratio [adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease at baseline] 1.30, 95% CI 1.21-1.40; PAF external 8.9%) and low physical activity (1.23, 1.14-1.34; 7.8%) were associated with absences due to musculoskeletal diseases; heavy episodic drinking (1.90, 1.41-2.56; 15.2%), smoking (1.70, 1.42-2.03; 11.8%), low physical activity (1.67, 1.42-1.96; 19.8%), and obesity (1.38, 1.11-1.71; 5.6%) were associated with absences due to depressive disorders; heavy episodic drinking (1.64, 1.33-2.03; 11.3%), obesity (1.48, 1.27-1.72; 6.6%), smoking (1.35, 1.20-1.53; 6.3%), and being overweight (1.20, 1.08-1.33; 6.2%) were associated with absences due to external causes; obesity (1.82, 1.40-2.36; 11.0%) and smoking (1.60, 1.30-1.98; 10.3%) were associated with absences due to circulatory diseases; low physical activity (1.37, 1.25-1.49; 12.0%) and smoking (1.27, 1.16-1.40; 4.9%) were associated with absences due to respiratory diseases; and obesity (1.67, 1.34-2.07; 9.7%) was associated with absences due to digestive diseases. Interpretation Lifestyle factors are associated with sickness absence due to several diseases, but observational data cannot determine the nature of these associations. Future studies should investigate the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing sickness absence and the use of information on lifestyle for identifying groups at risk. Copyright (c) The Author (s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Kringel, Dario; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Kalso, Eija; Lötsch, Jörn (2019)
    Cancer and its surgical treatment are among the most important triggering events for persistent pain, but additional factors need to be present for the clinical manifestation, such as variants in pain-relevant genes. In a cohort of 140 women undergoing breast cancer surgery, assigned based on a 3-year follow-up to either a persistent or nonpersistent pain phenotype, next-generation sequencing was performed for 77 genes selected for known functional involvement in persistent pain. Applying machine-learning and item categorization techniques, 21 variants in 13 different genes were found to be relevant to the assignment of a patient to either the persistent pain or the nonpersistent pain phenotype group. In descending order of importance for correct group assignment, the relevant genes comprised DRD1, FAAH, GCH1, GPR132, OPRM1, DRD3, RELN, GABRA5, NF1, COMT, TRPA1, ABHD6, and DRD4, of which one in the DRD4 gene was a novel discovery. Particularly relevant variants were found in the DRD1 and GPR132 genes, or in a cis-eCTL position of the OPRM1 gene. Supervised machine-learning-based classifiers, trained with 2/3 of the data, identified the correct pain phenotype group in the remaining 1/3 of the patients at accuracies and areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves of 65% to 72%. When using conservative classical statistical approaches, none of the variants passed α-corrected testing. The present data analysis approach, using machine learning and training artificial intelligences, provided biologically plausible results and outperformed classical approaches to genotype-phenotype association.
  • Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Morlion, Bart; Kalso, Eija; Schaefer, Michael; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Kocot-Kepska, Magdalena; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Margarit, Cesar; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Mavrocordatos, Philippe; Alon, Eli; Collett, Beverly; Aldington, Dominic; Nicolaou, Andrew; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Varrassi, Giustino (2011)
  • Miettinen, Teemu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mantyselka, Pekka; Linton, Steven J.; Kalso, Eija (2019)
    Chronic pain patients enter treatment with different problem profiles making careful assessment a necessity for more individualized treatment plans. In this cross-sectional study we assigned 320 patients entering tertiary multidisciplinary pain treatment into four categories based on whether they scored low or high on the activity and the affective pain interference dimensions of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). To determine whether this categorization system delineates issues that should be assessed further, the categories were compared with ANOVA and MANOVA analyses on three domains: variables affecting physical well-being (body mass index, exercise, substance use), psychological resources (mood), and painspecific psychological factors (pain anxiety, pain acceptance). The results indicated that subjects who scored low on both interference dimensions compared similarly in weight: mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 27.0 (SD 6.0) kg/m(2), and exercise: mean of 2.4 (SD 1.7) exercising sessions over 20 minutes per week, to the general population, had no depressive symptoms on average: mean Beck Depression Index II (BDI-II) score 11.7 (SD 7.5), and had the most favorable psychological reactions to pain relative to the other categories: mean total Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20) score 36.4 (SD 17.9). In contrast, when interference was high on activity, more physical well-being problems were evident e.g. weight: mean BMI 31.0 (SD 7.3) kg/m(2), diminished exercise: mean of 1.5 (SD 1.6) exercising sessions per week, and avoidance behavior: mean PASS-20 Escape/Avoidance subscale 3.7 (95% CI: 1.7 to 5.8) scores higher in comparison to activity interference remaining low. With high affective interference, more depressive symptoms: mean BDI-II score 17.7 (SD 7.3), and more cognitive pain anxiety: mean PASS-20 Cognitive Anxiety subscale 2.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 4.8) scores higher in comparison to affective interference remaining low, emerged. Having high interference on both dimensions indicated accumulated risks for reduced physical well-being: mean BMI 29.9 (SD 6.1) kg/m(2), mean of 1.2 (SD 1.7) exercising sessions per week, mood problems: mean BDI-II 20.3 (SD 10.6), and negative psychological reactions to pain: mean total PASS-20 score 53.2 (18.4). The results suggest that low interference on both dimensions may allow assessment with only physician consultations, while high interference on either dimension may call attention to distinct issues to be addressed with the help of a physiotherapist or a psychologist, whereas high interference on both dimensions highlights the need for a full multidisciplinary assessment.
  • Lehti, Tuuli Elina; Rinkinen, M. -O.; Aalto, U.; Roitto, H. M.; Knuutila, M.; Öhman, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Karppinen, H.; Tilvis, R.; Strandberg, T.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2021)
    Background Pain is undertreated in older populations. At the same time, increased use of opioids is of concern in the Western world. Aims We sought to analyze temporal trends in musculoskeletal pain and prescribed analgesic treatment among community-dwelling people aged 75-95 years using cross-sectional cohort data spanning 20 years. Methods The Helsinki Aging Study recruited random samples of people aged 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 years in 1999, 2009, and 2019. In total, 5707 community-dwelling persons participated in the study. The participants reported their medical diagnoses, regular prescription medications, and the presence of back pain or joint pain within the last 2 weeks (never, sometimes, or daily). We compared analgesic use among participants reporting and not reporting musculoskeletal pain in 1999, 2009, and 2019. Results Of the participants, 57-61% reported intermittent or daily musculoskeletal pain. The percentage receiving a prescribed daily analgesic increased from 9% in 1999 to 16% in 2019. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreased from 1999 to 2019, while the use of paracetamol increased from 2 to 11%. Opioids were taken by 2% in 1999 and 3% in 2019. Of those reporting daily musculoskeletal pain, 20%, 35%, and 32% received regular pain medication in 1999, 2009, and 2019, respectively. Conclusions Pain remains undertreated in the community-dwelling older population, although the use of regular prescribed analgesics increased between 1999 and 2019. The use of NSAIDs has decreased, while the use of paracetamol has increased. Daily opioid use has remained modest.
  • Laasik, Raul; Lankinen, Petteri; Kivimäki, Mika; Neva, Marko H.; Aalto, Ville; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Mäkelä, Keijo T. (2021)
    Background and purpose - Lumbar disc herniation is a common surgically treated condition in the working-age population. We assessed health-related risk factors for return to work (RTW) after excision of lumbar disc herniation. Previous studies on the subject have had partly contradictory findings. Patients and methods - RTW of 389 (n = 111 male, n = 278 female; mean age 46 years, SD 8.9) employees who underwent excision of lumbar disc herniation was assessed based on the Finnish Public Sector Study (FPS). Baseline information on occupation, preceding health, and health-risk behaviors was derived from linkage to national health registers and FPS surveys before the operation. The likelihood of RTW was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard univariable and multivariable modelling. Results - 95% of the patients had returned to work at 12 months after surgery, after on average 78 days of sickness absence. Faster RTW in the univariable Cox model was associated with a small number of sick leave days (< 30 days) before operation (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6); high occupational position (HR 1.6, CI 1.2-2.1); and age under 40 years (HR 1.5, CI 1.1-1.9). RTW was not associated with sex or the health-related risk factors obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, poor self-rated health, psychological distress, comorbid conditions, or purchases of pain or antidepressant medications in either the univariable or multivariable model. Interpretation - Almost all employees returned to work after excision of lumbar disc herniation. Older age, manual job, and prolonged sick leave before the excision of lumbar disc herniation were risk factors for delayed return to work after the surgery.
  • Kumaradev, Sushmithadev; Fayosse, Aurore; Dugravot, Aline; Dumurgier, Julien; Roux, Christian; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine (2021)
    This study examines the importance of length of follow-up on the association between pain and incident dementia. Further objective was to characterize pain trajectories in the 27 years preceding dementia diagnosis and compare them with those among persons free of dementia during the same period. Pain intensity and pain interference (averaged as total pain) were measured on 9 occasions (1991-2016) using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire amongst 9046 (women = 31.4%) dementia-free adults aged 40 to 64 years in 1991; 567 dementia cases were recorded between 1991 and 2019. Cox regression was used to assess the association between pain measures at different time points and incident dementia and mixed models to assess pain trajectories preceding dementia diagnosis or end point for dementia-free participants. Results from Cox regression showed moderate/severe compared with mild/no total pain, pain intensity, and pain interference not to be associated with dementia when the mean follow-up was 25.0, 19.6, 14.5, or 10.0 years. These associations were evident for a mean follow-up of 6.2 years: for total pain (hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence intervals = 1.28-2.33), pain intensity (1.41; 1.04-1.92), and pain interference (1.80; 1.30-2.49). These associations were stronger when the mean follow-up for incidence of dementia was 3.2 years. Twenty-seven-year pain trajectories differed between dementia cases and noncases with small differences in total pain and pain interference evident 16 years before dementia diagnosis (difference in the total pain score = 1.4, 95% confidence intervals = 0.1-2.7) and rapidly increasing closer to diagnosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that pain is a correlate or prodromal symptom rather than a cause of dementia.
  • Miettinen, Mikko; Rämö, Lasse; Lähdeoja, Tuomas; Sirola, Timo; Sandelin, Henrik; Ponkilainen, Ville; Repo, Jussi P. (2021)
    Introduction Hallux rigidus is a common problem of pain and stiffness of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) caused mainly by degenerative osteoarthritis. Several operative techniques have been introduced for the treatment of this condition without high-quality evidence comparing surgical to non-surgical care. In this trial, the most common surgical procedure, arthrodesis, will be compared with watchful waiting in the management of hallux rigidus. Methods and analysis Ninety patients (40 years or older) with symptomatic first MTPJ osteoarthritis will be randomised to arthrodesis or watchful waiting in a ratio of 1:1. The primary outcome will be pain during walking, assessed using the 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) at 1 year after randomisation. The secondary outcomes will be pain at rest (NRS), physical function (Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire), patient satisfaction in terms of the patient-acceptable symptom state, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), activity level (The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure Sports subscale), use of analgesics or orthoses and the rate of complications. Our null hypothesis is that there will be no difference equal to or greater than the minimal important difference of the primary outcome measure between arthrodesis and watchful waiting. Our primary analysis follows an intention-to-treat principle. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District, Finland. Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. We will disseminate the findings of this study through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Protocol version 21 June 2021 V.2.0.